Next Article in Journal
Surgical treatment of urinary stress incontinence nowadays
Previous Article in Journal
The comparison of patients’ and nurses’ attitudes to health education and nurses’ participation in this process
Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Lithuanian pharmacists in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century: Their practice and national patriotic activity

1
Lithuanian Museum of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy
2
Department of Drug Technology and Social Pharmacy, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2008, 44(11), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44110113
Received: 20 December 2007 / Accepted: 7 May 2008 / Published: 12 May 2008
An important role in the formation of modern Lithuanian society was played by pharmacists who at the beginning of the 20th century were one of the most numerous parts of Lithuanian intelligentsia. They chose a job in a pharmacy not as a mission of life but due to political, social, and economic reasons. The majority of pharmacists were children of peasants who had refused to obey their parents and study in the seminary of priests. Those people who had been ousted from gymnasiums because of an anticzarist activity or those who had not finished school due to the lack of money also became pharmacists. Young men who had chosen a way of self-support left to the biggest cities of Russia and started the practice of an apprentice in a pharmacy. Later, they took examinations to become an assistant of a pharmacist, and after two years of studies at university, they took examinations of a pharmacist at last. Having got a diploma, they usually did not return to their motherland because there was a large network of pharmacies; thus, business conditions were harder, of course. They established pharmacies in various provinces of Russia most often, and it is supposed that only 10% of Lithuanian pharmacists worked in their native country. Living and working in a Russian environment, however, they enshrined national patriotic ideas, were active participants in social activities, published a Lithuanian professional newspaper “Farmaceutų reikalai” (translation, “Matters of pharmacists“), and attempted to unite all Lithuanians living in czarist Russia to struggle against denationalization, to encourage people to return to their motherland, and to work for its good. This article deals with the path for a career of Lithuanian pharmacists in czarist Russia and their national patriotic activity.
Keywords: the history of pharmacy; becoming a pharmacist; pharmacists and nationality; the Lithuanian national movement the history of pharmacy; becoming a pharmacist; pharmacists and nationality; the Lithuanian national movement
MDPI and ACS Style

Gudienė, V.; Bagdonavičius, A.; Šimaitienė, Z.; Davalgienė, J. Lithuanian pharmacists in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century: Their practice and national patriotic activity. Medicina 2008, 44, 895.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop