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Topical Collection "Marine and Freshwater Toxins"

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A topical collection in Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This collection belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Luis M. Botana

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago of Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
E-Mail
Phone: 34982822233

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The chemical diversity of marine and freshwater toxins grows at a high rate every year. This is important for the several implications derived: potential food safety warnings, analytical challenges and increased chemical richness for the scientific knowledge. Many of these compounds are potent drugs with therapeutic use as lead compounds, although in many cases their mechanism of action, hence their toxicology, is not understood. From an ecological point of view, cyanobacteria are present in freashwater and marine waters, and both marine toxins and freshwater toxins are showing a quick change in their geographical profiles due to climate change. These are many challenges for scientists which this issue will try to cover.

Prof. Dr. Luis M. Botana
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • marine toxin
  • freshwater toxin
  • climate change
  • food safety
  • toxicology

Published Papers (56 papers)

2016

Jump to: 2015, 2014, 2013

Open AccessArticle Integrating scFv into xMAP Assays for the Detection of Marine Toxins
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 346; doi:10.3390/toxins8110346
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
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Abstract
Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive
[...] Read more.
Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive care in case of intoxication; environmental monitoring to detect the presence of toxin is also important for prevention of intoxication. Immunoassays are one tool that has successfully been applied to the detection of marine toxins. Herein, we had the variable regions of two saxitoxin binding monoclonal antibodies sequenced and used the information to produce recombinant constructs that consist of linked heavy and light variable domains that make up the binding domains of the antibodies (scFv). Recombinantly produced binding elements such as scFv provide an alternative to traditional antibodies and serve to “preserve” monoclonal antibodies as they can be easily recreated from their sequence data. In this paper, we combined the anti-saxitoxin scFv developed here with a previously developed anti-domoic acid scFv and demonstrated their utility in a microsphere-based competitive immunoassay format. In addition to detection in buffer, we demonstrated equivalent sensitivity in oyster and scallop matrices. The potential for multiplexed detection using scFvs in this immunoassay format is demonstrated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Presence or Absence of mlr Genes and Nutrient Concentrations Co-Determine the Microcystin Biodegradation Efficiency of a Natural Bacterial Community
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 318; doi:10.3390/toxins8110318
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
The microcystin biodegradation potential of a natural bacterial community coexisting with a toxic cyanobacterial bloom was investigated in a water reservoir from central Spain. The biodegradation capacity was confirmed in all samples during the bloom and an increase of mlrA gene copies
[...] Read more.
The microcystin biodegradation potential of a natural bacterial community coexisting with a toxic cyanobacterial bloom was investigated in a water reservoir from central Spain. The biodegradation capacity was confirmed in all samples during the bloom and an increase of mlrA gene copies was found with increasing microcystin concentrations. Among the 24 microcystin degrading strains isolated from the bacterial community, only 28% showed presence of mlrA gene, strongly supporting the existence and abundance of alternative microcystin degradation pathways in nature. In vitro degradation assays with both mlr+ and mlr bacterial genotypes (with presence and absence of the complete mlr gene cluster, respectively) were performed with four isolated strains (Sphingopyxis sp. IM-1, IM-2 and IM-3; Paucibacter toxinivorans IM-4) and two bacterial degraders from the culture collection (Sphingosinicella microcystinivorans Y2; Paucibacter toxinivorans 2C20). Differences in microcystin degradation efficiencies between genotypes were found under different total organic carbon and total nitrogen concentrations. While mlr+ strains significantly improved microcystin degradation rates when exposed to other carbon and nitrogen sources, mlr strains showed lower degradation efficiencies. This suggests that the presence of alternative carbon and nitrogen sources possibly competes with microcystins and impairs putative non-mlr microcystin degradation pathways. Considering the abundance of the mlr bacterial population and the increasing frequency of eutrophic conditions in aquatic systems, further research on the diversity of this population and the characterization and conditions affecting non-mlr degradation pathways deserves special attention. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Based on PULCON Methodology: Application to Quantification of Invaluable Marine Toxin, Okadaic Acid
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 294; doi:10.3390/toxins8100294
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
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Abstract
ERETIC2 (Electronic Reference To access In vivo Concentrations 2) based on PULCON (Pulse Length–based Concentration determination) methodology is a quantitative NMR (qNMR) using an external standard. The performance of the PULCON method was assessed using maleic acid (MA). Quantification of the diarrhetic shellfish
[...] Read more.
ERETIC2 (Electronic Reference To access In vivo Concentrations 2) based on PULCON (Pulse Length–based Concentration determination) methodology is a quantitative NMR (qNMR) using an external standard. The performance of the PULCON method was assessed using maleic acid (MA). Quantification of the diarrhetic shellfish toxin and okadaic acid by PULCON was successfully consistent with that obtained by a conventional internal standard method, demonstrating that the PULCON method is useful for the quantification of invaluable marine toxins without any contaminations by an internal standard. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microcystin-Bound Protein Patterns in Different Cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Field Samples
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 293; doi:10.3390/toxins8100293
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract
Micocystin (MC) exists in Microcystis cells in two different forms, free and protein-bound. We examined the dynamic change in extracellular free MCs, intracellular free MCs and protein-bound MCs in both batch cultures and semi-continuous cultures, using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blot.
[...] Read more.
Micocystin (MC) exists in Microcystis cells in two different forms, free and protein-bound. We examined the dynamic change in extracellular free MCs, intracellular free MCs and protein-bound MCs in both batch cultures and semi-continuous cultures, using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blot. The results showed that the free MC per cell remained constant, while the quantity of protein-bound MCs increased with the growth of Microcystis cells in both kinds of culture. Significant changes in the dominant MC-bound proteins occurred in the late exponential growth phase of batch cultures, while the dominant MC-bound proteins in semi-continuous cultures remained the same. In field samples collected at different months in Lake Taihu, the dominant MC-bound proteins were shown to be similar, but the amount of protein-bound MC varied and correlated with the intracellular MC content. We identified MC-bound proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblots and mass spectrometry. The 60 kDa chaperonin GroEL was a prominent MC-bound protein. Three essential glycolytic enzymes and ATP synthase alpha subunit were also major targets of MC-binding, which might contribute to sustained growth in semi-continuous culture. Our results indicate that protein-bound MC may be important for sustaining growth and adaptation of Microcystis sp. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Mechanism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Production in Prorocentrum spp.: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 272; doi:10.3390/toxins8100272
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
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Abstract
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive
[...] Read more.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature. However, the presence of leucine or glycerophosphate enhances both growth and cellular toxin level. Moreover, the presence of ammonia and incubation in continuous darkness do not favor the toxin production. Currently, studies on the mechanism of this biotoxin production are scant. Full genome sequencing of dinoflagellates is challenging because of the massive genomic size; however, current advanced molecular and omics technologies may provide valuable insight into the biotoxin production mechanism and novel research perspectives on microalgae. This review presents a comprehensive analysis on the effects of various nutritional and physical factors on the OA and DTX production in the DSP toxin-producing Prorocentrum spp. Moreover, the applications of the current molecular technologies in the study on the mechanism of DSP toxin production are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Presence of the Cyanotoxin Microcystin in Arctic Lakes of Southwestern Greenland
Toxins 2016, 8(9), 256; doi:10.3390/toxins8090256
Received: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 31 August 2016
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Abstract
Cyanobacteria and their toxins have received significant attention in eutrophic temperate and tropical systems where conspicuous blooms of certain planktonic taxa release toxins into fresh water, threatening its potability and safe use for recreation. Although toxigenic cyanobacteria are not confined to high nutrient
[...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria and their toxins have received significant attention in eutrophic temperate and tropical systems where conspicuous blooms of certain planktonic taxa release toxins into fresh water, threatening its potability and safe use for recreation. Although toxigenic cyanobacteria are not confined to high nutrient environments, bloom-forming species, or planktonic taxa, these other situations are studied les often studied. For example, toxin production in picoplankton and benthic cyanobacteria—the predominant photoautotrophs found in polar lakes—is poorly understood. We quantified the occurrence of microcystin (MC, a hepatotoxic cyanotoxin) across 18 Arctic lakes in southwestern Greenland. All of the focal lakes contained detectable levels of MC, with concentrations ranging from 5 ng·L−1 to >400 ng·L−1 during summer, 2013–2015. These concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than many eutrophic systems, yet the median lake MC concentration in Greenland (57 ng·L−1) was still 6.5 times higher than the median summer MC toxicity observed across 50 New Hampshire lakes between 1998 and 2008 (8.7 ng·L−1). The presence of cyanotoxins in these Greenlandic lakes demonstrates that high latitude lakes can support toxigenic cyanobacteria, and suggests that we may be underestimating the potential for these systems to develop high levels of cyanotoxins in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Dinoflagellate Toxin 20-Methyl Spirolide-G Potently Blocks Skeletal Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
Toxins 2016, 8(9), 249; doi:10.3390/toxins8090249
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 6 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
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Abstract
The cyclic imine toxin 20-methyl spirolide G (20-meSPX-G), produced by the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii/Alexandrium peruvianum, has been previously reported to contaminate shellfish in various European coastal locations, as revealed by mouse toxicity bioassay. The aim of the present study
[...] Read more.
