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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 1st International Electronic Conference on the Hydrological Cycle (ChyCle-2017)"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Raquel Nieto

Environmental Physics Laboratory (EPhysLab), Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34-988-387248
Interests: sources of moisture; Lagrangian models; atmospheric transport; climate diagnosis; sinoptic meteorology; modes of variability
Guest Editor
Prof. Luis Gimeno

Ephyslab. Universidad Vigo. Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense. Ourense. Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34-988-387208
Interests: climate diagnosis; offshore renewable energy; environmental impact
Guest Editor
Prof. Jose A. Marengo

CEMADEN
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +55-11-3186-9236
Interests: climate change; climate variability; disasters risk redcution
Guest Editor
Prof. Diego Miralles

Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +32 9 264 61 35
Interests: dynamics of the global water cycle; impact of climate change on hydrology; use of satellite-based evaporation to identify land–atmospheric feedbacks; characterization of evaporation at the regional scales; hydrological and climatic extremes; impact of hydro-climatic anomalies on vegetation; study of ocean–atmospheric oscillations and their impact on terrestrial hydrology
Guest Editor
Dr. Sergio M. Vicente Serrano

Spanish National Research Council
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34-976-369393
Interests: global change; drought; extreme events; remote sensing; climatology; hydrology
Guest Editor
Prof. Ana María Durán‐Quesada

University of Costa Rica
Website | E-Mail
Phone: (506) 2511 5096
Interests: tropical dynamics; climate variability; numerical modeling; biogeochemical cycling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers from the Proceedings of the 1st International Electronic Conference on the Hydrological Cycle (ChyCle-2017, http://sciforum.net/conference/CHyCle-2017), 12–16 November, 2017, on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly e-conferences and discussion groups.

The main aim of this Special Issue is advance towards a better understanding of the hydrological cycle, including its observed changes and projections under future climate.

The range of topics will mainly cover the following subtopics:

i) Global Distribution of Water Vapor: Evaporation and precipitation, water vapor flux and divergence, long-range transport of water vapor, clouds;

ii) Source–Sink Relationships and Methodologies: Methods used to establish source-receptor relationships, analytical or box models, numerical water vapor tracers, physical water vapor tracers (isotopes);

iii) Global Source and Sink Regions of Moisture and Processes: Identifying large-scale oceanic sources, terrestrial sources, and sinks of moisture, investigating the mechanisms associated with source and sink regions;

iv) Extreme Events: Atmospheric Rivers, floods, evaporation Hot Spots, anomalies of moisture transport linked to Drought Periods;

v) Low-Level Jets, Warm Pools, Monsoons and their role in the transport of moisture;

vi) The identification and characteristics of moisture sources, megadroughts, and megapluvials within the scope of Paleoclimatic Studies;

vii) Implications of Climate Change Impact on Hydrology: changes in water vapor, changes in large-scale circulation related to moisture transport, changes in precipitation, aridity, evapotranpiration, soil moisture, streamflow, cloud distribution, and other usable water sources (snow, lake levels, reservoirs, glaciers, etc.);

viii) Impacts of Climate Change in Soil Hydrological Processes, with special focus on forest hydrology, including experimental plots and catchments;

ix) Eco-hydrological Modelling at different spatial scales;

x) Water Resources Management and Impacts of Climate Change, including adaptation strategies, with special focus in the Mediterranean region.

Prof. Raquel Nieto
Prof. Luis Gimeno
Prof. Jose A. Marengo
Prof. Diego G. Miralles
Dr. Sergio M. Vicente Serrano
Prof. Ana María Durán Quesada
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydrological Cycle
  • Extreme Events
  • Climate Change
  • Water Resources
  • Hydrological Modelling

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Adaptation Strategies of the Hydrosocial Cycles in the Mediterranean Region
Water 2018, 10(6), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060790
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
The Spanish Mediterranean region has been affected by several factors over the years (climatic conditions of aridity, high water demands, rapid and intense urban and population growth, climate change), that have generated a negative water balance whereby water resources are unable to meet
[...] Read more.
The Spanish Mediterranean region has been affected by several factors over the years (climatic conditions of aridity, high water demands, rapid and intense urban and population growth, climate change), that have generated a negative water balance whereby water resources are unable to meet the demand. Diversifying supply sources by resorting to new resources has been a necessity that has stimulated the expansion and integration of non-conventional water sources (desalination and reuse of reclaimed water) and sustainable solutions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adaptation strategies that have been developed in Alicante, Benidorm and Torrevieja in order to adjust their hydrosocial cycles to development and future scenarios. The theoretical analysis developed in this paper is corroborated by the study of the hydrosocial cycle evolution of three cities in the southeast of Spain, and the adaptive measures that the different stakeholders involved in the cycle have developed in each of them. The input and output of the systems are accounted for with information provided by the management companies in each of the phases (urban consumption; treated, reused and desalinated volumes), which highlight how the diversification of resources and the incorporation of non-conventional resources have been essential for adaptation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Atmospheric Branch of the Hydrological Cycle over the Negro and Madeira River Basins in the Amazon Region
Water 2018, 10(6), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060738
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
The Amazon region, in South America, contains the largest rainforest and biodiversity in the world, and plays an important role in the regional and global hydrological cycle. In the present study, we identified the main sources of moisture of two subbasins of the
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The Amazon region, in South America, contains the largest rainforest and biodiversity in the world, and plays an important role in the regional and global hydrological cycle. In the present study, we identified the main sources of moisture of two subbasins of the Amazon River Basin, the Negro and Madeira River Basins respectively. The source-sink relationships of atmospheric moisture are investigated. The analysis is performed for the period from 1980–2016. The results confirm two main oceanic moisture sources for both basins, i.e., oceanic regions in the Tropical North and South Atlantic oceans. On the continents are, the Negro River Basin itself, and nearby regions to the northeast. For the Madeira River Basin, the most important continental sources are itself, and surrounding regions of the South American continent. Forward-trajectory analysis of air masses over the source regions is used to compute the moisture contribution to precipitation over basins. Oceanic (continental) sources play the most important role in the Negro River Basin (Madeira River Basin). The moisture contribution from the Tropical North Atlantic region modulates the onset and demise of the rainy season in the Negro River Basin; while the moisture contribution from the rest of the Amazon River Basin, the Madeira Basin itself, and Tropical South America leads to the onset of the rainy season in the Madeira River Basin. These regions also played the most important role in decreasing the moisture supply during most severe dry episodes in both basins. During ‘’El Niño’’, generally occurs a reduction (increase) of the moisture contribution to the Negro River Basin (Madeira River Basin; mainly from April to August) from almost all the sources, causing a decrease in the precipitation. Generally, the contrary occurs during ‘’La Niña’’. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Mediterranean Moisture Contribution to Climatological and Extreme Monthly Continental Precipitation
Water 2018, 10(4), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040519
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
Moisture transport from its sources to surrounding continents is one of the most relevant topics in hydrology, and its role in extreme events is crucial for understanding several processes such as intense precipitation and flooding. In this study, we considered the Mediterranean Sea
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Moisture transport from its sources to surrounding continents is one of the most relevant topics in hydrology, and its role in extreme events is crucial for understanding several processes such as intense precipitation and flooding. In this study, we considered the Mediterranean Sea as the main water source and estimated its contribution to the monthly climatological and extreme precipitation events over the surrounding continental areas. To assess the effect of the Mediterranean Sea on precipitation, we used the Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) database to characterize precipitation. The Lagrangian dispersion model known as FLEXPART was used to estimate the moisture contribution of this source. This contribution was estimated by tracking particles that leave the Mediterranean basin monthly and then calculating water loss (E − P < 0) over the continental region, which was modelled by FLEXPART. The analysis was conducted using data from 1980 to 2015 with a spatial resolution of 0.25°. The results showed that, in general, the spatial pattern of the Mediterranean source’s contribution to precipitation, unlike climatology, is similar during extreme precipitation years in the regions under study. However, while the Mediterranean Sea is usually not an important source of climatological precipitation for some European regions, it is a significant source during extreme precipitation years. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Anomalies in Moisture Supply during the 2003 Drought Event in Europe: A Lagrangian Analysis
Water 2018, 10(4), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040467
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
In the last few decades, many studies have identified an increasing number of natural hazards associated with extreme precipitation and drought events in Europe. During the 20th century, the climate in Central Europe and the Mediterranean region was characterised by an overall temperature
[...] Read more.
In the last few decades, many studies have identified an increasing number of natural hazards associated with extreme precipitation and drought events in Europe. During the 20th century, the climate in Central Europe and the Mediterranean region was characterised by an overall temperature increase, and the beginning of the 21st century has been marked by severe and prolonged drought events. The aim of this study is to analyse variations in the moisture supply during the 2003 drought episode that affected large portions of Europe. In order to better characterise the evolution of the episodes across the continent, separate analyses were performed for two spatial domains: Central Europe and the Mediterranean region. These regions were defined according to the 5th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report. For both regions, this drought episode was most severe from 1980 to 2015, according to the one-month Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI-1) analysis, which was conducted using monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from the Climate Research Unit. Analyses of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, pressure velocity at 500 hPa, and vertically integrated moisture flux were conducted to characterise the anomalous patterns over the regions during the event. A Lagrangian approach was then applied in order to investigate possible continental-scale changes in the moisture supply over the Central European and Mediterranean regions during 2003. This approach is based on the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model, integrated with data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF): the ECMWF Re-Analysis ERA-Interim. The results indicate that anomalous subsidence, increased evapotranspiration, and reduced precipitation predominated over both regions during the episode. The most intense reduction in the moisture supply over Central Europe was registered for the Mediterranean Sea (MDS) and the Central European region, while for the Mediterranean region, most intense reduction in the moisture supply was observed in the MDS and—in minor-scale—Gibraltar regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Meteorological Driving Mechanisms and Human Impacts of the February 1979 Extreme Hydro-Geomorphological Event in Western Iberia
Water 2018, 10(4), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040454
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
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Abstract
The large number of floods and landslides that occurred on 5–16 February 1979 in Portugal was a major hydro-geomorphologic extreme event according to the DISASTER database in terms of number of displaced people. The February 1979 event is the top ranked episode in
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The large number of floods and landslides that occurred on 5–16 February 1979 in Portugal was a major hydro-geomorphologic extreme event according to the DISASTER database in terms of number of displaced people. The February 1979 event is the top ranked episode in terms of the total number of evacuated people (4244), displaced people (14,322) and also on the number of days of event duration (12 days) for the period 1865–2015. In this event, 62 damaging floods and five damaging landslides causing eight fatalities were recorded in Portugal. This event was driven by an unusually intense atmospheric forcing mechanism acting at different time scales. Despite the intense magnitude and the widespread impact on the population, this event has not been studied in detail. In this study, we show that the precipitation period of February 1979 had produced several multi-day accumulated precipitation events over the Portuguese continental territory, ranking among the top 10 events observed between 1950–2008. Additionally, most of the precipitation from this event occured in days in which atmospheric circulation was dominated by “wet” circulation weather types (CWTs), namely, cyclonic (C), west (W) or southwest (SW) types. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Return Level Estimation of Extreme Rainfall over the Iberian Peninsula: Comparison of Methods
Water 2018, 10(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020179
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Different ways to estimate future return levels (RLs) for extreme rainfall, based on extreme value theory (EVT), are described and applied to the Iberian Peninsula (IP). The study was done for an ensemble of high quality rainfall time series observed in the IP
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Different ways to estimate future return levels (RLs) for extreme rainfall, based on extreme value theory (EVT), are described and applied to the Iberian Peninsula (IP). The study was done for an ensemble of high quality rainfall time series observed in the IP during the period 1961–2010. Two approaches, peaks-over-threshold (POT) and block maxima (BM) with the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution, were compared in order to identify which is the more appropriate for the estimation of RLs. For the first approach, which identifies trends in the parameters of the asymptotic distributions of extremes, both all-days and rainy-days-only datasets were considered because a major fraction of values of daily rainfall over the IP is zero. For the second approach, rainy-days-only data were considered showing how the mean, variance and number of rainy days evolve. The 20-year RLs expected for 2020 were estimated using these methods for three seasons: autumn, spring and winter. The GEV is less reliable than the POT because fixed blocks lead to the selection of non-extreme values. Future RLs obtained with the POT are greater than those estimated with the GEV, mainly because some gauges show significant positive trends for the number of rainy days. Autumn, rather than winter, is currently the season with the heaviest rainfall for some regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Land Use Change over the Amazon Forest and Its Impact on the Local Climate
Water 2018, 10(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020149
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
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Abstract
One of the most important anthropogenic influences on climate is land use change (LUC). In particular, the Amazon (AMZ) basin is a highly vulnerable area to climate change due to substantial modifications of the hydroclimatology of the region expected as a result of
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One of the most important anthropogenic influences on climate is land use change (LUC). In particular, the Amazon (AMZ) basin is a highly vulnerable area to climate change due to substantial modifications of the hydroclimatology of the region expected as a result of LUC. However, both the magnitude of these changes and the physical process underlying this scenario are still uncertain. This work aims to analyze the simulated Amazon deforestation and its impacts on local mean climate. We used the Common Land Model (CLM) version 4.5 coupled with the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) South America domain. We performed one simulation with the RegCM4 default land cover map (CTRL) and one simulation under a scenario of deforestation (LUC), i.e., replacing broadleaf evergreen trees with C3 grass over the Amazon basin. Both simulations were driven by ERA Interim reanalysis from 1979 to 2009. The climate change signal due to AMZ deforestation was evaluated by comparing the climatology of CTRL with LUC. Concerning the temperature, the deforested areas are about 2 °C warmer compared to the CTRL experiment, which contributes to decrease the surface pressure. Higher air temperature is associated with a decrease of the latent heat flux and an increase of the sensible heat flux over the deforested areas. AMZ deforestation induces a dipole pattern response in the precipitation over the region: a reduction over the west (about 7.9%) and an increase over the east (about 8.3%). Analyzing the water balance in the atmospheric column over the AMZ basin, the results show that under the deforestation scenario the land surface processes play an important role and drive the precipitation in the western AMZ; on the other hand, on the east side, the large scale circulation drives the precipitation change signal. Dipole patterns over scenarios of deforestation in the Amazon was also found by other authors, but the precipitation decrease on the west side was never fully explained. Using budget equations, this work highlights the physical processes that control the climate in the Amazon basin under a deforestation scenario. Full article
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