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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
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Selected environmental risk factors and congenital heart defects

Institute of Cardiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
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Medicina 2008, 44(11), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44110104
Received: 28 November 2007 / Accepted: 7 November 2008 / Published: 12 November 2008
The aim of the article is to review the published scientific literature and epidemiological studies about the effect of selected environmental risk factors on congenital heart defects in infants. According to recent reports, the prevalence of congenital heart defects is around 1% of live births. Congenital heart malformations are the leading cause of infant mortality. Unfortunately, the majority of the causes of heart defects remain unknown. These malformations are caused by interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The article reviews selected environmental risk factors: maternal illnesses and conditions associated with metabolic disorder (maternal diabetes, obesity, phenylketonuria), maternal lifestyle factors (alcohol use, smoking), which may increase the risk of congenital heart defects.
Keywords: environmental risk factors; congenital heart defects; maternal illness; lifestyle factors environmental risk factors; congenital heart defects; maternal illness; lifestyle factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Kučienė, R.; Dulskienė, V. Selected environmental risk factors and congenital heart defects. Medicina 2008, 44, 827.

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