The cyclic imine toxin 20-methyl spirolide G (20-meSPX-G), produced by the toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii/Alexandrium peruvianum, has been previously reported to contaminate shellfish in various European coastal locations, as revealed by mouse toxicity bioassay. The aim of the present study was to determine its toxicological profile and its molecular target selectivity. 20-meSPX-G blocked nerve-evoked isometric contractions in isolated mouse neuromuscular preparations, while it had no action on contractions elicited by direct electrical stimulation, and reduced reversibly nerve-evoked compound muscle action potential amplitudes in anesthetized mice. Voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus oocytes revealed that 20-meSPX-G potently inhibited currents evoked by ACh on Torpedo muscle-type and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), whereas lower potency was observed in human α4β2 nAChR. Competition-binding assays showed that 20-meSPX-G fully displaced [3H]epibatidine binding to HEK-293 cells expressing the human α3β2 (Ki = 0.040 nM), whereas a 90-fold lower affinity was detected in human α4β2 nAChR. The spirolide displaced [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes (Ki = 0.028 nM) and in HEK-293 cells expressing chick chimeric α7-5HT3 nAChR (Ki = 0.11 nM). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that 20-meSPX-G is a potent antagonist of nAChRs, and its subtype selectivity is discussed on the basis of molecular docking models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks
Toxins 2016, 8(8), 238; doi:10.3390/toxins8080238
Received: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
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Abstract
Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark
[...] Read more.
Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cyanobacterial Serine Protease Inhibitors Aeruginosin 828A and Cyanopeptolin 1020 in Human Hepatoma Cell Line Huh7 and Effects in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Toxins 2016, 8(7), 219; doi:10.3390/toxins8070219
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
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Abstract
Intensive growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater promoted by eutrophication can lead to release of toxic secondary metabolites that may harm aquatic organisms and humans. The serine protease inhibitor aeruginosin 828A was isolated from a microcystin-deficient Planktothrix strain. We assessed potential molecular effects of
[...] Read more.
Intensive growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater promoted by eutrophication can lead to release of toxic secondary metabolites that may harm aquatic organisms and humans. The serine protease inhibitor aeruginosin 828A was isolated from a microcystin-deficient Planktothrix strain. We assessed potential molecular effects of aeruginosin 828A in comparison to another cyanobacterial serine protease inhibitor, cyanopeptolin 1020, in human hepatoma cell line Huh7, in zebrafish embryos and liver organ cultures. Aeruginosin 828A and cyanopeptolin 1020 promoted anti-inflammatory activity, as indicated by transcriptional down-regulation of interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor α in stimulated cells at concentrations of 50 and 100 µmol·L−1 aeruginosin 828A, and 100 µmol·L−1 cyanopeptolin 1020. Aeruginosin 828A induced the expression of CYP1A in Huh7 cells but did not affect enzyme activity. Furthermore, hatched zebrafish embryos and zebrafish liver organ cultures were exposed to aeruginosin 828A. The transcriptional responses were compared to those of cyanopeptolin 1020 and microcystin-LR. Aeruginosin 828A had only minimal effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress. In comparison to cyanopeptolin 1020 our data indicate that transcriptional effects of aeruginosin 828A in zebrafish are very minor. The data further demonstrate that pathways that are influenced by microcystin-LR are not affected by aeruginosin 828A. Full article
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Open AccessOpinion How Safe Is Safe for Marine Toxins Monitoring?
Toxins 2016, 8(7), 208; doi:10.3390/toxins8070208
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 6 July 2016
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Abstract
Current regulation for marine toxins requires a monitoring method based on mass spectrometric analysis. This method is pre-targeted, hence after searching for pre-assigned masses, it identifies those compounds that were pre-defined with available calibrants. Therefore, the scope for detecting novel toxins which are
[...] Read more.
Current regulation for marine toxins requires a monitoring method based on mass spectrometric analysis. This method is pre-targeted, hence after searching for pre-assigned masses, it identifies those compounds that were pre-defined with available calibrants. Therefore, the scope for detecting novel toxins which are not included in the monitoring protocol are very limited. In addition to this, there is a poor comprehension of the toxicity of some marine toxin groups. Also, the validity of the current approach is questioned by the lack of sufficient calibrants, and by the insufficient coverage by current legislation of the toxins reported to be present in shellfish. As an example, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin analogs, or cyclic imines are mentioned as indicators of gaps in the system that require a solid comprehension to assure consumers are protected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorimetric Detection Method for Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Tetrodotoxin Based on a Porous Graphitic Carbon Column
Toxins 2016, 8(7), 196; doi:10.3390/toxins8070196
Received: 16 May 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 23 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
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Abstract
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX)
[...] Read more.
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently found in bivalves of northward locations in Europe due to climate change, so it is important to analyze it along with PST because their signs of toxicity are similar in the bioassay. The methods described here detail a new approach to eliminate different runs, by using a new porous graphitic carbon stationary phase. Firstly we describe the separation of 13 PST that belong to different groups, taking into account the side-chains of substituents, in one single run of less than 30 min with good reproducibility. The method was assayed in four shellfish matrices: mussel (Mytillus galloprovincialis), clam (Pecten maximus), scallop (Ruditapes decussatus) and oyster (Ostrea edulis). The results for all of the parameters studied are provided, and the detection limits for the majority of toxins were improved with regard to previous liquid chromatography methods: the lowest values were those for decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin 2 (dcGTX2) and gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) in mussel (0.0001 mg saxitoxin (STX)·diHCl kg−1 for each toxin), decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dcSTX) in clam (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg−1), N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxins 2 and 3 (C1 and C2) in scallop (0.0001 mg STX·diHCl kg−1 for each toxin) and dcSTX (0.0003 mg STX·diHCl kg−1 ) in oyster; gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) showed the highest limit of detection in oyster (0.0366 mg STX·diHCl kg−1). Secondly, we propose a modification of the method for the simultaneous analysis of PST and TTX, with some minor changes in the solvent gradient, although the detection limit for TTX does not allow its use nowadays for regulatory purposes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Is qPCR a Reliable Indicator of Cyanotoxin Risk in Freshwater?
