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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Characteristics of gender-related circadian arterial blood pressure in healthy adolescents

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Children Hospital
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Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University
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Department of Children Diseases
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Department of Theoretical and Clinical Pharmacology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2008, 44(10), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina44100096
Received: 5 March 2008 / Accepted: 3 October 2008 / Published: 8 October 2008
Objective. To define 24-h characteristics of arterial blood pressure in healthy adolescent girls and boys; to determine gender-related differences of blood pressure, its circadian pattern.
Material and methods
. The 24-h blood pressure was monitored hourly in healthy girls (n=22, without no account for the menstrual cycle phase) and boys (n=22). Additionally, blood pressure of adolescent girls (n=15) was examined during different phases of their menstrual cycle (follicular, ovulation, and luteal). Blood pressure was monitored with an auto-cuff automatic outpatient blood pressure monitor.
Results
. Investigation showed gender-related differences in 24-h blood pressure. Study results revealed the circadian blood pressure rhythm characterized by a period of low values during nighttime and an early morning increase in both adolescent groups. Nocturnal systolic blood pressure was higher (P<0.05) in boys than in girls in all phases of their menstrual cycle. Diurnal systolic blood pressure in boys was higher than in girls in their follicular phase (P<0.05). The day and night blood pressure differed between boys and girls (P<0.05). A dipping blood pressure pattern as a decrease in mean nighttime blood pressure as compared with mean daytime blood pressure was defined: 10.02±6.7% in girls (n=22) and 13±6.3% in boys (n=22), without genderrelated differences (P>0.05). There were no differences in blood pressure dipping among girls’ groups in different menstrual cycle phases (P>0.05). Adolescent boys showed a significant positive correlation between their mean diurnal blood pressure and height (P<0.05).
Conclusion. The study proved gender-related arterial blood pressure differences in healthy adolescents. The results demonstrate the gender-specific circadian blood pressure rhythm pattern in both gender groups.
Keywords: adolescent; blood pressure; gender-related differences; menstrual cycle adolescent; blood pressure; gender-related differences; menstrual cycle
MDPI and ACS Style

Drižienė, Ž.; Jakutienė, E.; Stakišaitis, D.; Pundzienė, B.; Sveikata, A. Characteristics of gender-related circadian arterial blood pressure in healthy adolescents. Medicina 2008, 44, 768.

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