Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020025

Authors: Wanida Limmun Boonorm Chomtee John J. Borkowski

Among the numerous alphabetical optimality criteria is the IV-criterion that is focused on prediction variance. We propose a new criterion, called the weighted IV-optimality. It is similar to IV-optimality, because the researcher must first specify a model. However, unlike IV-optimality, a suite of &ldquo;reduced&rdquo; models is also proposed if the original model is misspecified via over-parameterization. In this research, weighted IV-optimality is applied to mixture experiments with a set of prior weights assigned to the potential mixture models of interest. To address the issue of implementation, a genetic algorithm was developed to generate weighted IV-optimal mixture designs that are robust across multiple models. In our examples, we assign models with p parameters to have equal weights, but weights will vary based on varying p. Fraction-of-design-space (FDS) plots are used to compare the performance of an experimental design in terms of the prediction variance properties. An illustrating example is presented. The result shows that the GA-generated designs studied are robust across a set of potential mixture models.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020024

Authors: Herbert Moldenhauer

The two-dimensional differential equation y’ = f(x,y) can be interpreted as a direction field. Commercial Finite Element (FE) programs can be used for this integration task without additional programming, provided that these programs have options for the calculation of orthotropic heat conduction problems. The differential equation to be integrated with arbitrary boundaries is idealized as an FE model with thermal 2D elements. Its orthotropic thermal conductivities are specified as k1 = 1 and k2 = 0. In doing so, k1 is parallel to y´, and k2 is oriented perpendicular to this. For this extreme case, it is shown that the isotherms are identical to the solution of y’ = f(x,y). The direction fields, for example, can be velocity vectors in fluid mechanics or principal stress directions in structural mechanics. In the case of the latter, possibilities for application in the construction of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) arise, since fiber courses, which follow the local principal stress directions, make use of the superior stiffness and strength of the fibers.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020023

Authors: Lizeth Torres Javier Jiménez-Cabas José Gómez-Aguilar Pablo Pérez-Alcazar

The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier Transform (FT) of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1) the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2) the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3) the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4) the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5) the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020022

Authors: Johanna Pyy Anssi Ahtikoski Alexander Lapin Erkki Laitinen

We solve numerically a forest management optimization problem governed by a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE), which is a size-structured population model. The formulated problem is supplemented with a natural constraint for a solution to be non-negative. PDE is approximated by an explicit or implicit in time finite difference scheme, whereas the cost function is taken from the very beginning in the finite-dimensional form used in practice. We prove the stability of the constructed nonlinear finite difference schemes on the set of non-negative vectors and the solvability of the formulated discrete optimal control problems. The gradient information is derived by constructing discrete adjoint state equations. The projected gradient method is used for finding the extremal points. The results of numerical testing for several real problems show good agreement with the known results and confirm the theoretical statements.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020021

Authors: Segun Isaac Oke Maba Boniface Matadi Sibusiso Southwell Xulu

In this paper, a mathematical model of breast cancer governed by a system of ordinary differential equations in the presence of chemotherapy treatment and ketogenic diet is discussed. Several comprehensive mathematical analyses were carried out using a variety of analytical methods to study the stability of the breast cancer model. Also, sufficient conditions on parameter values to ensure cancer persistence in the absence of anti-cancer drugs, ketogenic diet, and cancer emission when anti-cancer drugs, immune-booster, and ketogenic diet are included were established. Furthermore, optimal control theory is applied to discover the optimal drug adjustment as an input control of the system therapies in order to minimize the number of cancerous cells by considering different controlled combinations of administering the chemotherapy agent and ketogenic diet using the popular Pontryagin&rsquo;s maximum principle. Numerical simulations are presented to validate our theoretical results.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020020

Authors: Abdullah Dawar Zahir Shah Muhammad Idrees Waris Khan Saeed Islam Taza Gul

The main intention of this article is to examine the heat transmission of the flow of Eyring–Powell fluid over an unstable oscillatory porous stretching surface. The effect of thermal radiation on the fluid flow is investigated, where the flow is actuated by the unbounded flexible surface which is extended occasionally to and fro on its plane. The rudimentary leading equations are changed to differential equations through the use of applicable similarity variables. An optimal and numerical approach was used to find the solution to the modeled problems. The convergence of the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is shown numerically. The homotopy analysis method predictions of the structures formed are in close agreement with the obtained results from the numerical method. Comparisons between HAM and numerical methods are shown graphically as well as numerically. The convergence of this method is shown numerically. The impacts of the skin friction and heat flux are shown through a table. The influence of the porosity, oscillation, thermal radiation, and heat absorption/generation are the main focus of this work. The consequences of emerging parameters are demonstrated through graphs.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020019

Authors: Roberto López Luis González Gurrola Leonardo Trujillo Olanda Prieto Graciela Ramírez Antonio Posada Perla Juárez-Smith Leticia Méndez

Road traffic injuries are a serious concern in emerging economies. Their death toll and economic impact are shocking, with 9 out of 10 deaths occurring in low or middle-income countries; and road traffic crashes representing 3% of their gross domestic product. One way to mitigate these issues is to develop technology to effectively assist the driver, perhaps making him more aware about how her (his) decisions influence safety. Following this idea, in this paper we evaluate computational models that can score the behavior of a driver based on a risky-safety scale. Potential applications of these models include car rental agencies, insurance companies or transportation service providers. In a previous work, we showed that Genetic Programming (GP) was a successful methodology to evolve mathematical functions with the ability to learn how people subjectively score a road trip. The input to this model was a vector of frequencies of risky maneuvers, which were supposed to be detected in a sensor layer. Moreover, GP was shown, even with statistical significance, to be better than six other Machine Learning strategies, including Neural Networks, Support Vector Regression and a Fuzzy Inference system, among others. A pending task, since then, was to evaluate if a more detailed comparison of different strategies based on GP could improve upon the best GP model. In this work, we evaluate, side by side, scoring functions evolved by three different variants of GP. In the end, the results suggest that two of these strategies are very competitive in terms of accuracy and simplicity, both generating models that could be implemented in current technology that seeks to assist the driver in real-world scenarios.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020018

Authors: Muhammad Aslam

The occurrence of the Gibbs phenomenon near irregular initial data points is a widely known fact in curve generation by interpolating subdivision schemes. In this article, we propose a family of 5-point nonlinear ternary interpolating subdivision schemes. We provide the convergence analysis and prove that this family of subdivision schemes is C 2 continuous. Numerical results are presented to show that nonlinear schemes reduce the Gibbs phenomenon significantly while keeping the same order of smoothness.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23020017

Authors: Hamed Bashirpour Saman Bashirpour Shahaboddin Shamshirband Anthony Chronopoulos

In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), users can use broadcast authentication mechanisms to connect to the target network and disseminate their messages within the network. Since data transfer for sensor networks is wireless, as a result, attackers can easily eavesdrop deployed sensor nodes and the data sent between them or modify the content of eavesdropped data and inject false data into the sensor network. Hence, the implementation of the message authentication mechanisms (in order to avoid changes and injecting messages into the network) of wireless sensor networks is essential. In this paper, we present an improved protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to accelerate authentication of multi-user message broadcasting. In comparison with previous ECC-based schemes, complexity and computational overhead of proposed scheme is significantly decreased. Also, the proposed scheme supports user anonymity, which is an important property in broadcast authentication schemes for WSNs to preserve user privacy and user untracking.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010016

Authors: Yousef Barazandeh Bahman Ghazanfari

One of the most important biochemical reactions is catalyzed by enzymes. A numerical method to solve nonlinear equations of enzyme kinetics, known as the Michaelis and Menten equations, together with fuzzy initial values is introduced. The numerical method is based on the fourth order Runge–Kutta method, which is generalized for a fuzzy system of differential equations. The convergence and stability of the method are also presented. The capability of the method in fuzzy enzyme kinetics is demonstrated by some numerical examples.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010015

Authors: Rahma Sadat Magda Kassem

In this work, we prove that the integrating factors can be used as a reduction method. Analytical solutions of the Jaulent–Miodek (JM) equation are obtained using integrating factors as an extension of a recent work where, through hidden symmetries, the JM was reduced to ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Some of these ODEs had no quadrature. We here derive several new solutions for these non-solvable ODEs.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010014

Authors: Narinder Singh Hanaa Hachimi

The quest for an efficient nature-inspired optimization technique has continued over the last few decades. In this paper, a hybrid nature-inspired optimization technique has been proposed. The hybrid algorithm has been constructed using Mean Grey Wolf Optimizer (MGWO) and Whale Optimizer Algorithm (WOA). We have utilized the spiral equation of Whale Optimizer Algorithm for two procedures in the Hybrid Approach GWO (HAGWO) algorithm: (i) firstly, we used the spiral equation in Grey Wolf Optimizer algorithm for balance between the exploitation and the exploration process in the new hybrid approach; and (ii) secondly, we also applied this equation in the whole population in order to refrain from the premature convergence and trapping in local minima. The feasibility and effectiveness of the hybrid algorithm have been tested by solving some standard benchmarks, XOR, Baloon, Iris, Breast Cancer, Welded Beam Design, Pressure Vessel Design problems and comparing the results with those obtained through other metaheuristics. The solutions prove that the newly existing hybrid variant has higher stronger stability, faster convergence rate and computational accuracy than other nature-inspired metaheuristics on the maximum number of problems and can successfully resolve the function of constrained nonlinear optimization in reality.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010013

Authors: Mahmood Hosseini Imani Mojtaba Jabbari Ghadi Shahaboddin Shamshirband Marius M. Balas

In this paper, the employment of a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system in the security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) problem is considered. SCUC has gained remarkable attention from researchers in the field of electric power systems, aiming to determine the generation schedule in which the system operator maximizes the system security and minimizes the generation costs, while satisfying the system and units’ constraints. Tremendous technological advances in recent years have attracted the attention of system operators to utilize novel sources of electricity, accompanied with thermal units. To this end, V2G technology recently drew remarkable consideration as a new energy resource. V2G reduces the dependence of electricity production procedures on small-scale and costly thermal units, and subsequently has a strong impact on the operation costs and ameliorates the management of load vacillations. This paper presents the use of V2G in scheduling and operating power systems. A successful technique for investigating the impacts of V2G on a real power system is running SCUC on power systems in which electric vehicle parking is installed on different buses. In order to assess its applicability, the proposed method has been applied in two case studies: the IEEE 6-bus system and the extended IEEE 30-bus system. This study presents two simulation scenarios: the SCUC problem was first evaluated separately, and then in the presence of some electrical vehicles connected to the grid. The results demonstrate the reduction of the total operation cost. In addition, by using the proposed method, the operator can specify the optimal number of vehicles needed in the parking each hour. The results can help the system operators and designers in designing, planning, and operating such power systems.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010012

Authors: Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip Alain Moise Dikande Ebobenow Joseph

A complex nonlinear model for a single-mesh helical gear train is developed by including a time-varying mesh stiffness, axial vibrations, torsional vibrations, shaft and bearing damping, generator back EMF (Electromotive Force) and gear backlashes. With the help of a time series and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) frequency spectrum, the effects of these nonlinear terms on the wind turbine and generator rotational speeds are studied under different excitation conditions by numerically integrating the associated equations using the RK4 algorithm. Results show that for lightly damped oscillations, an extra harmonic is induced in the generator dynamics due to contributions from internal excitations. However, this extra vibration can be suppressed at higher damping. Big helical angles will generally induce heavy nonlinear vibrations in the turbine and generator; a smaller mesh frequency will induce extra noise in the generator; and the external excitation due to wind gust has a greater influence on the nonlinearity of the wind turbine dynamics as compared to the internal excitations due to static transmission errors, time-varying mesh stiffness and the generator back EMF.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010011

Authors: Ali Hasan Sana Moin Ahmad Karim Shahaboddin Shamshirband

Growth in the area of opinion mining and sentiment analysis has been rapid and aims to explore the opinions or text present on different platforms of social media through machine-learning techniques with sentiment, subjectivity analysis or polarity calculations. Despite the use of various machine-learning techniques and tools for sentiment analysis during elections, there is a dire need for a state-of-the-art approach. To deal with these challenges, the contribution of this paper includes the adoption of a hybrid approach that involves a sentiment analyzer that includes machine learning. Moreover, this paper also provides a comparison of techniques of sentiment analysis in the analysis of political views by applying supervised machine-learning algorithms such as Naïve Bayes and support vector machines (SVM).

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010010

Authors: Zhongming Teng Xuansheng Wang

The restarted CMRH method (changing minimal residual method based on the Hessenberg process) using fewer operations and storage is an alternative method to the restarted generalized minimal residual method (GMRES) method for linear systems. However, the traditional restarted CMRH method, which completely ignores the history information in the previous cycles, presents a slow speed of convergence. In this paper, we propose a heavy ball restarted CMRH method to remedy the slow convergence by bringing the previous approximation into the current search subspace. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the heavy ball restarted CMRH method.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010009

Authors: Hossein Karimi Parviz Nasiri

The concept of length-biased distribution is applied in expending proper models for lifetime data. The length-biased distribution is a special case of well-known weighted distribution. In this article, we introduce a length-biased weighted Lomax distribution (LBWLD) with k presence of outliers and estimate the parameter of R = P(Y &lt; X) when the random variables X and Y are independent and have LBWLD in presence of outliers and without outliers, respectively. The bias and mean square error (MSE) of the estimator are examined with simulations of numerical and bootstrap resampling. Analysis of a real data set is considered for illustrative purposes.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010008

Authors: Felix Fritzen Bernard Haasdonk David Ryckelynck Sebastian Schöps

A novel algorithmic discussion of the methodological and numerical differences of competing parametric model reduction techniques for nonlinear problems is presented. First, the Galerkin reduced basis (RB) formulation is presented, which fails at providing significant gains with respect to the computational efficiency for nonlinear problems. Renowned methods for the reduction of the computing time of nonlinear reduced order models are the Hyper-Reduction and the (Discrete) Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM, DEIM). An algorithmic description and a methodological comparison of both methods are provided. The accuracy of the predictions of the hyper-reduced model and the (D)EIM in comparison to the Galerkin RB is investigated. All three approaches are applied to a simple uncertainty quantification of a planar nonlinear thermal conduction problem. The results are compared to computationally intense finite element simulations.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010007

Authors: Mohammad Sajid

The aim of this paper is to investigate the bifurcation and chaotic behaviour in the two-parameter family of transcendental functions f λ , n ( x ) = λ x ( e x + 1 ) n , λ &gt; 0 , x ∈ R , n ∈ N \ { 1 } which arises from the generating function of the generalized Apostol-type polynomials. The existence of the real fixed points of f λ , n ( x ) and their stability are studied analytically and the periodic points of f λ , n ( x ) are computed numerically. The bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents are simulated; these demonstrate chaotic behaviour in the dynamical system of the function f λ , n ( x ) for certain ranges of parameter λ .

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010006

Authors: Chahid Ghaddar

We devise a simple yet highly effective technique for solving general optimal control problems in Excel spreadsheets. The technique exploits Excel’s native nonlinear programming (NLP) Solver Command, in conjunction with two calculus worksheet functions, namely, an initial value problem solver and a discrete data integrator, in a direct solution paradigm adapted to the spreadsheet. The technique is tested on several highly nonlinear constrained multivariable control problems with remarkable results in terms of reliability, consistency with pseudo-spectral reported answers, and computing times in the order of seconds. The technique requires no more than defining a few analogous formulas to the problem mathematical equations using basic spreadsheet operations, and no programming skills are needed. It introduces an alternative, simpler tool for solving optimal control problems in social and natural science disciplines.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010005

Authors: Raheleh Jafari Sina Razvarz

The uncertain nonlinear systems can be modeled with fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) and the solutions of these equations are applied to analyze many engineering problems. However, it is very difficult to obtain solutions of FDEs. In this paper, the solutions of FDEs are approximated by utilizing the fuzzy Sumudu transform (FST) method. Significant theorems are suggested in order to explain the properties of FST. The proposed method is validated with three real examples.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010004

Authors: Axel Klein

The fundamental logic operations NOT, OR, AND, and XOR processing bit-streams of Δ Σ -modulators are discussed herein. The resulting bit-streams are evaluated on the basis of their mean values and their standard deviations. Mathematical expressions are presented for their mean values; i.e., the logic function XOR results in the negative multiplication of two bipolar bit-streams, and the logic function AND results in the multiplication of two unipolar bit-streams. As the results are valid for bit-streams with independent high-frequency components, the normed cross-product is utilized for evaluation of the independence of the high-frequency components. In order to achieve a high independence between the input bit-streams, representing the same value, the quantization noise is affected. Multiple strategies are examined and Δ Σ -modulators with different designs are chosen as the best-suited solution. The operations are evaluated on a testbench.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010002

Authors: Chairul Imron Lutfi Mardianto Basuki Widodo Tri Yuwono

One of the many ways to reduce drag force is by adding a small object called passive control. Two passive controls will be placed in front and at the rear of the main object. The main object used is a circular cylinder, and the passive controls used are the Type-I cylinder in the front and an elliptical cylinder at the rear of the main object. The distances between the main object and the passive controls are varied. The Reynolds number used is 1000. The effective distance between the main object and the passive controls is analyzed by using the mathematical model so that the drag coefficient on the main object is compared with the simulated one.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010003

Authors: MCA Editorial Office

Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that MCA (Mathematical and Computational Applications) maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...]

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca23010001

Authors: Hamid Jazayeriy Saghi Mohammadi Shahaboddin Shamshirband

In recent years, recommender systems (RS) provide a considerable progress to users. RSs reduce the cost of a user’s time in order to reach to desired results faster. The main issue of RSs is the presence of cold users which are less active and their preferences are more difficult to detect. The aim of this study is to provide a new way to improve recall and precision in recommender systems for cold users. According to the available categories of items, prioritization of the proposed items is improved and then presented to the cold user. The obtained results show that in addition to increased speed of processing, recall and precision have an acceptable improvement.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22040047

Authors: Ali Katebi

The current paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to benchmark the leadership efficiency of civil engineers based on the leadership flexibility space diagram. Since the traditional DEA model does not fit for this problem, a simple modification has been made to enhance the L1-Norm and CCR models to tackle the problem. The engineers are considered to be the decision making unit (DMU). Questionnaires were prepared and responses were received from engineers in an Iranian construction company (MD-2 Corporation) as a case study. The leadership flexibility space diagram uses two basic parameters: (1) a decision-making authority and; (2) data input to a group for decision-making. These parameters are considered as the output, and the model has no input-parameter. The assessment of DEA measures the proximity of the DMUs from the active management. Finally, a correlation among the attributes with leadership efficiency has been considered.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22040046

Authors: Fangtao Liu Kwok Tso Yongheng Yang Jingjing Guan

This study analyzes the effects of employee satisfaction and demographic indicators on employee commitment to organizational culture at the enterprise level. With data from a survey of 3029 employees from 27 state-owned enterprises (SOEs), a hierarchical linear model (HLM) is used to identify the influencing factors of employee commitment to organizational culture at the enterprise level. An empirical study indicates that apart from the factors of employee satisfaction and demographic background, four contextual variables of enterprises, namely, comprehensive management, energy intensity, cost-income ratio, and capacity-load ratio, also influence commitment to organizational culture levels. Results show that applying HLM can substantially improve the explanatory power of employee satisfaction factors on commitment to organizational culture using nested enterprise contextual variables. Although measurement scales and satisfaction models have been proposed over the years, only a few studies have addressed the particular nature inherent in Chinese SOEs. HLM, which accounts for the nested data structure and determines the effects of employee satisfaction factors on commitment to organizational culture without bias, is developed in this study. Through an insider view based on empirical work, this research can improve the ability of senior managers to understand the culture and dynamics of organizations, to deliver strong leadership, and to enhance corporate internal management.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22040045

Authors: Kimlong Ngin Yen Yat Rufai Hafeez Sijjad Ali Khuhro Mariia Sushchenko

The success of data transaction in a company largely depends on the intelligence system used in its database and application system. The complex and heterogeneous data in the log file make it more difficult for users to manage data effectively. Therefore, this paper creates an application system that can manage data from the log file. A sample was collected from an image editing company in Cambodia by interviewing five customers and seven operators, who worked on the data files for 300 images. This paper found two results: first, the agent script was used for retrieving data from the log file, classifying data, and inserting data into a database; and second, the web interface was used for the viewing of results by the users. The intelligence capabilities of our application, together with a friendly web-based and window-based experience, allow the users to easily acquire, manage, and access the data in an image editing company.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22040044

Authors: Adeshina Adegoke Ayo Oyediran

This paper studied the nonlinear vibrations of top-tensioned cantilevered pipes conveying pressurized steady two-phase flow under thermal loading. The coupled axial and transverse governing partial differential equations of motion of the system were derived based on Hamilton’s mechanics, with the centerline assumed to be extensible. Using the multiple-scale perturbation technique, natural frequencies, mode shapes, and first order approximate solutions of the steady-state response of the pipes were obtained. The multiple-scale assessment reveals that at some frequencies the system is uncoupled, while at some frequencies a 1:2 coupling exists between the axial and the transverse frequencies of the pipe. Nonlinear frequencies versus the amplitude displacement of the cantilever pipe, conveying two-phase flow at super-critical mixture velocity for the uncoupled scenario, exhibit a nonlinear hardening behavior; an increment in the void fractions of the two-phase flow results in a reduction in the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies and the coupled amplitude of the system. However, increases in the temperature difference, pressure, and the presence of top tension were observed to increase the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies without a significant change in the coupled amplitude of the system.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22040043

Authors: Mehmet Şahin Rızvan Erol

The main purpose of this study was to develop and apply a neural network (NN) approach and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for forecasting the attendance rates at soccer games. The models were designed based on the characteristics of the problem. Past real data was used. Training data was used for training the models, and the testing data was used for evaluating the performance of the forecasting models. The obtained forecasting results were compared to the actual data and to each other. To evaluate the performance of the models, two statistical indicators, Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE), were used. Based on the results, the proposed neural network approach and the ANFIS model were shown to be effective in forecasting attendance at soccer games. The neural network approach performed better than the ANFIS model. The main contribution of this study is to introduce two effective techniques for estimating attendance at sports games. This is the first attempt to use an ANFIS model for that purpose.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22040042

Authors: Frédéric Dubas Kamel Boughrara

This paper presents a new scientific contribution to the two-dimensional red(2-D) subdomain technique in polar coordinates taking into account the finite relative permeability of the ferromagnetic material. The constant relative permeability corresponds to the linear part of the nonlinear B ( H ) curve. As in the conventional technique, the separation of variables method and the Fourier series are used for the resolution of magnetostatic Maxwell equations in each region. The general solutions of the magnetic field in subdomains, as well as the boundary conditions (BCs) between regions are different from the conventional method. In the proposed method, the magnetic field solution in each subdomain is a superposition of two magnetic quantities in the two directions (i.e., r- and Θ -axis), and the BCs between two regions are also in both directions. For example, the scientific contribution has been applied to an air- or iron-cored coil supplied by a constant current. The distribution of local quantities (i.e., the magnetic vector potential and flux density) has been validated by a corresponding 2-D finite-element analysis (FEA). The obtained semi-analytical results are in very good agreement with those of the numerical method.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22040041

Authors: Donald Boone

This computational research study will analyze the multi-physics of lithium ion insertion into a silicon nanowire in an attempt to explain the electrochemical kinetics at the nanoscale and quantum level. The electron coherent states and a quantum field version of photon density waves will be the joining theories that will explain the electron-photon interaction within the lithium-silicon lattice structure. These two quantum particles will be responsible for the photon absorption rate of silicon atoms that are hypothesized to be the leading cause of breaking diatomic silicon covalent bonds that ultimately leads to volume expansion. It will be demonstrated through the combination of Maxwell stress tensor, optical amplification and path integrals that a stochastic analyze using a variety of Poisson distributions that the anisotropic expansion rates in the &lt;110&gt;, &lt;111&gt; and &lt;112&gt; orthogonal directions confirms the findings ascertained in previous works made by other research groups. The computational findings presented in this work are similar to those which were discovered experimentally using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and simulation models that used density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD). The refractive index and electric susceptibility parameters of lithiated silicon are interwoven in the first principle theoretical equations and appears frequently throughout this research presentation, which should serve to demonstrate the importance of these parameters in the understanding of this component in lithium ion batteries.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22040040

Authors: Yongsheng Hang Yue Liu Xiaoyang Xu Yan Chen Shu Mo

Sensitivity analysis is widely applied in financial risk management and engineering; it describes the variations brought by the changes of parameters. Since the integration by parts technique for Markov chains is well developed in recent years, in this paper we apply it for computation of sensitivity and show the closed-form expressions for two commonly-used time-continuous Markovian models. By comparison, we conclude that our approach outperforms the existing technique of computing sensitivity on Markovian models.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22030039

Authors: Hongyan Zhao Lian Zhou

A new algorithm is proposed for polynomial or rational approximation of the planar offset curve. The best rational Chebyshev approximation could be regarded as a kind of geometric approximation along the fixed direction. Based on this idea, we developed a wholly new offset approximation method by changing the fixed direction to the normal directions. The error vectors follow the direction of normal, and thus could reflect the approximate performance more properly. The approximation is completely independent of the original curve parameterization, and thus could ensure the stability of the approximation result. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is reasonable and effective.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22030038

Authors: Sina Razvarz Raheleh Jafari

This paper discusses the elimination of Colour Index Acid Yellow 23 (C.I. AY23) using the ultraviolet (UV)/Ag-TiO2 process. To anticipate the photocatalytic elimination of AY23 with the existence of Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles processed under desired circumstances, two computational techniques, namely artificial neural network (ANN) and imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) modeling are developed. A sum of 100 datasets are used to establish the models, wherein the introductory concentration of dye, UV light intensity, initial dosage of nano Ag-TiO2, and irradiation time are the four parameters expressed in the form of input variables. Additionally, the elimination of AY23 is considered in the form of the output variable. Out of the 100 datasets, 80 are utilized in order to train the models. The remaining 20 that were not included in the training are used in order to test the models. The comparison of the predicted outcomes extracted from the suggested models and the data obtained from the experimental analysis validates that the performance of the ANN scheme is comparatively sophisticated when compared with the ICA scheme.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22030037

Authors: Ali Allahem

The idea of the normalisation of the Hamiltonian system is to simplify the system by transforming Hamiltonian canonically to an easy system. It is under symplectic conditions that the Hamiltonian is preserved under a specific transformation—the so-called Lie transformation. In this review, we will show how to compute the normal form for the Hamiltonian, including computing the general function analytically. A clear example has been studied to illustrate the normal form theory, which can be used as a guide for arbitrary problems.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020036

Authors: Wenling Zhao Ruyu Wang Hongxiang Zhang

We establish the notion of augmented weak sharpness of solution sets for the variational inequality problems which can be abbreviated to VIPs. This notion of augmented weak sharpness is an extension of the weak sharpness of the solution set of monotone variational inequality, and it overcomes the defect of the solution set not satisfying the weak sharpness in many cases. Under the condition of the solution set being augmented weak sharp, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for finite convergence for feasible solution sequence of VIP. The result is an extension of published results, and the augmented weak sharpness also provides weaker sufficient conditions for the finite convergence of many optimization algorithms.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020035

Authors: Xiaolian Liao Guohua Chen Shangzhao Li

The classification of a block-transitive designs is an important subject on algebraic combinatorics. With the aid of MATLAB software, using the classification theorem of 3-homogeneous permutation groups, we look at the classification problem of block-transitive 7–(v, k, 3) design and prove our main theorem: If the automorphism group of a 7–(v, k, 3) design is block-transitive, then it is neither isomorphic to Affine Type Groups nor Almost Simple Type Groups.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020034

Authors: Cheng-ming Liu Ze-kun Wang Hai-bo Pang Jun-xiao Xue

Image interpolation is a basic operation in image processing. Lots of methods have been proposed, including convolution-based methods, edge modeling methods, point spread function (PSF)-based methods or learning-based methods. Most of them, however, present a high computational complexity and are not suitable for real time applications. However, fast methods are not able to provide artifacts-free images. In this paper we describe a new image interpolation method by using scanning line algorithm which can generate C - 1 curves or surfaces. The C - 1 interpolation can truncate the interpolation curve at big skipping; hence, the image edge can be kept. Numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the novel method.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020033

Authors: A.M.M. Ullah

Dynamical systems play a vital role in studying highly non-linear phenomena. One of the families of the dynamical systems is integer sequences. There is an integer sequence called Q-sequence: Q(n) = Q(n − Q(n − 1)) + Q(n − Q(n − 2)); for n = 3, 4, …; and Q(1) = Q(2) = 1. It exhibits a unique chaotic-order that might help develop approximate models of highly nonlinear phenomena. We explore this possibility and show how to modify a segment of the Q-sequence so that the modified segment becomes an approximate model of surface roughness (a highly non-linear phenomena that results from the material removal processes (e.g., turning, milling, grinding, and so on). The Q-sequence-based models of surface roughness can be used to recreate the surface heights whenever necessary. As such, it is a helpful means for developing simulation systems for virtual manufacturing.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020032

Authors: Taha Öztürk Sadi Bayramov

The concept of soft sets was initiated by Molodtsov. Then, some operations on soft sets were defined by Maji et al. Later on, the concept of soft topological space was introduced. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the pointwise topology of soft topological spaces. Finally, we investigate the properties of soft mapping spaces and the relationships between some soft mapping spaces.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020031

Authors: Touna Yang Nguyen Binh Tran Thang Duong Hoa

In this study, a new smoothing nonlinear penalty function for constrained optimization problems is presented. It is proved that the optimal solution of the smoothed penalty problem is an approximate optimal solution of the original problem. Based on the smoothed penalty function, we develop an algorithm for finding an optimal solution of the optimization problems with inequality constraints. We further discuss the convergence of this algorithm and test this algorithm with three numerical examples. The numerical examples show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective for solving some nonlinear constrained optimization problems.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020030

Authors: Danilo Granda , Wilbert G. Aguilar Diego Arcos-Aviles Danny Sotomayor

The importance of early fault detection in electric motors has attracted the attention of research groups, as the detection of incipient faults can prevent damage spreading and increase the lifetime of the motor. At present, studies have focused their attention on optimization procedures used for fault detection in induction machines to achieve a quick and easy-to-interpret assessment at an industrial level. This paper proposes an alternative approach based on the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) for broken bar diagnosis in squirrel cage induction motors. This work uses the Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) method to acquire the current signal of the induction motor. The novelty of this study lies in broken bar detection in electric machines operating at non-load by analyzing variations in the spectrum of the motor’s current signal. This way, the faults are presented as oscillations in the current signal spectrum. Additionally, a quantification of broken bars for the same type of motors operating at fullload is performed in this study. An experimental validation and the comparison with the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique are provided to validate the proposed technique.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020029

Authors: Chunqing Wu

Firstly, an SEIR mathematical model with standard incidence rate is established to describe the transmission of Hand-Foot-Mouth disease (HFMD). The equilibrium of the nondimensionalized model is calculated and the basic reproduction number of the model is defined. In addition, the local stability of the equilibrium is analyzed via the characteristic roots of the Jacobian matrix at the equilibrium, respectively. Numerical simulations are given to confirm the theoretical results. Secondly, a formula aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number of the transmission of HFMD is deduced. As examples to make use of the formula, the basic reproduction number of the HFMD transmission of Singapore of years 2015 and 2016 is estimated based on the newly infected cases notified by the surveillance organizations, respectively. The formula can realize real time estimation for the basic reproduction number and does not need to estimate the transmission efficiency of HFMD between individuals.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22020028

Authors: Mohammed Al-Kufi Hayder Hashim Ameer Hussein Hind Mohammed

This paper represents a new image encryption algorithm based on modifying generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) by decomposing the plain-image into two segments using GSVD with an exchanged key-image to produce the cipher-image. The exchanged key-image is used as an encrypting and decrypting image. Mathematically, this procedure is represented by transforming the plain-image’s matrix into two different matrices and applying the GSVD with the exchanged key-image’s matrix to obtain the cipher-image’s matrix. The two encoded segments can be kept in several places or assigned to a group of authorized persons. No one can obtain the information of the image easily without the knowledge of the decrypting key. This proposed algorithm is represented as one of the digital image encryption techniques used to enhance the security of images that have been sent between recipients.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010027

Authors: Jun Wang Dagang Sun Shizhong Liu Xin Zhang

Temperature has an influence on damping characteristics of the viscoelastic damping structure. The change of the damping characteristics of the structure under the cycle load is a dynamic and coupled process. The hyperelastic-viscoelastic model was used to describe nonlinear deformation and viscoelasticity simultaneously. The temperature distribution and change of the damping characteristics under the coupled condition was analyzed by finite element method (FEM). The maximum value of the simulation results was in agreement with the one calculated by the formula in the literature. Dynamic stiffness and dissipated energy were obtained based on the hysteresis loop. Dynamic stiffness and dissipated energy gradually decreased with the increase of the temperature.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010026

Authors: Yong Zhang Xu Li Tao Zhang

The development of computational acoustics allows the simulation of sound generation and propagation in a complex environment. In particular, meshfree methods are widely used to solve acoustics problems through arbitrarily distributed field points and approximation smoothness flexibility. As a Lagrangian meshfree method, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method reduces the difficulty in solving problems with deformable boundaries, complex topologies, or multiphase medium. The traditional SPH method has been applied in acoustic simulation. This study presents the corrective smoothed particle method (CSPM), which is a combination of the SPH kernel estimate and Taylor series expansion. The CSPM is introduced as a Lagrangian approach to improve the accuracy when solving acoustic wave equations in the time domain. Moreover, a boundary treatment technique based on the hybrid meshfree and finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is proposed, to represent different acoustic boundaries with particles. To model sound propagation in pipes with different boundaries, soft, rigid, and absorbing boundary conditions are built with this technique. Numerical results show that the CSPM algorithm is consistent and demonstrates convergence with exact solutions. The main computational parameters are discussed, and different boundary conditions are validated as being effective for benchmark problems in computational acoustics.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010025

Authors: Emanuele Dilettoso Santi Rizzo Nunzio Salerno

In multi‐ and many‐objective optimization problems, the optimization target is to obtain a set of non‐dominated solutions close to the Pareto‐optimal front, well‐distributed, maximally extended and fully filled. Comparing solution sets is crucial in evaluating the performance of different optimization algorithms. The use of performance indicators is common in comparing those sets and, subsequently, optimization algorithms. Therefore, an effective performance indicator must encompass these features as a whole and, above all, it must be Pareto dominance compliant. Unfortunately, some of the known indicators often fail to properly reflect the quality of a solution set or cost a lot to compute. This paper demonstrates that the Degree of Approximation (DOA) quality indicator is a weakly Pareto compliant unary indicator that gives a good estimation of the match between the approximated front and the Pareto‐optimal front.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010024

Authors: Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni Kwan Yu

One of the most appealing applications of cold plasmas is medical treatment of the skin. An important concern is the capability to safeguard the non-targeted cells against inactivation temperatures during the plasma treatment. Unfortunately, it is problematic to experimentally determine the highest transient temperatures in these cells during the plasma treatment. In the present work, a complete multiphysics model was built based on finite element analysis using phase field method coupled with heat transfer and fluid dynamics to study the discharge phenomenon of cold plasma with helium carrier gas ejected out of a tube for skin treatment. In such plasmas with carrier gas, the fractions of plasma constituents are small compared to the carrier gas, so thermofluid analysis is needed for the carrier gas as the major contributor to the fluid and heat flow. The phase field method has been used to capture the moving helium gas in air, which has enabled us to compute fluid dynamics parameters for each phase individually. In addition to computational fluid dynamic analyses, we have also considered heat transfer in the fluids and to the skin using the Fourier law of heat conduction, which led to a multiphysics system. In the present paper, various flow velocities and tube-to-target distances (TTDs) have been considered to reveal the dependence of the fluid discharge output parameters on the flow and efficiency of heat transfer to the skin and the surrounding environment. The built model is a useful tool for future development of plasma treatment devices and to safeguard the non-targeted cells against inactivation temperatures.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010023

Authors: Kamonchat Trachoo Wannika Sawangtong Panumart Sawangtong

The Black Scholes model is a well-known and useful mathematical model in ﬁnancial markets. In this paper, the two-dimensional Black Scholes equation with European call option is studied. The explicit solution of this problem is carried out in the form of a Mellin–Ross function by using Laplace transform homotopy perturbation method. The solution example demonstrates that the proposed scheme is effective.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010022

Authors: Jieqing Tan Bo Wang Jun Shi

In order to improve the flexibility of curves, a new five-point binary approximating subdivision scheme with two parameters is presented. The generating polynomial method is used to investigate the uniform convergence and C k -continuity of this scheme. In a special case, the five-point scheme changes into a four-point scheme, which can generate C 3 limit curves. The shape-preserving properties of the four-point scheme are analyzed, and a few examples are given to illustrate the efficiency and the shape-preserving effect of this special case.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010021

Authors: Mahdi Madhi Norizan Mohamed

Grey model GM(1,1) has attained excellent prediction accuracy with restricted data and has been broadly utilized in a range of areas. However, the GM(1,1) forecasting model sometimes yields large forecasting errors which directlyaffect the simulation and prediction precision directly. Therefore, the improvement of the GM(1,1) model is an essential issue, and the current study aims to enhance the prediction precision of the GM(1,1) model. Specifically, in order to improve the prediction precision of GM(1,1) model, it is necessary to consider improving the initial condition in the response function of the model. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to put forward a new method to enhance the performance of the GM(1,1) model by optimizing its initial condition. The minimum sum of squared error was used to optimize the new initial condition of the model. The numerical outcomes show that the improved GM(1,1) model provides considerably better performance than traditional grey model GM(1,1) . The result demonstrates that the improved grey model GM(1,1) achieves the objective of minimizing the forecast errors.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010020

Authors: Li-Tao Zhang Tong-Xiang Gu

In 2013, Bai and Zhang constructed modulus-based synchronous multisplitting methods for linear complementarity problems and analyzed the corresponding convergence. In 2014, Zhang and Li studied the weaker convergence results based on linear complementarity problems. In 2008, Zhang et al. presented global relaxed non-stationary multisplitting multi-parameter method by introducing some parameters. In this paper, we extend Bai and Zhang’s algorithms and analyze global modulus-based synchronous multisplitting multi-parameters TOR (two parameters overrelaxation) methods. Moverover, the convergence of the corresponding algorithm in this paper are given when the system matrix is an H + -matrix.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010018

Authors: Min Hu Xiangyu Bu Xiao Sun Zixi Yu Yaona Zheng

In view of the low accuracy and uncertainty of the traditional rape plant disease recognition relying on a single feature, this paper puts forward a rape plant disease recognition method based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory and multi-feature fusion. Firstly, color matrix and gray-level co-occurrence matrix are extracted as two kinds of features from rape plant images after processing. Then by calculating the Euclidean distance between the test samples and training samples, the basic probability assignment function can be constructed. Finally, the D-S combination rule of evidence is used to achieve fusion, and final recognition results are given by using the variance. This method is used to collect rape plant images for disease recognition, and recognition rate arrives at 97.09%. Compared with other methods, experimental results show that the method is more effective and with lower computational complexity.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010019

Authors: Man Chen Zheng Zhang Cen Cui

Usually, the parameters of a Weibull distribution are estimated by maximum likelihood estimation. To reduce the biases of the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) of two-parameter Weibull distributions, we propose analytic bias-corrected MLEs. Two other common estimators of Weibull distributions, least-squares estimators and percentiles estimators, are also introduced. Based on a comparison of their performances in the simulation study, we strongly recommend the analytic bias-corrected MLEs for the parameters of Weibull distributions, especially when the sample size is small.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010017

Authors: Frédéric Dubas Kamel Boughrara

The most signiﬁcant assumptions in the subdomain technique (i.e., based on the formal resolution of Maxwell’s equations applied in subdomain) is deﬁned by: Theiron parts(i.e.,theteeth and the back-iron are considered to be inﬁnitely permeable, i.e., µiron → +∞, so that the saturation effect is neglected. In this paper, the authors present a new scientiﬁc contribution on improving of this method in two-dimensional (2-D) and in Cartesian coordinates by focusing on the consideration of iron. The subdomains connection is carried out in the two directions (i.e., x-andy-edges). Forexample,the improvement was performed by solving magnetostatic Maxwell’s equations for an air- or iron-cored coil supplied by a direct current. To evaluate the efﬁcacy of the proposed technique, the magnetic ﬂux density distributions have been compared with those obtained by the 2-D ﬁnite-element analysis (FEA). The semi-analytical results are in quite satisfying agreement with those obtained by the 2-D FEA, considering both amplitude and waveform.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010016

Authors: Omid Solaymani Fard Tayebeh Aliabdoli Bidgoli Azim Rivaz

In this paper, we introduce a new metric on the space of fuzzy continuous functions on time scales by using the exponential function, e γ ( t , t 0 ) , where γ &gt; 0 is a constant. Then, we provide some conditions to prove an existence and uniqueness theorem for solutions to nonlinear fuzzy dynamic equations. Furthermore, we present three different examples including a practical example to illustrate the main results.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010015

Authors: Tao Li Liyuan Zhang

This paper considers an M/G/1 retrial G-queue with general retrial times, in which the server is subject to working breakdowns and repairs. If the system is not empty during a normal service period, the arrival of a negative customer can cause the server breakdown, and the failed server still works at a lower service rate rather than stopping the service completely. Applying the embedded Markov chain, we obtain the necessary and sufﬁcient condition for the stability of the system. Using the supplementary variable method, we deal with the generating functions of the number of customers in the orbit. Various system performance measures are also developed. Finally, some numerical examples and a cost optimization analysis are presented.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010014

Authors: Suhaib Masroor Chen Peng Zain Ali

In the presented paper, the leader-following consensus algorithm of a multi-agent system (MAS) is used along with the centralized event-triggering scheme to make the speed of the network-coupled multiple-motors synchronizable. In the proposed method, the updates for the controller are event-driven based on local information. Moreover, the basic consensus protocol is also revised such that the speed information of the motors is used in order to reach identical speed. The main beneﬁt of the planned event-triggered methodology is the energy saving by avoiding the continuous control of the system. As far as stability analysis of the system is concerned, a common Lyapunov function is incorporated to validate stability. The acquired results endorse the success of the proposed methodology.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010013

Authors: Gordon Bechtel

A first principal component combines several indicators so as to maximize their internal consistency for measuring a construct. First principal components are extracted here from Swiss Economic Institute and World Bank datasets containing yearly societal indicators for China. These indicators are input to population-weighted regressions without recourse to survey sampling or probabilistic inference. The results demonstrate Chomskyan globalization and domestic credit as strong exogenous and endogenous predictors of Chinese per capita GDP. These encouraging findings, easily extendable to other nations, are brought by two new societal indexes with assured unidimensionality.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010012

Authors: Jidong Guo Shugang Ma

To improve carbon efficiency for an urban logistics service system composed of a third-party logistics service provider (3PL) and an e-business enterprise, a low-carbon operation game between them was studied. Considering low carbon technology investment cost and sales expansion effect of low carbon level, profit functions for both players were constituted. Based on their different bargaining capabilities, in total, five types of game scenarios were designed. Through analytical solution, Nash Equilibria under different scenarios were obtained. By analyzing these equilibria, four major propositions were given, in which some key variables and the system performance indexes were compared. Results show that the best system yields could only be achieved under the fully cooperative situation. Limited cooperation only for carbon emission reduction does not benefit the system performance improvement. E-business enterprise-leading game’s performance overtook 3PL-leading ones.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010009

Authors: Zhi Liu Chen Li Jieqing Tan Xiaoyan Chen

The features of a class of cubic curves with a shape factor are analyzed by means of the theory of envelope and topological mapping. The effects of the shape factor on the cubic curves are made clear. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the curve to have one or two inflection points, a loop or a cusp, or to be locally or globally convex. Those conditions are completely characterized by the relative position of the edge vectors of the control polygon and the shape factor. The results are summarized in a shape diagram, which is useful when the cubic parametric curves are used for geometric modeling. Furthermore, we discuss the influences of the shape factor on the shape diagram and the ability for adjusting the shape of the curve.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010010

Authors: Rengui Yu Chungang Zhu Xianmin Hou Li Yin

Splines and quasi-interpolation operators are important both in approximation theory and applications. In this paper, we construct a family of quasi-interpolation operators for the bivariate quintic spline spaces S 5 3 ( Δ m n ( 2 ) ) . Moreover, the properties of the proposed quasi-interpolation operators are studied, as well as its applications for solving the two-dimensional Burgers’ equation and image reconstruction. Some numerical examples show that these methods, which are easy to implement, provide accurate results.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010011

Authors: Ziwu Jiang

In this paper, we propose a new multilevel univariate approximation method with high order accuracy using radial basis function interpolation and cubic B-spline quasi-interpolation. The proposed approach includes two schemes, which are based on radial basis function interpolation with less center points, and cubic B-spline quasi-interpolation operator. Error analysis shows that our method produces higher accuracy compared with other approaches. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed scheme is effective.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010008

Authors: Hong-Bo Zhang Qing Lei Bi-Neng Zhong Ji-Xiang Du Duan-Sheng Chen

Searching through information based on a photograph, which may contain graphics and images, has become a popular trend, such as in electronic books, journals, and products. Although many context-based methods have been proposed to retrieve images, most work focuses on selecting appropriate features for different objects. In the present study, we apply sparse representation to simultaneously retrieve image and graphics from a photograph. The sparse vector can be regarded as the similarity between the query photograph and dataset. The image with the largest entry (or several largest entries) can be assigned as the retrieved result. In the sparse representation framework, the common image features are used. Experimental results demonstrate that if the similarity vector in photograph retrieval is sparse, feature extraction is no longer critical. Compared with similar works in photograph retrieval, the proposed method has better retrieval accuracy.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010004

Authors: Weilin Luo Linqiang Lan

To reduce the ship wave-making resistance, the lines of the bulbous bow of a hull are optimized by an automatic optimization platform at the ship design stage. Parametric modeling was applied to the hull by using non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS). The Rankine-source panel method was used to calculate the wave-making resistance. A hybrid optimization strategy was applied to achieve the optimization goal. A Ro-Ro ship was taken as an example to illustrate the optimization method adopted, with the objective to minimize the wave-making resistance. The optimization results show that wave-making resistance obviously reduces and the wave-shape of the near bow becomes gentle after the lines of the bulbous bow of the hull are optimized, which demonstrates the validity of the proposed optimization design strategy.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010007

Authors: Kejun Zhuang

Viruses have important influences on human health: they not only cause some common diseases, but also cause serious illnesses. Moreover, the conventional medicines usually fail to prevent or treat them, and viral infections are hard to treat because viruses live inside the body’s cells. However, some mathematical models can help to understand the viral transmission mechanism and control viral diseases. In this paper, a delayed viral infection model with spatial diffusion and logistic growth is presented. The asymptotic stability of nonnegative uniform steady states is investigated by utilizing the linearized method and constructing the proper Lyapunov functional, respectively. The existence of Hopf bifurcation from the positive equilibrium point is established by analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation and the direction of bifurcation, and the properties of bifurcating periodic solutions are derived by the aid of the normal form theory for partial functional differential equations. Then, the cross-diffusion system is introduced. Furthermore, some numerical simulations are carried, out and discussions are given.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010006

Authors: MCA Editorial Office

The editors of MCA would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...]

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010005

Authors: Xing Yu Hongguo Sun

On the condition that both futures and options exist in the markets for hedging, this paper examines the optimal hedging strategy under price risk and background risk. Compared with the previous research, which has studied options hedging against basis risk and production risk being extended to options and futures hedging against price risk and background risk, we proposed a model and have taken the budget of buying options into consideration. The model is fairly general and some existing models are special cases of it. We firstly derive the necessary and sufficient conditions that guarantee the optimality of an under-hedge, a full-hedge and an over-hedge of futures for the risk-averse utility. Then, sufficient conditions are stipulated under which an over-hedge is optimal. Furthermore, we propose a program minimizing of tail conditional expectation (TCE), which is inherently equivalent to the risk measure of expected shortfall risk (ES) or the conditional VaR (CVaR) under the continuous-time framework. Finally, we find that ES, in our proposed model, is significantly smaller than the one in the model of options hedging only. Therefore, the results emphasize the need for combining futures hedging and options hedging, and it also shows that imposing background risk, whether it be additive or multiplicative, always has a great impact on the hedging efficiency. We also present some sensitivities of the relevant parameters to provide some suggestions for the investors.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010003

Authors: Jiangtao Wang Jingai Zhang

With the quick development of computer and electronic techniques, infrared sensor-based object tracking has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, infrared object tracking is still a challenging task due to low resolution, lack of representing information, and occlusion. In this work, we present an adaptive weighted patch-based infrared object tracking scheme. First, the candidate local region is divided into non-overlapping sub regions, and a set of belief weights is set on these patches. After this, a particle filtering-based infrared object tracking system is realized. In the last, the belief weight of each patch is evaluated based on the linear discriminative analysis (LDA) and particle sampling scheme. Experimental results on challenging infrared sequences show that the proposed algorithm can effectively locate the tracking object.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010002

Authors: Aihua Liang Yu Pang

Increasing energy has become an important issue in high performance clusters. To balance the energy and performance, we proposed a novel, energy-aware duplication-based scheduling (NEADS). An existing energy-aware duplication-based algorithm replicates all qualified predecessor tasks in a bottom-up manner. Some tasks without direct relation may be replicated to the same processor, which cannot reduce the communication energy. Instead, the computation overhead may be increased. In contrast, the proposed algorithm only replicates the directly correlated predecessor tasks in the energy threshold range without lengthening the schedule length. The proposed algorithm is compared with the non-duplication algorithm and existing duplicated-based algorithm. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption in various applications. It has advantages over other algorithms on computation-intensive applications.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca22010001

Authors: Xiaodong Rui Yue Liu Aijun Yang Hongqiang Yang Chengcui Zhang

This paper develops an optimal stopping rule by characterizing the take-profit level. The optimization problem is modeled by geometric Brownian motion with two switchable regimes and solved by stochastic calculation. A closed-form profitability function for the trading strategies is given, and based on which the optimal take-profit level is numerically achievable with small cost of computational complexity.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040050

Authors: Jia Zhao Gang Sun

This paper proposes a reliable network interdiction model with multiple unit costs, which maximizes the minimum arrival cost of the invader to the sink by setting obstacles on some arcs with limited resources in the given network. In other words, given a graph with a source and a sink, several arcs will be selected with limited resources such that each path contains as many weights as possible. This model needs to be transferred into a bilevel program because its constraints can hardly be listed explicitly even for a graph with a moderate size, because the number of paths between any two given points increases exponentially according to the size of the graph. This bilevel model is equivalent to an integer model with a low degree number of constraints by converting the inner programming to a shortest path problem. We first prove that this problem is non-deterministic polynomial-time (NP)-hard. Secondly, we reduce the number of constraints to the first power from the exponential degree by using the dual technique. Lastly, the national railway network is used to show the feasibility of our method.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040048

Authors: Xunxiang Yao Yunfeng Zhang Fangxun Bao Caiming Zhang

Image interpolation is one of key contents in image processing. We present an interpolation algorithm based on a rational function model with constraint parameters. Firstly, based on the construction principle of the rational function, the detection threshold is selected through contour analysis. The smooth and non-smooth areas are interpolated by bicubic interpolation and general rational interpolation, respectively. In order to enhance the contrast in non-smooth areas and preserve the details, the parameter optimization technique is applied to get optimal shape parameters. Experimental results on benchmark test images demonstrate that the proposed method achieves competitive performance with the state-of-the-art interpolation algorithms, especially in image details and texture features.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040049

Authors: Chunxiao Yu Cuihuan Ren Xueting Bai

To solve large scale linear equations involved in the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FM-BEM) efficiently, an iterative method named the generalized minimal residual method (GMRES(m)) algorithm with Variable Restart Parameter (VRP-GMRES(m)) algorithm is proposed. By properly changing a variable restart parameter for the GMRES(m) algorithm, the iteration stagnation problem resulting from improper selection of the parameter is resolved efficiently. Based on the framework of the VRP-GMRES(m) algorithm and the relevant properties of generalized inverse matrix, the projection of the error vector r m + 1 on r m is deduced. The result proves that the proposed algorithm is not only rapidly convergent but also highly accurate. Numerical experiments further show that the new algorithm can significantly improve the computational efficiency and accuracy. Its superiorities will be much more remarkable when it is used to solve larger scale problems. Therefore, it has extensive prospects in the FM-BEM field and other scientific and engineering computing.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040047