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 172; doi:10.3390/toxins8060172
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The wide distribution of cyanobacteria in aquatic environments leads to the risk of water contamination by cyanotoxins, which generate environmental and public health issues. Measurements of cell densities or pigment contents allow both the early detection of cellular growth and bloom monitoring, but
[...] Read more.
The wide distribution of cyanobacteria in aquatic environments leads to the risk of water contamination by cyanotoxins, which generate environmental and public health issues. Measurements of cell densities or pigment contents allow both the early detection of cellular growth and bloom monitoring, but these methods are not sufficiently accurate to predict actual cyanobacterial risk. To quantify cyanotoxins, analytical methods are considered the gold standards, but they are laborious, expensive, time-consuming and available in a limited number of laboratories. In cyanobacterial species with toxic potential, cyanotoxin production is restricted to some strains, and blooms can contain varying proportions of both toxic and non-toxic cells, which are morphologically indistinguishable. The sequencing of cyanobacterial genomes led to the description of gene clusters responsible for cyanotoxin production, which paved the way for the use of these genes as targets for PCR and then quantitative PCR (qPCR). Thus, the quantification of cyanotoxin genes appeared as a new method for estimating the potential toxicity of blooms. This raises a question concerning whether qPCR-based methods would be a reliable indicator of toxin concentration in the environment. Here, we review studies that report the parallel detection of microcystin genes and microcystin concentrations in natural populations and also a smaller number of studies dedicated to cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin. We discuss the possible issues associated with the contradictory findings reported to date, present methodological limitations and consider the use of qPCR as an indicator of cyanotoxin risk. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Impact of Mild Steaming and Heat Treatment on the Concentration of Okadaic Acid, Dinophysistoxin-2 and Dinophysistoxin-3 in Mussels
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 175; doi:10.3390/toxins8060175
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study explores the effect of laboratory and industrial steaming on mussels with toxin concentrations above and below the legal limit. We used mild conditions for steaming, 100 °C for 5 min in industrial processing, and up to 20 min in small-scale laboratory
[...] Read more.
This study explores the effect of laboratory and industrial steaming on mussels with toxin concentrations above and below the legal limit. We used mild conditions for steaming, 100 °C for 5 min in industrial processing, and up to 20 min in small-scale laboratory steaming. Also, we studied the effect of heat on the toxin concentration of mussels obtained from two different locations and the effect of heat on the levels of dinophysistoxins 3 (DTX3) in both the mussel matrix and in pure form (7-O-palmitoyl okadaic ester and 7-O-palmytoleyl okadaic ester). The results show that the loss of water due to steaming was very small with a maximum of 9.5%, that the toxin content remained unchanged with no concentration effect or increase in toxicity, and that dinophysistoxins 3 was hydrolyzed or degraded to a certain extent under heat treatment. The use of liquid-certified matrix showed a 55% decrease of dinophysistoxins 3 after 10 min steaming, and a 50% reduction in total toxicity after treatment with an autoclave (121 °C for 20 min). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Docking Simulation of the Binding Interactions of Saxitoxin Analogs Produced by the Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum to the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Nav1.4
Toxins 2016, 8(5), 129; doi:10.3390/toxins8050129
Received: 12 March 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
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Abstract
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs are paralytic alkaloid neurotoxins that block the voltage-gated sodium channel pore (Nav), impeding passage of Na+ ions into the intracellular space, and thereby preventing the action potential in the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle.
[...] Read more.
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs are paralytic alkaloid neurotoxins that block the voltage-gated sodium channel pore (Nav), impeding passage of Na+ ions into the intracellular space, and thereby preventing the action potential in the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle. The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces an array of such toxins, including the recently discovered benzoyl analogs, for which the mammalian toxicities are essentially unknown. We subjected STX and its analogs to a theoretical docking simulation based upon two alternative tri-dimensional models of the Nav1.4 to find a relationship between the binding properties and the known mammalian toxicity of selected STX analogs. We inferred hypothetical toxicities for the benzoyl analogs from the modeled values. We demonstrate that these toxins exhibit different binding modes with similar free binding energies and that these alternative binding modes are equally probable. We propose that the principal binding that governs ligand recognition is mediated by electrostatic interactions. Our simulation constitutes the first in silico modeling study on benzoyl-type paralytic toxins and provides an approach towards a better understanding of the mode of action of STX and its analogs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Toxin and Growth Responses of the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum to Varying Temperature and Salinity
Toxins 2016, 8(5), 136; doi:10.3390/toxins8050136
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
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Abstract
Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater
[...] Read more.
Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater medium. We tested the effect of temperature and salinity on growth, pinnatoxin-G production and chlorophyll a levels of this dinoflagellate. These factors were tested in combinations of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and five salinities (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) at an irradiance of 100 µmol photon m−2 s−1. V. rugosum can grow at temperatures and salinities ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C and 20 to 40, respectively. The optimal combination for growth (0.39 ± 0.11 d−1) was a temperature of 25 °C and a salinity of 40. Results suggest that V. rugosum is euryhaline and thermophile which could explain why this dinoflagellate develops in situ only from June to September. V. rugosum growth rate and pinnatoxin-G production were highest at temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 °C. This suggests that the dinoflagellate may give rise to extensive blooms in the coming decades caused by the climate change-related increases in temperature expected in the Mediterranean coasts. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pathway for Biodegrading Nodularin (NOD) by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05
Toxins 2016, 8(5), 116; doi:10.3390/toxins8050116
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 4 May 2016
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Abstract
Nodularin (NOD) is greatly produced by Nodularia spumigena and released into the environment when toxic cyanobacterial blooms happened in natural water body, which is seriously harmful to human and animals. The promising bacterial strain of Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05 was found to have an
[...] Read more.
