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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

ß-adrenergic receptor blocker poisoning

Clinic of Intensive Care, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
Medicina 2007, 43(7), 587;
Received: 31 October 2006 / Accepted: 18 May 2007 / Published: 23 May 2007
ß-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction, cardiac dysrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, migraine headache, thyrotoxicosis, and glaucoma. ß-adrenergic receptor blocking agents are competitive antagonist at ß1, ß2, or both types of adrenergic receptors. Overdoses of ß-adrenergic receptor blockers are uncommon, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review article discusses the properties of ß-adrenergic receptor blockers, presents the doses of these drugs causing toxicity and doses, after ingestion of which, referral to an emergency department is recommended. Clinical presentation of overdose (the cardiovascular, neurologic manifestations, pulmonary and other complications), diagnosis, and treatment (gastrointestinal decontamination; the usage of atropine, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, glucagon, insulin; indications for cardiac pacing, extracorporeal procedures of drug removal, etc.) are analyzed. In addition, this article focuses on clinical course and prognosis of beta-blocker overdose.
Keywords: ß-adrenergic receptor blockers; overdose; poisoning. ß-adrenergic receptor blockers; overdose; poisoning.
MDPI and ACS Style

Reingardienė, D. ß-adrenergic receptor blocker poisoning. Medicina 2007, 43, 587.

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