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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Free radical-scavenging activities of Crataegus monogyna extracts

1
Department of Drug Technology and Social Pharmacy, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
2
University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Physiology
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy
5
Department of Analytical and Toxicological Chemistry, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2008, 44(9), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44090091
Received: 7 November 2007 / Accepted: 6 June 2008 / Published: 11 June 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate antiradical activity of aqueous and ethanolic hawthorn fruit extracts, their flavonoids, and flavonoid combinations.
Material and methods
. Total amount of phenolic compounds and the constituents of flavonoids were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity of Crataegus monogyna extracts and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, vitexin-2O-rhamnoside, epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidin B2) quantitatively was determined using the method of spectrophotometry (diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical scavenging assay and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)(ABTS·+) radical cation decolorization assay). The level of tyrosine nitration inhibition was determined using a highperformance liquid chromatography.
Results. Ethanolic hawthorn fruit extract contained 182±4 mg/100 mL phenolic compounds, i.e. threefold more, as compared to aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity according to DPPH· reduction in the ethanolic extracts was higher 2.3 times (P<0.05). The ABTS·+ technique showed that the effect of ethanolic extracts was by 2.5 times stronger than that of aqueous extracts. Tyrosine nitration inhibition test showed that the effect of ethanolic extracts was by 1.4 times stronger than that of aqueous extracts. The investigation of the antiradical activity of the active constituents in aqueous and ethanolic extracts revealed that epicatechin and catechin contribute to radical-scavenging properties more than other components. Procyanidin B2 only insignificantly influenced the antiradical activity of the extracts.
Conclusion
. Both aqueous and ethanolic hawthorn extracts had antiradical activity, but ethanolic extract had stronger free radical-scavenging properties, compared to the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity of the studied preparations was mostly conditioned by epicatechin and catechin. The individual constituents of both extracts had weaker free radical-scavenging properties than the combination of these substances did.
Keywords: free radicals; antioxidant activity free radicals; antioxidant activity
MDPI and ACS Style

Bernatonienė, J.; Masteikova, R.; Majienė, D.; Savickas, A.; Kėvelaitis, E.; Bernatonienė, R.; Dvoráčková, K.; Civinskienė, G.; Lekas, R.; Vitkevičius, K.; Pečiūra, R. Free radical-scavenging activities of Crataegus monogyna extracts. Medicina 2008, 44, 706.

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