Nodularin (NOD) is greatly produced by Nodularia spumigena and released into the environment when toxic cyanobacterial blooms happened in natural water body, which is seriously harmful to human and animals. The promising bacterial strain of Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05 was found to have an ability in biodegrading NOD. Initially, 11.6 mg/L of NOD could be completely eliminated within 72 h by whole cells of USTB-05, and within 36 h by its crude enzymes (CEs) of 570 mg/L, respectively. During the enzymatic biodegradation process of NOD, two products were observed on the profiles of HPLC. Based on the analysis of m/z ratios of NOD and its two products on a rapid-resolution liquid chromatogram-mass spectrum (RRLC-MS), we suggested that at least two enzymes of USTB-05 participated in biodegrading NOD. The first enzyme hydrolyzed Arg-Adda peptide bond of cyclic NOD and converted it to linear NOD as the first product. The second enzyme was found to cut off the target peptide bond between Adda and Glu of linearized NOD, and Adda was produced as a second and dead-end product. This finding is very important in both basic research and the application of USTB-05 on the removal of NOD from a water environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Enzymatic Activity of MlrB and MlrC Proteins Involved in Bacterial Degradation of Cyanotoxins Microcystins
Toxins 2016, 8(3), 76; doi:10.3390/toxins8030076
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bacterial degradation of toxic microcystins produced by cyanobacteria is a common phenomenon. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is rudimentary. In this paper several novel discoveries regarding the action of the enzymes of the mlr cluster responsible for microcystin biodegradation
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Bacterial degradation of toxic microcystins produced by cyanobacteria is a common phenomenon. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is rudimentary. In this paper several novel discoveries regarding the action of the enzymes of the mlr cluster responsible for microcystin biodegradation are presented using recombinant proteins. In particular, the predicted active sites of the recombinant MlrB and MlrC were analyzed using functional enzymes and their inactive muteins. A new degradation intermediate, a hexapeptide derived from linearized microcystins by MlrC, was discovered. Furthermore, the involvement of MlrA and MlrB in further degradation of the hexapeptides was confirmed and a corrected biochemical pathway of microcystin biodegradation has been proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Heart Alterations after Domoic Acid Administration in Rats
Toxins 2016, 8(3), 68; doi:10.3390/toxins8030068
Received: 13 January 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
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Abstract
Domoic acid (DA) is one of the best known marine toxins, causative of important neurotoxic alterations. DA effects are documented both in wildlife and experimental assays, showing that this toxin causes severe injuries principally in the hippocampal area. In the present study we
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Domoic acid (DA) is one of the best known marine toxins, causative of important neurotoxic alterations. DA effects are documented both in wildlife and experimental assays, showing that this toxin causes severe injuries principally in the hippocampal area. In the present study we have addressed the long-term toxicological effects (30 days) of DA intraperitoneal administration in rats. Different histological techniques were employed in order to study DA toxicity in heart, an organ which has not been thoroughly studied after DA intoxication to date. The presence of DA was detected by immunohistochemical assays, and cellular alterations were observed both by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Although histological staining methods did not provide any observable tissue damage, transmission electron microscopy showed several injuries: a moderate lysis of myofibrils and loss of mitochondrial conformation. This is the first time the association between heart damage and the presence of the toxin has been observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combined Effects of Lipophilic Phycotoxins (Okadaic Acid, Azapsiracid-1 and Yessotoxin) on Human Intestinal Cells Models
Toxins 2016, 8(2), 50; doi:10.3390/toxins8020050
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
Phycotoxins are monitored in seafood because they can cause food poisonings in humans. Phycotoxins do not only occur singly but also as mixtures in shellfish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro toxic interactions of binary combinations of three
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Phycotoxins are monitored in seafood because they can cause food poisonings in humans. Phycotoxins do not only occur singly but also as mixtures in shellfish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro toxic interactions of binary combinations of three lipophilic phycotoxins commonly found in Europe (okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxin (YTX) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1)) using the neutral red uptake assay on two human intestinal cell models, Caco-2 and the human intestinal epithelial crypt-like cells (HIEC). Based on the cytotoxicity of individual toxins, we studied the interactions between toxins in binary mixtures using the combination index-isobologram equation, a method widely used in pharmacology to study drug interactions. This method quantitatively classifies interactions between toxins in mixtures as synergistic, additive or antagonistic. AZA-1/OA, and YTX/OA mixtures showed increasing antagonism with increasing toxin concentrations. In contrast, the AZA-1/YTX mixture showed increasing synergism with increasing concentrations, especially for mixtures with high YTX concentrations. These results highlight the hazard potency of AZA-1/YTX mixtures with regard to seafood intoxication. Full article
Open AccessArticle A New Member of Gamma-Conotoxin Family Isolated from Conus princeps Displays a Novel Molecular Target
Toxins 2016, 8(2), 39; doi:10.3390/toxins8020039
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
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Abstract
A novel conotoxin, named as PiVIIA, was isolated from the venom of Conus princeps, a marine predatory cone snail collected in the Pacific Southern Coast of Mexico. Chymotryptic digest of the S-alkylated peptide in combination with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass
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A novel conotoxin, named as PiVIIA, was isolated from the venom of Conus princeps, a marine predatory cone snail collected in the Pacific Southern Coast of Mexico. Chymotryptic digest of the S-alkylated peptide in combination with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, were used to define the sequencing of this peptide. Eleven N-terminal amino acids were verified by automated Edman degradation. PiVIIA is a 25-mer peptide (CDAOTHYCTNYWγCCSGYCγHSHCW) with six cysteine residues forming three disulphide bonds, a hydroxyproline (O) and two gamma carboxyglutamic acid (γ) residues. Based on the arrangement of six Cys residues (C-C-CC-C-C), this conotoxin might belong to the O2-superfamily. Moreover, PiVIIA has a conserved motif (-γCCS-) that characterizes γ-conotoxins from molluscivorous Conus. Peptide PiVIIA has 45% sequence identity with γ-PnVIIA—the prototype of this family. Biological activity of PiVIIA was assessed by voltage-clamp recording in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Perfusion of PiVIIA in the µM range produces a significant increase in the Ca2+ currents, without significantly modifying the Na+, K+ or proton-gated acid sensing ionic currents. These results indicate that PiVIIA is a new conotoxin whose activity deserves further studies to define its potential use as a positive modulator of neuronal activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exposure to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Producer Alexandrium catenella Increases the Susceptibility of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas to Pathogenic Vibrios
Toxins 2016, 8(1), 24; doi:10.3390/toxins8010024
Received: 4 December 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
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Abstract
The multifactorial etiology of massive Crassostrea gigas summer mortalities results from complex interactions between oysters, opportunistic pathogens and environmental factors. In a field survey conducted in 2014 in the Mediterranean Thau Lagoon (France), we evidenced that the development of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium
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The multifactorial etiology of massive Crassostrea gigas summer mortalities results from complex interactions between oysters, opportunistic pathogens and environmental factors. In a field survey conducted in 2014 in the Mediterranean Thau Lagoon (France), we evidenced that the development of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), was concomitant with the accumulation of PSTs in oyster flesh and the occurrence of C. gigas mortalities. In order to investigate the possible role of toxic algae in this complex disease, we experimentally infected C. gigas oyster juveniles with Vibrio tasmaniensis strain LGP32, a strain associated with oyster summer mortalities, after oysters were exposed to Alexandrium catenella. Exposure of oysters to A. catenella significantly increased the susceptibility of oysters to V. tasmaniensis LGP32. On the contrary, exposure to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense or to the haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea used as a foraging alga did not increase susceptibility to V. tasmaniensis LGP32. This study shows for the first time that A. catenella increases the susceptibility of Crassostrea gigas to pathogenic vibrios. Therefore, in addition to complex environmental factors explaining the mass mortalities of bivalve mollusks, feeding on neurotoxic dinoflagellates should now be considered as an environmental factor that potentially increases the severity of oyster mortality events. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Year Assessment of Toxic Genotypes and Microcystin Concentration in Northern Lake Taihu, China
Toxins 2016, 8(1), 23; doi:10.3390/toxins8010023
Received: 13 August 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
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Abstract
Lake Taihu is the third-largest freshwater lake in China and has been suffering from cyanobacterial blooms for over two decades. The northern part of the lake, Meiliang Bay, is known to be at high risk of dense and sustained Microcystis blooms and toxins.