Authors: Junchao Zhou Chun Wang Junjun Zhu

The weight coefficients of the diaphragm spring depend on experiences in the traditional optimization. However, this method not only cannot guarantee the optimal solution but it is also not universal. Therefore, a new optimization target function is proposed. The new function takes the minimum of average compress force changing of the spring and the minimum force of the separation as total objectives. Based on the optimization function, the result of the clutch diaphragm spring in a car is analyzed by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and the solution set of Pareto is obtained. The results show that the pressing force of the diaphragm spring is improved by 4.09% by the new algorithm and the steering separation force is improved by 6.55%, which has better stability and steering portability. The problem of the weight coefficient in the traditional empirical design is solved. The pressing force of the optimized diaphragm spring varied slightly during the abrasion range of the friction film, and the manipulation became remarkably light.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040045

Authors: Yuan-Shyi Chiu Gang-Ming Liang Singa Chiu

Operating in unstable and competitive globalized markets, management of today’s transnational enterprises continually searches for different alternatives to maintain product quality, streamline production activities, and reduce overall operating costs, particularly in their internal supply chain system. With the aim of revealing and offering insight information to support managerial decision making, this study explores the optimal replenishment lot-size and shipping frequency problem for an intra-supply chain system with a partial outsourcing policy and random scrap. In this study, the demand of a product is partially outsourced and partially fabricated by the production units, to release the workload of machine and smooth production schedule. During the fabrication process, a portion of random scrap items is produced, and finished products are distributed to sales locations using a multiple-shipment policy. The objective is to simultaneously determine an optimal fabrication lot-size and shipping frequency decisions that minimize the overall expected costs for such an intra-supply chain system. Mathematical modeling and optimization methods are used to solve the problem. Moreover, through the use of a numerical example and sensitivity analyses, various important insights with regard to the joint effects of the partial outsourcing policy and random scrap on the optimal solutions are revealed to support managerial decision making.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040046

Authors: Musa Demba Norazak Senu Fudziah Ismail

A 5(4) pair of embedded explicit trigonometrically-fitted Runge–Kutta–Nyström (EETFRKN) methods especially designed for the numerical integration of second order initial value problems with oscillatory solutions is presented in this paper. Algebraic order analysis and the interval of absolute stability for the new method are also discussed. The new method is capable of integrating the test equation y ″ = − w 2 y . The new method is much more efficient than the other existing Runge–Kutta and Runge–Kutta–Nyström methods.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040044

Authors: Lanlan Yan

This paper aims to simplify the continuity conditions of Bézier curves. For this purpose, a special family of Bézier curves with three parameters, to be called adjustable Bézier curves, is constructed. They have the same structure as the quartic Bézier curves. The newly constructed curves possess some of the basic properties of Bézier curves, such as the convex hull property, symmetry, geometric invariance, etc., and they have shape adjustability. Moreover, under the geometric continuity of order 1 ( G 1 ) conditions of the usual Bézier curves, the adjustable Bézier curves can reach geometric continuity of order k ( G k ); here, k is one of the parameters of the newly constructed curves. The recursive evaluation algorithm of the new curves is provided. We also discuss how to construct the adjustable Bézier curves with a given tangent polygon. Numerical examples illustrate the correctness and validity of the proposed method.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040043

Authors: Jawad Raza Azizah Rohni Zurni Omar

The present study is focused on the presentation of a numerical solution for copper-water nanofluid through a stretching channel with spherical and cylindrical shape nanoparticles. The analysis of nanofluid in a channel with stretching walls under slip effects is made by introducing the conservation equation of nanoparticle volume fraction into Hamilton-Crosser’s nanofluid model. Governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying similarity transformation and then solved with the help of shooting method. The effects of different physical parameters on the rheology of nanofluids’ particles are presented in tabulation and pictorial representation. The study reveals that the thermal boundary layer thickness increases by increasing the solid volume fraction.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040042

Authors: Wenjun Yin Yinwei Yang Zhanyu Wang Jing Xu

Hydraulic buffer systems play a significant role in energy absorption and improving belt arrest reliability in downward belt conveyors. In order give hydraulic buffer systems more preferable buffer properties, a parameters optimization method based on a reference model is proposed. Firstly, the working principle of a hydraulic buffer system for a belt arrestor is provided. Secondly, the mathematical model of the system is built and a reference model of buffer chamber pressure is constructed utilizing a second-order system. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is introduced to optimize the system parameters. Finally, some simulation examples are carried out on the Simulink software. The simulation results show that the pressure peak in buffer process can drop down and that pressure fluctuation in buffer end processes decrease substantially after optimization. The parameters optimization method for hydraulic buffer systems is applicable to different structure parameters of the buffer cylinder.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040041

Authors: Coşkun Deniz

Traditional first order JWKB method ( = : ( J W K B ) 1 ) is a conventional semiclassical approximation method mainly used in quantum mechanical systems for accurate solutions. ( J W K B ) 1 general solution of the Time Independent Schrodinger’s Equation (TISE) involves application of the conventional asymptotic matching rules to give the accurate wavefunction in the Classically Inaccessible Region (CIR) of the related quantum mechanical system. In this work, Bessel Differential Equation of the first order ( = : ( B D E ) 1 ) is chosen as a mathematical model and its ( J W K B ) 1 solution is obtained by first transforming into the normal form via the change of independent variable. The ( J W K B ) 1 general solution for appropriately chosen initial values in both normal and standard form representations is analyzed via the generalized ( J W K B ) 1 asymptotic matching rules regarding the S ˜ i j matrix elements given in the literature. Instead of applying the common ( J W K B ) 1 asymptotic matching rules relying on the physical nature of the quantum mechanical system, i.e., a physically acceptable (normalizable) wavefunction, a pure semiclassical analysis is studied via the ( B D E ) 1 model mathematically. Finally, an application to a specific case of the exponential potential decorated quantum mechanical bound state problem is presented.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040039

Authors: Engin Acar Hakan Aplak

Law enforcement agencies have great importance to provide peace and prosperity for the community. If the quality level of policing services is high, stability within the country will also increase. The law enforcement authorities transfer their policing services to people by means of using tools and equipment. In this study, this subject has been studied in order to improve the service quality of motor vehicles to increase efficiency in the assignments area. For the assignment of the vehicle, four main criteria and fifteen sub-criteria are defined. The criteria’s weights achieving the desired goal are calculated using the Analytic Network Process (ANP). The obtained weights have been subjected to the evaluation of performance in terms of each vehicle and each region where it can be assigned. The decision model with four basic objectives, containing service, cost, time and usage of technical capacity to ensure the use of vehicles at optimum efficiency, is designed. After weighting of the criteria, a mathematical model aiming at maximizing the service and the effectiveness of using the technical capacity of vehicle and minimizing the time and cost has been developed. The results are compared with the current situation. The study has been tested with three different scenarios having different objective priorities.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21040040

Authors: Long Bai Lu-han Ma Xin-sheng Ge

The kinematic sketch of the heading machine’s cutting part is plotted and the kinematic relation is analyzed. The pose-attitude model of the cutting part is derived from the geometry method, and the velocity and acceleration relations are derived by the differential geometry method. According to the recurrence relation among the pose-attitude, the velocities and the accelerations, the numerical solving strategy is designed. The nonlinear part of the kinematics model is solved by the Newton iterative method. The kinematics model is simulated by MATLAB. The trigonometric functions are avoided by using the differential geometry method, and the derivation process and the results are simplified simultaneously. The simulation results give the curves of each kinematic parameter which verifies the validity of the kinematic model.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030038

Authors: Singa Chiu Jyun-Sian Kuo Victoria Chiu Yuan-Shyi Chiu

To gain more competitive advantages and attract more customers from the turbulent business environment, manufacturing firms today must offer a wide variety of products to marketplaces. The existence of component commonality in multi-product fabrication planning enables managers to reevaluate different production design alternatives to lower overall production relevant costs. Motivated by assisting managers of manufacturing firms in gaining competitive advantages, maximizing machine utilization, and reducing overall quality and fabrication-distribution costs, this study explores a multi-product fabrication-distribution problem with component commonality, postponement, and quality assurance. A two-stage single-machine production scheme with the reworking of repairable nonconforming items is proposed. The first stage fabricates common intermediate components for all products, and the second stage produces and distributes end products under a common cycle time policy. Mathematical modeling and optimization techniques are utilized to derive the optimal fabrication-distribution policy that minimizes the expected total system costs of the problem. Finally, we provide a numerical example with sensitivity analyses to not only show practical uses of the obtained results, but also demonstrate that the proposed production scheme is beneficial in terms of cost savings and cycle time reduction as compared to that in a single-stage production scheme. The research results enable manufacturers to gain more competitive advantages in the turbulent global business environment.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030037

