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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Antioxidative activity of Ginkgo, Echinacea, and Ginseng tinctures

1
Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Czech Republic
2
Department of Drugs Technology and Social Pharmacy
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2007, 43(4), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina43040038
Received: 28 June 2006 / Accepted: 29 August 2007 / Published: 3 September 2007
The aim of this study was to determine the amount of phenol compounds in tinctures prepared from Ginkgo leaves, Echinacea plant, and Ginseng roots and to evaluate the antioxidative activity of these preparations. We studied the antioxidative activity using the standard 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical cation scavenging and tyrosine nitration inhibition tests. The obtained findings showed that the amount of phenol compounds in the studied tinctures differed and ranged between 114 to 340±29 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/100 mL. We found that the amount of phenol compounds in Ginkgo tincture was statistically significantly greater than that in Echinacea or Ginseng tinctures. The effectiveness of Ginkgo tincture was by 52.7% (P<0.01) lower (from 1343±11 µmmol catechin/100 mL solution to 637±64 catechin/100 mL solution), compared to Echinacea tincture. Ginseng tincture was the weakest scavenger of free radicals – only 8±1 µmmol catechin/100 mL solution. The inhibition of tyrosine nitration was by 34% (P<0.01) greater in Echinacea tincture, compared to Ginkgo tincture (from 892±36 µmmol catechin/100 mL solution to 588±17 µmmol catechin/100 mL solution). Ginseng tincture was the weakest inhibitor of tyrosine nitration – only 20±8 µmmol catechin/100 mL solution, which was by 44.6 times less, compared to Echinacea tincture. Tests on DPPH· radical cation scavenging and inhibition of nitration showed that the antioxidative activity of Echinacea tincture was statistically significantly greater compared to that of Ginkgo or Ginseng tinctures. This allows us to conclude that antioxidative activity is determined not only by phenol compounds, but also by a complex of other components of medicinal raw material.
Keywords: words: antioxidant activity; Ginkgo; Echinacea; Ginseng words: antioxidant activity; Ginkgo; Echinacea; Ginseng
MDPI and ACS Style

Masteikova, R.; Muselik, J.; Bernatonienė, J.; Bernatonienė, R. Antioxidative activity of Ginkgo, Echinacea, and Ginseng tinctures. Medicina 2007, 43, 306.

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