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Lake Taihu is the third-largest freshwater lake in China and has been suffering from cyanobacterial blooms for over two decades. The northern part of the lake, Meiliang Bay, is known to be at high risk of dense and sustained Microcystis blooms and toxins. This study aimed to investigate and record the annual and seasonal dynamics of toxic genotype, Microcystis morphospecies succession and microcystin variation. It also aimed to find out the underlying driving factors influencing the dynamic changes. Microcystin (MC) and the Microcystis genotype were quantified using HPLC and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Our study, over three consecutive years, showed that the pattern of morphospecies succession was seasonally distinct and annually consistent. During the same period in 2012, 2013 and 2014, the average MC were, on dry weight basis, 733 μg·g−1, 844 μg·g−1, 870 μg·g−1, respectively. The proportion of toxic Microcystis accounted for 41%, 44% and 52%, respectively. Cell bound microcystin was found to correlate with the percentage of toxic Microcystis. Based on historical and current data, we conclude that annual bloom toxicity was relatively stable or possibly increased over the last decade. Full article

2015

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Open AccessArticle Occurrence and Seasonal Variations of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Commercial Clam Species along the Coast of Jiangsu, China
Toxins 2016, 8(1), 8; doi:10.3390/toxins8010008
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 25 December 2015
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Abstract
Recent studies have examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in shellfish and toxic algae worldwide, but the occurrence and seasonal variations of LMTs in commercial clams (including Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Meretrix meretrix, and Cyclina sinensis) at their major culturing
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Recent studies have examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in shellfish and toxic algae worldwide, but the occurrence and seasonal variations of LMTs in commercial clams (including Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Meretrix meretrix, and Cyclina sinensis) at their major culturing area in Jiangsu, China, remain largely unexplored. In this study, a new solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with an ultra-fast liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UFLC-TQ-MS) method was developed to determine the presence of 10 typical LMTs (okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxins (YTXs), azaspiracids (AZA1-3), pectenotoxins (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), dinophysistoxins (DTX1&2), and spirolides (SPX1)) in the aforementioned four clam matrices. After confirmation of its sensitivity and precision, this method was used to evaluate the amounts of LMTs in clam samples harvested in five aquaculture zones of the Jiangsu coastal area. Monthly variations of GYM, PTX2, OA, and DTX1&2 in 400 clam samples from the sample areas were determined from January 2014 through August 2015. Peak values were observed during May and August. This is the first systematic report of LMTs detected in clam samples harvested in Jiangsu. Follow-up research and the implementation of protective measures are needed to ensure the safety of clams harvested in this area. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assimilation, Accumulation, and Metabolism of Dinophysistoxins (DTXs) and Pectenotoxins (PTXs) in the Several Tissues of Japanese Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis
Toxins 2015, 7(12), 5141-5154; doi:10.3390/toxins7124870
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
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Abstract
Japanese scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, were fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis fortii to elucidate the relative magnitude of assimilation, accumulation, and metabolism of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and pectenotoxins (PTXs). Three individual scallops were separately exposed to cultured D. fortii for
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Japanese scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, were fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis fortii to elucidate the relative magnitude of assimilation, accumulation, and metabolism of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and pectenotoxins (PTXs). Three individual scallops were separately exposed to cultured D. fortii for four days. The average cell number of D. fortii assimilated by each individual scallop was 7.7 × 105. Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and their metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the toxin content in individual tissues (digestive gland, adductor muscle, gill, gonad, mantle, and the others), feces and the seawater medium were quantified. Toxins were almost exclusively accumulated in the digestive gland with only low levels being detected in the gills, mantles, gonads, and adductor muscles. DTX1 and PTX2 were the dominant toxins in the D. fortii cells fed to the scallops, whereas the dominant toxins detected in the digestive gland of scallops were PTX6 and esterified acyl-O-DTX1 (DTX3). In other tissues PTX2 was the dominant toxin observed. The ratio of accumulated to assimilated toxins was 21%–39% and 7%–23% for PTXs and DTXs respectively. Approximately 54%–75% of PTX2 and 52%–70% of DTX1 assimilated by the scallops was directly excreted into the seawater mainly without metabolic transformation. Full article
Open AccessArticle UV-B Exposure Affects the Biosynthesis of Microcystin in Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Cells and Its Degradation in the Extracellular Space
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4238-4252; doi:10.3390/toxins7104238
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
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Abstract
Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxic heptapeptides produced by cyanobacteria that can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. MC synthesis and degradation are thought to be influenced by several different physical and environmental parameters. In this study, the effects of different intensities of
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Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxic heptapeptides produced by cyanobacteria that can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms. MC synthesis and degradation are thought to be influenced by several different physical and environmental parameters. In this study, the effects of different intensities of UV-B radiation on MC biosynthesis in Microcystis cells and on its extracellular degradation were investigated by mRNA analysis and degradation experiments. Exposure to UV-B at intensities of 1.02 and 1.45 W/m2 not only remarkably inhibited the growth of Microcystis, but also led to a decrease in the MC concentration. In addition, mcyD transcription was decreased under the same UV-B intensities. These results demonstrated that the effects of UV-B exposure on the biosynthesis of MCs in Microcystis cells could be attributed to the regulation of mcy gene transcription. Moreover, the MC concentration was decreased significantly after exposure to different intensities of UV-B radiation. Of the three MC variants (MC-LR, -RR and -YR, L, R and Y are abbreviations of leucine, arginine and tyrosine), MC-LR and MC-YR were sensitive to UV-B radiation, whereas MC-RR was not. In summary, our results showed that UV-B radiation had a negative effect on MC production in Microcystis cells and MC persistence in the extracellular space. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx mori L.
