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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
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Changes in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and smoking habits during a 10-year period and relation between these risk factors and ischemic heart disease among men aged 45–64 years

Institute of Cardiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
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Medicina 2008, 44(5), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44050052
Received: 31 January 2008 / Accepted: 9 May 2008 / Published: 14 May 2008
The aim of this work was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and smoking habits smokingduring a 10-year period and to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and smoking habits, and ischemic heart disease among Kaunas men aged 45–64 years.
Material and methods.
In this study, we have used data from two epidemiological studies, which had been carried out according to the MONICA study protocol (359 men aged 45–64 years were enrolled in 1992–1993 and 408 men aged 45–64 years – in 2001–2002). The association between metabolic syndrome and smoking habits, and ischemic heart disease was established according to the data of 2001–2002 years. Ischemic heart disease was diagnosed based on the following criteria: previous myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or ischemic changes in electrocardiogram. Metabolic syndrome was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria.
Results. The prevalence of ischemic heart disease did not change among men aged 45–64 years during a 10-year period. During this period, the decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed; decreased rate of hyperglycemia, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, increased rate of hypertriglyceridemia, and increased waist circumference were noted. During this period, the proportion of regular male smokers increased significantly. After the evaluation of association between and metabolic syndrome and smoking habits, and ischemic heart disease (according to the data of 2001–2002 years), it was determined that the highest rate of ischemic heart disease was among regular smokers with metabolic syndrome (32.3%), and the lowest rate of ischemic heart disease was noted among men who had never smoked and were without metabolic syndrome (11.6%) (OR=3.63; P=0.013). The highest rate of previous myocardial infarction and/or angina pectoris was determined among regular smokers with metabolic syndrome (19.4%), and the lowest rate of ischemic heart disease was determined among men who had never smoked and were without metabolic syndrome (3.6%) (OR=6.43; P=0.008).
Conclusion. Combination of metabolic syndrome and smoking is significantly associated with ischemic heart disease among men aged 45–64 years.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; smoking; ischemic heart disease metabolic syndrome; smoking; ischemic heart disease
MDPI and ACS Style

Lukšienė, D.I.; Černiauskienė, L.R.; Margevičienė, L.; Tamošiūnas, A. Changes in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and smoking habits during a 10-year period and relation between these risk factors and ischemic heart disease among men aged 45–64 years. Medicina 2008, 44, 400.

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