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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Preventing chronic disease risk factors: Rationale and feasibility

School of Public Health, University of Minnesota
Health Partners Research Foundation
Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2008, 44(10), 745;
Received: 19 June 2008 / Accepted: 7 October 2008 / Published: 12 October 2008
Objective. The majority of the mortality, morbidity, and disability in the United States and other developed countries is due to chronic diseases. These diseases could be prevented to a great extent with the elimination of four root causes: physical inactivity, poor nutrition, smoking, and hazardous drinking. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether efficacious risk factor prevention interventions exist and to examine the evidence that populationwide program implementation is justified.
Materials and methods. We conducted a literature search for meta-analyses and systematic reviews of trials that tested interventions to increase physical activity, improve nutrition, reduce smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and reduce hazardous drinking.
We found that appropriately designed interventions can produce behavioral change for the four behaviors. Effective interventions included tailored fact-to-face counseling, phone counseling, and computerized tailored feedback. Computer-based health behavior assessment with feedback and education was documented to be an effective method of determining behavior, assessing participant interest in behavior change and delivering interventions. Some programs have documented reduced health care costs associated with intervention.
Conclusions. Positive results to date suggest that further investments to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of chronic disease risk factor prevention programs are warranted. Widespread implementation of these programs could have a significant impact on chronic disease incidence rates and costs of health care.
Keywords: chronic disease risk factors; prevention; effectiveness; delivery systems chronic disease risk factors; prevention; effectiveness; delivery systems
MDPI and ACS Style

Jordan, C.O.; Slater, M.; Kottke, T.E. Preventing chronic disease risk factors: Rationale and feasibility. Medicina 2008, 44, 745.

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