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 3876-3886; doi:10.3390/toxins7103876
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 12 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 24 September 2015
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Abstract
The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as
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The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as a reduction in the production and quality of silk. This study aims to assay the effect of venom from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on growth, cuticle and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the silkworm B. mori by the leaf dipping method. The experimental results revealed that the four samples caused neither antifeeding nor a lethal effect on B. mori. The sample SFV inhibited B. mori growth after 6 days of treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The samples SFV, DSFV and Fr-1 inhibited the precipitation and synthesis of chitin in the cuticle after 12 and 14 days of treatment. In the case of the four samples, the AChE was significantly improved after 14 days of treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan
Toxins 2015, 7(9), 3436-3454; doi:10.3390/toxins7093436
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
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Abstract
Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus
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Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Different Shellfish Matrices on the Separation of PSP Toxins Using a Postcolumn Oxidation Liquid Chromatography Method
Toxins 2015, 7(4), 1324-1340; doi:10.3390/toxins7041324
Received: 3 March 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
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Abstract
The separation of PSP toxins using liquid chromatography with a post-column oxidation fluorescence detection method was performed with different matrices. The separation of PSP toxins depends on several factors, and it is crucial to take into account the presence of interfering matrix peaks
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The separation of PSP toxins using liquid chromatography with a post-column oxidation fluorescence detection method was performed with different matrices. The separation of PSP toxins depends on several factors, and it is crucial to take into account the presence of interfering matrix peaks to produce a good separation. The matrix peaks are not always the same, which is a significant issue when it comes to producing good, reliable results regarding resolution and toxicity information. Different real shellfish matrices (mussel, scallop, clam and oyster) were studied, and it was seen that the interference is not the same for each individual matrix. It also depends on the species, sampling location and the date of collection. It was proposed that separation should be accomplished taking into account the type of matrix, as well as the concentration of heptane sulfonate in both solvents, since the mobile phase varies regarding the matrix. Scallop and oyster matrices needed a decrease in the concentration of heptane sulfonate to separate GTX4 from matrix peaks, as well as dcGTX3 for oysters, with a concentration of 6.5 mM for solvent A and 6.25 mM for solvent B. For mussel and clam matrices, interfering peaks are not as large as they are in the other group, and the heptane sulfonate concentration was 8.25 mM for both solvents. Also, for scallops and oysters, matrix interferences depend not only on the sampling site but also on the date of collection as well as the species; for mussels and clams, differences are noted only when the sampling site varies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Alteration in the Expression of Cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) in the Liver of Mouse Induced by Microcystin-LR
Toxins 2015, 7(4), 1102-1115; doi:10.3390/toxins7041102
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
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Abstract
Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptide toxins and can accumulate in the liver. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play an important role in the biotransformation of endogenous substances and xenobiotics in animals. It is unclear if the CYPs are affected by MCs exposure. The objective of
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Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptide toxins and can accumulate in the liver. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play an important role in the biotransformation of endogenous substances and xenobiotics in animals. It is unclear if the CYPs are affected by MCs exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microcystin-LR (MCLR) on cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) at mRNA level, protein content, and enzyme activity in the liver of mice the received daily, intraperitoneally, 2, 4, and 8 µg/kg body weight of MCLR for seven days. The result showed that MCLR significantly decreased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and erythromycin N-demthylase (ERND) (CYP3A11) activities and increased aniline hydroxylase (ANH) activity (CYP2E1) in the liver of mice during the period of exposure. Our findings suggest that MCLR exposure may disrupt the function of CYPs in liver, which may be partly attributed to the toxicity of MCLR in mice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Acute Cardiotoxicity Evaluation of the Marine Biotoxins OA, DTX-1 and YTX
Toxins 2015, 7(4), 1030-1047; doi:10.3390/toxins7041030
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
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Abstract
Phycotoxins are marine toxins produced by phytoplankton that can get accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. Human intoxication episodes occur due to contaminated seafood consumption. Okadaic acid (OA) and dynophysistoxins (DTXs) are phycotoxins responsible for a severe gastrointestinal syndrome called diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP).
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Phycotoxins are marine toxins produced by phytoplankton that can get accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. Human intoxication episodes occur due to contaminated seafood consumption. Okadaic acid (OA) and dynophysistoxins (DTXs) are phycotoxins responsible for a severe gastrointestinal syndrome called diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Yessotoxins (YTXs) are marine toxins initially included in the DSP class but currently classified as a separated group. Food safety authorities from several countries have regulated the content of DSPs and YTXs in shellfish to protect human health. In mice, OA and YTX have been associated with ultrastructural heart damage in vivo. Therefore, this study explored the potential of OA, DTX-1 and YTX to cause acute heart toxicity. Cardiotoxicity was evaluated in vitro by measuring hERG (human èter-a-go-go gene) channel activity and in vivo using electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings and cardiac damage biomarkers. The results demonstrated that these toxins do not exert acute effects on hERG channel activity. Additionally, in vivo experiments showed that these compounds do not alter cardiac biomarkers and ECG in rats acutely. Despite the ultrastructural damage to the heart reported for these toxins, no acute alterations of heart function have been detected in vivo, suggesting a functional compensation in the short term. Full article
Open AccessReview Emergent Toxins in North Atlantic Temperate Waters: A Challenge for Monitoring Programs and Legislation
Toxins 2015, 7(3), 859-885; doi:10.3390/toxins7030859
Received: 22 January 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
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Abstract
Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are complex to manage due to their intermittent nature and their severe impact on the economy and human health. The conditions which promote HAB have not yet been fully explained, though climate change and anthropogenic intervention are pointed as
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Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are complex to manage due to their intermittent nature and their severe impact on the economy and human health. The conditions which promote HAB have not yet been fully explained, though climate change and anthropogenic intervention are pointed as significant factors. The rise of water temperature, the opening of new sea canals and the introduction of ship ballast waters all contribute to the dispersion and establishment of toxin-producing invasive species that promote the settling of emergent toxins in the food-chain. Tetrodotoxin, ciguatoxin, palytoxin and cyclic imines are commonly reported in warm waters but have also caused poisoning incidents in temperate zones. There is evidence that monitoring for these toxins exclusively in bivalves is simplistic and underestimates the risk to public health, since new vectors have been reported for these toxins and as well for regulated toxins such as PSTs and DSTs. In order to avoid public health impacts, there is a need for adequate monitoring programs, a need for establishing appropriate legislation, and a need for optimizing effective methods of analysis. In this review, we will compile evidence concerning emergent marine toxins and provide data that may indicate the need to restructure the current monitoring programs of HAB. Full article
Open AccessCommunication The Effect of Cyanobacterial Biomass Enrichment by Centrifugation and GF/C Filtration on Subsequent Microcystin Measurement
Toxins 2015, 7(3), 821-834; doi:10.3390/toxins7030821
Received: 28 December 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
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Abstract
Microcystins are cyclic peptides produced by multiple cyanobacterial genera. After accumulation in the liver of animals they inhibit eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatases, causing liver disease or death. Accurate detection/quantification of microcystins is essential to ensure safe water resources and to enable research on
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Microcystins are cyclic peptides produced by multiple cyanobacterial genera. After accumulation in the liver of animals they inhibit eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatases, causing liver disease or death. Accurate detection/quantification of microcystins is essential to ensure safe water resources and to enable research on this toxin. Previous methodological comparisons have focused on detection and extraction techniques, but have not investigated the commonly used biomass enrichment steps. These enrichment steps could modulate toxin production as recent studies have demonstrated that high cyanobacterial cell densities cause increased microcystin levels. In this study, three microcystin-producing strains were processed using no cell enrichment steps (by direct freezing at three temperatures) and with biomass enrichment (by centrifugation or GF/C filtration). After extraction, microcystins were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All processing methods tested, except GF/C filtration, resulted in comparable microcystin quotas for all strains. The low yields observed for the filtration samples were caused by adsorption of arginine-containing microcystins to the GF/C filters. Whilst biomass enrichment did not affect microcystin metabolism over the time-frame of normal sample processing, problems associated with GF/C filtration were identified. The most widely applicable processing method was direct freezing of samples as it could be utilized in both field and laboratory environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Further Characterization of Glycine-Containing Microcystins from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 493-515; doi:10.3390/toxins7020493
