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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
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Inequalities in life expectancy by education and socioeconomic transition in Lithuania

Department of Health Management, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
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Medicina 2008, 44(9), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44090092
Received: 7 November 2007 / Accepted: 10 September 2008 / Published: 15 September 2008
Objective. To present changes in life expectancy of males and females by the level of educational achievement and describe different aspects of inequalities in life expectancy over the decade of socioeconomic transition in Lithuania.
Material and methods
. This analysis is based on routine mortality statistics and census data for 1989 and 2001 for the entire country. The study included the population more than 25 years of age.
Results.
Increasing inequalities in life expectancy by education have occurred due to increasing life expectancy amongst persons with higher educational achievements, and conversely, a declining life expectancy in groups with low levels of education. Cardiovascular diseases were responsible for the greatest number of years lost in life expectancy by all educational categories both in males and females. The numbers of years lost due to cardiovascular diseases decreased in majority of educational categories, particularly in lower secondary educational group. The increase in the years of life expectancy lost was observed due to external causes of death, the higher education being associated with the lower numbers of years lost, especially in females. The greatest impact on the difference in life expectancy between males with university and primary education was caused by external causes both in 1989 and 2001, while the major contribution to the educational differences in life expectancy of females was made by cardiovascular diseases.
Conclusions. Favorable forecast of declining health inequalities by education in Lithuania can hardly be expected in the nearest future. Collective efforts and constructive actions should address the health problems of the least privileged groups in terms of education, as well as promotional efforts directed at young people to complete their education and guarantee of equal opportunities for education.
Keywords: education; life expectancy; inequalities; Lithuania education; life expectancy; inequalities; Lithuania
MDPI and ACS Style

Kalėdienė, R.; Starkuvienė, S.; Petrauskienė, J. Inequalities in life expectancy by education and socioeconomic transition in Lithuania. Medicina 2008, 44, 713.

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