Authors: Lian Yang Zhangping Lu

A particle filter is a powerful tool for object tracking based on sequential Monte Carlo methods under a Bayesian estimation framework. A major challenge for a particle filter in object tracking is how to allocate particles to a high-probability density area. A particle filter does not take into account the historical prior information on the generation of the proposal distribution and, thus, it cannot approximate posterior density well. Therefore, a new fuzzy grey prediction-based particle filter (called FuzzyGP-PF) for object tracking is proposed in this paper. First, a new prediction model which was based on fuzzy mathematics theory and grey system theory was established, coined the Fuzzy-Grey-Prediction (FGP) model. Then, the history state sequence is utilized as prior information to predict and sample a part of particles for generating the proposal distribution in the particle filter. Simulations are conducted in the context of two typical maneuvering motion scenarios and the results indicate that the proposed FuzzyGP-PF algorithm can exhibit better overall performance in object tracking.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030036

Authors: Ekrem Savaş

Our goal in this work is to introduce the notion V , λ ( I ) 2 -summability and ideal λ-double statistical convergence of order α with respect to the intuitionistic fuzzy norm μ , v . We also make some observations about these spaces and prove some inclusion relations.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030033

Authors: Juncheng Li Sheng Chen

By extending the definition interval of the standard cubic Catmull-Rom spline basis functions from [0,1] to [0,α], a class of cubic Catmull-Rom spline basis functions with a shape parameter α, named cubic α-Catmull-Rom spline basis functions, is constructed. Then, the corresponding cubic α-Catmull-Rom spline curves are generated based on the introduced basis functions. The cubic α-Catmull-Rom spline curves not only have the same properties as the standard cubic Catmull-Rom spline curves, but also can be adjusted by altering the value of the shape parameter α even if the control points are fixed. Furthermore, the cubic α-Catmull-Rom spline interpolation function is discussed, and a method for determining the optimal interpolation function is presented.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030034

Authors: Serkan Akogul Murat Erisoglu

Clustering analysis based on a mixture of multivariate normal distributions is commonly used in the clustering of multidimensional data sets. Model selection is one of the most important problems in mixture cluster analysis based on the mixture of multivariate normal distributions. Model selection involves the determination of the number of components (clusters) and the selection of an appropriate covariance structure in the mixture cluster analysis. In this study, the efficiency of information criteria that are commonly used in model selection is examined. The effectiveness of information criteria has been determined according to the success in the selection of the number of components and in the selection of an appropriate covariance matrix.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030035

Authors: Yaming Ren Zhongxian Chen

The auxiliary problem principle has been widely applied in power systems to solve the multi-area economic dispatch problem. Although the effectiveness and correctness of the auxiliary problem principle method have been demonstrated in relevant literatures, the aspect connected with accurate estimate of its convergence rate has not yet been established. In this paper, we prove the O ( 1 / n ) convergence rate of the auxiliary problem principle method.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030031

Authors: Elif Cetin

In this paper, with the help of the Hardy and Dedekind sums we will give many properties of the sum B 1 ( h , k ) , which was defined by Cetin et al. Then we will give the connections of this sum with the other well-known finite sums such as the Dedekind sums, the Hardy sums, the Simsek sums Y ( h , k ) and the sum C 1 ( h , k ) . By using the Fibonacci numbers and two-term polynomial relation, we will also give a new property of the sum B 1 ( h , k ) .

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030032

Authors: Utku Erdoğan Kenan Akarbulut Neşet Tan

The purpose of this work is to introduce a new kind of finite difference formulation inspired from Fourier analysis, for reaction-diffusion equations. Compared to classical schemes, the proposed scheme is much more accurate and has interesting stability properties. Convergence properties and stability of the scheme are discussed. Numerical examples are provided to show better performance of the method, compared with other existing methods in the literature.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030030

Authors: Armagan Elibol

Image mosaicing sits at the core of many optical mapping applications with mobile robotic platforms. As these platforms have been evolving rapidly and increasing their capabilities, the amount of data they are able to collect is increasing drastically. For this reason, the necessity for efficient methods to handle and process such big data has been rising from different scientific fields, where the optical data provides valuable information. One of the challenging steps of image mosaicing is finding the best image-to-map (or mosaic) motion (represented as a planar transformation) for each image while considering the constraints imposed by inter-image motions. This problem is referred to as Global Alignment (GA) or Global Registration, which usually requires a non-linear minimization. In this paper, following the aforementioned motivations, we propose a two-step global alignment method to obtain globally coherent mosaics with less computational cost and time. It firstly tries to estimate the scale and rotation parameters and then the translation parameters. Although it requires a non-linear minimization, Jacobians are simple to compute and do not contain the positions of correspondences. This allows for saving computational cost and time. It can be also used as a fast way to obtain an initial estimate for further usage in the Symmetric Transfer Error Minimization (STEMin) approach. We presented experimental and comparative results on different datasets obtained by robotic platforms for mapping purposes.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030029

Authors: Tufan Turaci

The problem of quantifying the vulnerability of graphs has received much attention nowadays, especially in the field of computer or communication networks. In a communication network, the vulnerability measures the resistance of the network to disruption of operation after the failure of certain stations or communication links. If we think of a graph as modeling a network, the average lower 2-domination number of a graph is a measure of the graph vulnerability and it is defined by γ 2 a v ( G ) = 1 | V ( G ) | ∑ v ∈ V ( G ) γ 2 v ( G ) , where the lower 2-domination number, denoted by γ 2 v ( G ) , of the graph G relative to v is the minimum cardinality of 2-domination set in G that contains the vertex v. In this paper, the average lower 2-domination number of wheels and some related networks namely gear graph, friendship graph, helm graph and sun flower graph are calculated. Then, we offer an algorithm for computing the 2-domination number and the average lower 2-domination number of any graph G.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030028

Authors: Aziz Kolkiran Girish Agarwal

The authors would like to remove Girish S. Agarwal from the author list of the paper [1]. Aziz Kolkiran will therefore serve as the single author.[...]

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030026

Authors: Ming Chen Zhong Wan

Evaluation on achievement of scientists plays an important role in efficiently mining information of human resources. A metrics model, which is employed to calculate the number of academic papers, research awards and scientific research projects, often significantly affects the degree of fairness as it is used to compare the achievements of more than one scientist. In particular, it often becomes difficult to quantify the achievement for each scientist if there are a lot of participants in the same research output. In this paper, a new nonlinear metrics model, called a credit function, is established to mine the information of the individual research outputs (IRO). An example is constructed to show that different credit functions may generate distinct ranking for the scientists. By the proposed nonlinear methods in this paper, the inequality relation of contribution in the same IRO can be quantified, and the obtained ranking on the scientists is more acceptable than the existing linear method available in the literature. Finally, the proposed metrics model is applied in solving three practical problems, especially combined with the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS).

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21030027

Authors: Feng Qi Mansour Mahmoud

In the paper, the authors derive an integral representation, present a double inequality, supply an asymptotic formula, find an inequality, and verify complete monotonicity of a function involving the gamma function and originating from geometric probability for pairs of hyperplanes intersecting with a convex body.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21020025

Authors: Taner Büyükköroğlu

If the characteristic polynomial of a discrete-time system has all its roots in the open unit disc of the complex plane, the system is called Schur stable. In this paper, the Schur stabilization problem of closed loop discrete-time system by affine compensator is considered. For this purpose, the distance function between the Schur stability region and the affine controller subset is investigated.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21020024

Authors: Jawad Raza Azizah Rohni Zurni Omar

A study has been carried out to examine the occurrence of multiple solutions for Copper-Water nanofluids flows in a porous channel with slowly expanding and contracting walls. The governing equations are first transformed to similarity equations by using similarity transformation. The resulting equations are then solved numerically by using the shooting method. The effects of wall expansion ratio and solid volume fraction on velocity and temperature profile have been studied. Numerical results are presented graphically for the variations of different physical parameters. The study reveals that triple solutions exist only for the case of suction.

]]>Mathematical and Computational Applications doi: 10.3390/mca21020023

Authors: Jihad Zahir Abderrahim El Qadi

Generating execution plans is a costly operation for the DataBase Management System (DBMS). An interesting alternative to this operation is to reuse the old execution plans, that were already generated by the optimizer for past queries, to execute new queries. In this paper, we present an approach for execution plan recommendation in two phases. We firstly propose a textual representation of our SQL queries and use it to build a Features Extractor module. Then, we present a straightforward solution to identify query similarity.This solution relies only on the comparison of the SQL statements. Next, we show how to build an improved solution enabled by machine learning techniques. The improved version takes into account the features of the queries’ execution plans. By comparing three machine learning algorithms, we find that the improved solution using Classification Based on Associative Rules (CAR) identifies similarity in 91 % of the cases.

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