Received: 21 December 2014 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 10 February 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Microcystins are hepatotoxic cyclic peptides produced by several cyanobacterial genera worldwide. In 2008, our research group identified eight new glycine-containing microcystin congeners in two hydro-terrestrial mat samples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Eastern Antarctica. During the present study, high-resolution mass spectrometry, amino
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Microcystins are hepatotoxic cyclic peptides produced by several cyanobacterial genera worldwide. In 2008, our research group identified eight new glycine-containing microcystin congeners in two hydro-terrestrial mat samples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Eastern Antarctica. During the present study, high-resolution mass spectrometry, amino acid analysis and micro-scale thiol derivatization were used to further elucidate their structures. The Antarctic microcystin congeners contained the rare substitution of the position-1 ᴅ-alanine for glycine, as well as the acetyl desmethyl modification of the position-5 Adda moiety (3S-amino-9S-methoxy-2S,6,8S-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4E,6E-dienoic acid). Amino acid analysis was used to determine the stereochemistry of several of the amino acids and conclusively demonstrated the presence of glycine in the microcystins. A recently developed thiol derivatization technique showed that each microcystin contained dehydrobutyrine in position-7 instead of the commonly observed N-methyl dehydroalanine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Cyanotoxins, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and Microcystins, from a Lake Surrounded by Cases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 322-336; doi:10.3390/toxins7020322
Received: 19 November 2014 / Revised: 12 December 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2015 / Published: 29 January 2015
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Abstract
A cluster of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been previously described to border Lake Mascoma in Enfield, NH, with an incidence of ALS approximating 25 times expected. We hypothesize a possible association with cyanobacterial blooms that can produce β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a
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A cluster of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been previously described to border Lake Mascoma in Enfield, NH, with an incidence of ALS approximating 25 times expected. We hypothesize a possible association with cyanobacterial blooms that can produce β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid implicated as a possible cause of ALS/PDC in Guam. Muscle, liver, and brain tissue samples from a Lake Mascoma carp, as well as filtered aerosol samples, were analyzed for microcystins (MC), free and protein-bound BMAA, and the BMAA isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) and N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG). In carp brain, BMAA and DAB concentrations were 0.043 μg/g ± 0.02 SD and 0.01 μg/g ± 0.002 SD respectively. In carp liver and muscle, the BMAA concentrations were 1.28 μg/g and 1.27 μg/g respectively, and DAB was not detected. BMAA was detected in the air filters, as were the isomers DAB and AEG. These results demonstrate that a putative cause for ALS, BMAA, exists in an environment that has a documented cluster of ALS. Although cause and effect have not been demonstrated, our observations and measurements strengthen the association. Full article

2014

Jump to: 2016, 2015, 2013

Open AccessArticle Further Insights into Brevetoxin Metabolism by de Novo Radiolabeling
Toxins 2014, 6(6), 1785-1798; doi:10.3390/toxins6061785
Received: 6 April 2014 / Revised: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, responsible for early harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico, produces many secondary metabolites, including potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins (PbTx). These compounds have been identified as toxic agents for humans, and they are also responsible for
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The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, responsible for early harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico, produces many secondary metabolites, including potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins (PbTx). These compounds have been identified as toxic agents for humans, and they are also responsible for the deaths of several marine organisms. The overall biosynthesis of these highly complex metabolites has not been fully ascertained, even if there is little doubt on a polyketide origin. In addition to gaining some insights into the metabolic events involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds, feeding studies with labeled precursors helps to discriminate between the de novo biosynthesis of toxins and conversion of stored intermediates into final toxic products in the response to environmental stresses. In this context, the use of radiolabeled precursors is well suited as it allows working with the highest sensitive techniques and consequently with a minor amount of cultured dinoflagellates. We were then able to incorporate [U-14C]-acetate, the renowned precursor of the polyketide pathway, in several PbTx produced by K. brevis. The specific activities of PbTx-1, -2, -3, and -7, identified by High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HRESIMS), were assessed by HPLC-UV and highly sensitive Radio-TLC counting. We demonstrated that working at close to natural concentrations of acetate is a requirement for biosynthetic studies, highlighting the importance of highly sensitive radiolabeling feeding experiments. Quantification of the specific activity of the four, targeted toxins led us to propose that PbTx-1 and PbTx-2 aldehydes originate from oxidation of the primary alcohols of PbTx-7 and PbTx-3, respectively. This approach will open the way for a better comprehension of the metabolic pathways leading to PbTx but also to a better understanding of their regulation by environmental factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Use of Recently Developed Histochemical Markers for Localizing Neurotoxicant Induced Regional Brain Pathologies
Toxins 2014, 6(4), 1453-1470; doi:10.3390/toxins6041453
Received: 7 March 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 24 April 2014
PDF Full-text (2918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuronal and vascular brain components are interrelated morphologically, physiologically and developmentally. Due to this close interrelationship, it is often difficult to understand the cause and effect relationship between neuronal vs. vascular dysfunction and pathology. This review will discuss four of the more promising
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Neuronal and vascular brain components are interrelated morphologically, physiologically and developmentally. Due to this close interrelationship, it is often difficult to understand the cause and effect relationship between neuronal vs. vascular dysfunction and pathology. This review will discuss four of the more promising recent developments for detecting vascular pathology, and will compare them with the labeling pattern seen with markers of glial and neuronal pathology; following exposure to well characterized neurotoxicants. To detect the vascular dysfunction in the brain, we recently developed a Fluoro-Turquoise gelatin conjugate (FT-gel), a fluorescent probe that helps to delineate between healthy vs. sclerotic vessels. Similarly, we have investigated the potential for Fluoro-Gold to label in vivo all the endothelial cells in the brain as they co-localize with RECA, an endothelial cell marker. We have also developed Amylo-Glo, a fluorescent tracer that can detect neurotoxic A-beta aggregates in the brain. In this article, we will discuss the potential use of these novel histochemical markers to study the neurotoxicant induced brain. We will also discuss neurovascular strategies that may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
Open AccessArticle Trophic State and Toxic Cyanobacteria Density in Optimization Modeling of Multi-Reservoir Water Resource Systems
Toxins 2014, 6(4), 1366-1384; doi:10.3390/toxins6041366
Received: 8 January 2014 / Revised: 23 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for
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The definition of a synthetic index for classifying the quality of water bodies is a key aspect in integrated planning and management of water resource systems. In previous works [1,2], a water system optimization modeling approach that requires a single quality index for stored water in reservoirs has been applied to a complex multi-reservoir system. Considering the same modeling field, this paper presents an improved quality index estimated both on the basis of the overall trophic state of the water body and on the basis of the density values of the most potentially toxic Cyanobacteria. The implementation of the index into the optimization model makes it possible to reproduce the conditions limiting water use due to excessive nutrient enrichment in the water body and to the health hazard linked to toxic blooms. The analysis of an extended limnological database (1996–2012) in four reservoirs of the Flumendosa-Campidano system (Sardinia, Italy) provides useful insights into the strengths and limitations of the proposed synthetic index. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions
Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1062-1079; doi:10.3390/toxins6031062
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cyanobacterial toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, is increasingly being found in freshwater bodies infested by cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. Moreover, it has been reported to be implicated in human intoxications and animal mortality. Recently, the alteration of the activity and
