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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
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L-type Ca2+ channels in the heart: Structure and regulation

Laboratory of Membrane Biophysics, Institute of Cardiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
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Medicina 2008, 44(7), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44070064
Received: 22 April 2008 / Accepted: 4 July 2008 / Published: 9 July 2008
This review analyzes the structure and regulation mechanisms of voltagedependent L-type Ca2+ channel in the heart. L-type Ca2+ channels in the heart are composed of four different polypeptide subunits, and the pore-forming subunit a1 is the most important part of the channel. In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ enter cell cytoplasm from extracellular space mainly through L-type Ca2+ channels; these channels are very important system in heart Ca2+ uptake regulation. L-type Ca2+ channels are responsible for the activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channels (RyR2) and force of muscle contraction generation in heart; hence, activity of the heart depends on L-type Ca2+ channels. Phosphorylation of channel-forming subunits by different kinases is one of the most important ways to change the activity of L-type Ca2+ channel. Additionally, the activity of L-type Ca2+ channels depends on Ca2+ concentration in cytoplasm. Ca2+ current in cardiac cells can facilitate, and this process is regulated by phosphorylation of L-type Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Disturbances in cellular Ca2+ transport and regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels are directly related to heart diseases, life quality, and life span.
Keywords: Ca2+ channels; kinases; phosphorylation; inactivation; facilitation Ca2+ channels; kinases; phosphorylation; inactivation; facilitation
MDPI and ACS Style

Treinys, R.; Jurevičius, J. L-type Ca2+ channels in the heart: Structure and regulation. Medicina 2008, 44, 491.

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