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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Influence of heating and cooling on muscle fatigue and recovery

Physical Education and Sports Center, Department of Physical Education, Kaunas University of Technology
Department of Applied Physiology and Sports Medicine, Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education
Department of Physiology, Kaunas University of Medicine
Department of Physiotherapy, Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2008, 44(9), 687;
Received: 12 December 2007 / Accepted: 10 September 2008 / Published: 15 September 2008
The aim of the present study was to establish the influence of muscle heating and cooling on knee flexors and extensors during fatiguing exercise. The participants of the study were 10 healthy males aged 19–23 years. The participants of the study were tested with the isokinetic dynamometer. Control measurements were done before the load as well as 10 min, 30 min, 60 min, and 24 h after the load. The participants performed concentric exercise bouts: 50 knee extensions and flexions at the fixed speed of 180°/s, when femoral muscles before concentric load were of normal temperature, were heated or cooled. Creatine kinase activity in blood serum was estimated 1 h before the load and 24 h after it. Internal temperature of the muscle quadriceps femoris after muscle heating for 45 min increased to 39.5±0.2°C (P<0.001) and after muscle cooling for 30 min decreased to 32.5±0.3°C (P<0.05) as compared to baseline temperature (before heating – 36.9±0.1°C, before cooling – 36.8±0.2°C). Creatine kinase activity in blood serum 24 h after concentric load was significantly increased as compared to control values. Passive muscle warming increased muscle contraction force of knee extensors, but did not cause any changes either in the rate of muscle fatigue or in the rate of muscle recovery. Muscle cooling did not decrease muscle contraction force and did not increase muscle fatigue resistance. The findings of this study showed that both, muscle warming and muscle cooling, brought about a decrease in an indirect parameter of muscle damage – the amount of creatine kinase 24 h after concentric load.
Keywords: skeletal muscle; heating; cooling; fatigue; recovery skeletal muscle; heating; cooling; fatigue; recovery
MDPI and ACS Style

Ramanauskienė, I.; Skurvydas, A.; Sipavičienė, S.; Senikienė, Ž.; Linonis, V.; Krutulytė, G.; Vizbaraitė, D. Influence of heating and cooling on muscle fatigue and recovery. Medicina 2008, 44, 687.

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