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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Structural changes of the human superior cervical ganglion following ischemic stroke

1
Institute of Anatomy, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
2
Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2007, 43(5), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina43050048
Received: 28 December 2006 / Accepted: 19 March 2007 / Published: 24 March 2007
Objective. The sympathetic nervous system participates in the modulation of cerebrovascular autoregulation. The most important source of sympathetic innervation of the cerebral arteries is the superior cervical ganglion. The aim of this study was to investigate signs of the neurodegenerative alteration in the sympathetic ganglia including the evaluation of apoptosis of neuronal and satellite cells in the human superior cervical ganglion after ischemic stroke, because so far alterations in human sympathetic ganglia related to the injury to peripheral tissue have not been enough analyzed.
Materials and methods
. We investigated human superior cervical ganglia from eight patients who died of ischemic stroke and from seven control subjects. Neurohistological examination of sympathetic ganglia was performed on 5 μm paraffin sections stained with cresyl violet. TUNEL method was applied to assess apoptotic cells of sympathetic ganglia.
Results
. The present investigation showed that: (1) signs of neurodegenerative alteration (darkly stained and deformed neurons with vacuoles, lymphocytic infiltrates, gliocyte proliferation) were markedly expressed in the ganglia of stroke patients; (2) apoptotic neuronal and glial cell death was observed in the human superior cervical ganglia of the control and stroke groups; (3) heterogenic distribution of apoptotic neurons and glial cells as well as individual variations in both groups were identified; (4) higher apoptotic index of sympathetic neurons (89%) in the stroke group than in the control group was found.
Conclusions
. We associated these findings with retrograde reaction of the neuronal cell body to axonal damage, which occurs in the ischemic focus of blood vessels innervated by superior cervical ganglion.
Keywords: human superior cervical ganglion; sympathetic neuron; apoptosis; ischemic stroke; TUNEL method human superior cervical ganglion; sympathetic neuron; apoptosis; ischemic stroke; TUNEL method
MDPI and ACS Style

Liutkienė, G.; Stropus, R.; Dabužinskienė, A.; Pilmane, M. Structural changes of the human superior cervical ganglion following ischemic stroke. Medicina 2007, 43, 390.

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