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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Coma: Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment

Department of Intensive Care, Kaunas University of Medicine
Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2008, 44(10), 812;
Received: 17 March 2008 / Accepted: 8 October 2008 / Published: 13 October 2008
Coma is the disorder of consciousness because of the damage to diffused bilateral cerebral hemisphere cortex or reticular activating system. Coma can be caused by neurogenic (head brain injury), metabolic (endogenic), and toxic (exogenic) factors. To determine the cause of metabolic and toxic coma, laboratory tests are performed; in case of neurogenic coma, the neurologic examination is essential, when five systems are evaluated: the level of consciousness (according to Glasgow Coma Scale or Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Scale), photoreaction of pupils and ophthalmoscopic examination, oculomotoric, motoric, and cardiopulmonary systems. For the treatment of coma, adequate oxygenation and correction of blood circulation disorders are important. The treatment of metabolic coma is guided by special schemes; antidotes often are needed in the treatment of toxic coma, and surgery helps if traumatic brain injury is present. The prognosis and outcomes of the comatose patient depend on the age and comorbid diseases of the patient, the underlying cause of coma, timely medical help and its quality, and intensive treatment and care of the patient in coma.
Keywords: coma; etiology; diagnosis; treatment coma; etiology; diagnosis; treatment
MDPI and ACS Style

Adukauskienė, D.; Budrytė, B.; Karpec, D. Coma: Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Medicina 2008, 44, 812.

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