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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among hospitalized patients

1
Department of Microbiology
2
Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2008, 44(8), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44080077
Received: 10 February 2008 / Accepted: 4 July 2008 / Published: 9 July 2008
Objective. To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among hospitalized patients at the beginning of their hospitalization and during their treatment and the resistance of strains to antibiotics, and to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of these strains.
Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients treated at the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery were examined. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus strains was performed using plasmacoagulase and DNase tests. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics, b-lactamase production, phagotypes, and phagogroups were determined. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for resistance to methicillin by performing disc diffusion method using commercial discs (Oxoid) (methicillin 5 mg per disk and oxacillin 1 mg per disk).
Results
. A total of 297 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated. On the first day of hospitalization, the prevalence rate of Staphylococcus aureus strains among patients was 67.3%, and it statistically significantly increased to 91.8% on days 7–10 of hospitalization (P<0.05). During hospitalization, patients were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to cephalothin (17.6% of patients, P<0.05), cefazolin (14.6%, P<0.05), tetracycline (15.0%, P<0.05), gentamicin (37.7%, P<0.001), doxycycline (30.7%, P<0.001), and tobramycin (10.6%, P>0.05). Three patients (4.9%) were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, belonging to phage group II phage type 3A and phage group III phage types 83A and 77; 22.6– 25.5% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were nontypable. During hospitalization, the prevalence rate of phage group II Staphylococcus aureus strains decreased from 39.6% to 5.7% (P<0.05) and the prevalence rate of phage group III Staphylococcus aureus strains increased to 29.5% (P<0.001).
Conclusions. Although our understanding of Staphylococcus aureus is increasing, well-designed communitybased studies with adequate risk factor analysis are required to elucidate further the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus provides relevant information on the extent of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic, identifies priorities for infection control and the need for adjustments in antimicrobial drug policy, and guides intervention programs.
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; prevalence; antimicrobial susceptibility; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus; prevalence; antimicrobial susceptibility; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MDPI and ACS Style

Pavilonytė, Ž.; Kaukėnienė, R.; Antuševas, A.; Pavilonis, A. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among hospitalized patients. Medicina 2008, 44, 593.

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