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Endothelium and nitric oxide
Institute of Cardiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
Medicina 2008, 44(7), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44070073
Received: 17 October 2007 / Accepted: 30 June 2008 / Published: 30 June 2008
Studied nature of the “blood vessels relaxing factor” derived fromendotheliumthat was identified as nitric oxide caused intensive scientific research on nitric oxide regarding some aspects of its impact on human physiological and pathological processes. The objective of this short review is to discuss widely used (in the clinical practice) direct and indirect donors of nitric oxide and/or other agents, increasing nitric oxide concentration in human body, and their beneficial role for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Under physiological conditions, endotheliumregulates the tone of blood vessels, homeostasis of which is maintained by endotheliumgenerated vasoconstrictors and vasodilators. The most important vasodilator and the main substance produced by the endothelium is nitric oxide. The failure of synthesis and/or the lost of nitric oxide bioavailability is the major feature of endothelial dysfunction and key factor initiating progression of atherosclerosis. The endothelial dysfunction initiates the series of events, which stimulate and aggravate the course of atherosclerosis by increasing endothelial permeability, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion, and cytokine expression. Further, the review deals with the mechanisms of action of statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, L-arginine, direct nitric oxide donors (nitroglycerin, isosorbide mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate), and indirect nitric oxide donors (phosphodiesterase-V inhibitors, KATP openers).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Garalienė, V. Endothelium and nitric oxide. Medicina 2008, 44, 564.
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Garalienė V. Endothelium and nitric oxide. Medicina. 2008; 44(7):564.Chicago/Turabian Style
Garalienė, Vida. 2008. "Endothelium and nitric oxide." Medicina 44, no. 7: 564.
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