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The cyanobacterial toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, is increasingly being found in freshwater bodies infested by cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. Moreover, it has been reported to be implicated in human intoxications and animal mortality. Recently, the alteration of the activity and gene expression of some glutathione related enzymes in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a single dose of CYN has been reported. However, little is known about the effects induced by repeated doses of this toxin in tilapias exposed by immersion and the potential reversion of these biochemical alterations after two different depuration periods (3 or 7 days). In the present study, tilapias were exposed by immersion to repeated doses of a CYN-containing culture of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum during 14 days, and then were subjected to depuration periods (3 or 7 days) in clean water in order to examine the potential reversion of the effects observed. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST), and also the sGST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney of fish. Results showed significant alterations in most of the parameters evaluated and their recovery after 3 days (GPx activity, sGST relative abundance) or 7 days (GPx gene expression, sGST activity). These findings not only confirm the oxidative stress effects produced in fish by cyanobacterial cells containing CYN, but also show the effectiveness of depuration processes in mitigating the CYN-containing culture toxic effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae
Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1021-1035; doi:10.3390/toxins6031021
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem
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Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 693-755; doi:10.3390/toxins6020693
Received: 20 November 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a naturally occurring toxin that has been responsible for human intoxications and fatalities. Its usual route of toxicity is via the ingestion of contaminated puffer fish which are a culinary delicacy, especially in Japan. TTX was believed to be confined
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Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a naturally occurring toxin that has been responsible for human intoxications and fatalities. Its usual route of toxicity is via the ingestion of contaminated puffer fish which are a culinary delicacy, especially in Japan. TTX was believed to be confined to regions of South East Asia, but recent studies have demonstrated that the toxin has spread to regions in the Pacific and the Mediterranean. There is no known antidote to TTX which is a powerful sodium channel inhibitor. This review aims to collect pertinent information available to date on TTX and its analogues with a special emphasis on the structure, aetiology, distribution, effects and the analytical methods employed for its detection. Full article
Open AccessArticle Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 488-508; doi:10.3390/toxins6020488
Received: 12 November 2013 / Revised: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several groups of microorganisms are capable of producing toxins in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue green algae in freshwater systems, and many species produce cyanotoxins which include a variety of chemical irritants, hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Production and occurrence of potent neurotoxic cyanotoxins
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Several groups of microorganisms are capable of producing toxins in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue green algae in freshwater systems, and many species produce cyanotoxins which include a variety of chemical irritants, hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Production and occurrence of potent neurotoxic cyanotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), 2,4-diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride (DABA), and anatoxin-a are especially critical with environmental implications to public and animal health. Biomagnification, though not well understood in aquatic systems, is potentially relevant to both human and animal health effects. Because little is known regarding their presence in fresh water, we investigated the occurrence and potential for bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins in several Nebraska reservoirs. Collection and analysis of 387 environmental and biological samples (water, fish, and aquatic plant) provided a snapshot of their occurrence. A sensitive detection method was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD) with confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). HPLC/FD detection limits ranged from 5 to 7 µg/L and LC/MS/MS detection limits were <0.5 µg/L, while detection limits for biological samples were in the range of 0.8–3.2 ng/g depending on the matrix. Based on these methods, measurable levels of these neurotoxic compounds were detected in approximately 25% of the samples, with detections of BMAA in about 18.1%, DABA in 17.1%, and anatoxin-a in 11.9%. Full article
Open AccessArticle Geographical Patterns in Cyanobacteria Distribution: Climate Influence at Regional Scale
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 509-522; doi:10.3390/toxins6020509
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2083 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and
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Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies. Full article
Open AccessReview Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 539-555; doi:10.3390/toxins6020539
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex
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Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. Full article
Open AccessArticle Detection of Anatoxin-a and Three Analogs in Anabaena spp. Cultures: New Fluorescence Polarization Assay and Toxin Profile by LC-MS/MS
Toxins 2014, 6(2), 402-415; doi:10.3390/toxins6020402
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2014 / Published: 24 January 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (914 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anatoxin-a (ATX) is a potent neurotoxin produced by several species of Anabaena spp. Cyanobacteria blooms around the world have been increasing in recent years; therefore, it is urgent to develop sensitive techniques that unequivocally confirm the presence of these toxins in fresh
[...] Read more.
Anatoxin-a (ATX) is a potent neurotoxin produced by several species of Anabaena spp. Cyanobacteria blooms around the world have been increasing in recent years; therefore, it is urgent to develop sensitive techniques that unequivocally confirm the presence of these toxins in fresh water and cyanobacterial samples. In addition, the identification of different ATX analogues is essential to later determine its toxicity. In this paper we designed a fluorescent polarization (FP) method to detect ATXs in water samples. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) labeled with a fluorescein derivative was used to develop this assay. Data showed a direct relationship between the amount of toxin in a sample and the changes in the polarization degree of the emitted light by the labeled nAChR, indicating an interaction between the two molecules. This method was used to measure the amount of ATX in three Anabaena spp. cultures. Results indicate that it is a good method to show ATXs presence in algal samples. In order to check the toxin profile of Anabaena cultures a LC-MS/MS method was also developed. Within this new method, ATX-a, retention time (RT) 5 min, and three other molecules with a mass m/z 180.1 eluting at 4.14 min, 5.90 min and 7.14 min with MS/MS spectra characteristic of ATX toxin group not previously identified were detected in the Anabaena spp. cultures. These ATX analogues may have an important role in the toxicity of the sample. Full article
Open AccessArticle Immunohistochemical Approach to Study Cylindrospermopsin Distribution in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under Different Exposure Conditions
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 283-303; doi:10.3390/toxins6010283
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 30 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 8 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (13566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also
[...] Read more.
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxic cyanotoxin produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria (i.e., Aphanizomenon ovalisporum). CYN is a tricyclic alkaloid combined with a guanidine moiety. It is well known that CYN inhibits both protein and glutathione synthesis, and also induces genotoxicity and the alteration of different oxidative stress biomarkers. Although the liver and kidney appear to be the main target organs for this toxin based on previous studies, CYN also affects other organs. In the present study, we studied the distribution of CYN in fish (Oreochromis niloticus) under two different exposure scenarios using immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques. In the first method, fish were exposed acutely by intraperitoneal injection or by gavage to 200 µg pure CYN/Kg body weight (bw), and euthanized after 24 h or five days of exposure. In the second method, fish were exposed by immersion to lyophilized A. ovalisporum CYN-producing cells using two concentration levels (10 or 100 µg/L) for two different exposure times (7 or 14 days). The IHC was carried out in liver, kidney, intestine, and gills of fish. Results demonstrated a similar pattern of CYN distribution in both experimental methods. The organ that presented the most immunopositive results was the liver, followed by the kidney, intestine, and gills. Moreover, the immunolabeling signal intensified with increasing time in both assays, confirming the delayed toxicity of CYN, and also with the increment of the dose, as it is shown in the sub-chronic assay. Thus, IHC is shown to be a valuable technique to study CYN distribution in these organisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Experimental Basis for the High Oral Toxicity of Dinophysistoxin 1: A Comparative Study of DSP
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 211-228; doi:10.3390/toxins6010211
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 23 December 2013 / Accepted: 28 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogues, dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX1) and dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2), are lipophilic and heat-stable marine toxins produced by dinoflagellates, which can accumulate in filter-feeding bivalves. These toxins cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans shortly after the ingestion of contaminated
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Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogues, dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX1) and dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX2), are lipophilic and heat-stable marine toxins produced by dinoflagellates, which can accumulate in filter-feeding bivalves. These toxins cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans shortly after the ingestion of contaminated seafood. Studies carried out in mice indicated that DSP poisonous are toxic towards experimental animals with a lethal oral dose 2–10 times higher than the intraperitoneal (i.p.) lethal dose. The focus of this work was to study the absorption of OA, DTX1 and DTX2 through the human gut barrier using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, we compared cytotoxicity parameters. Our data revealed that cellular viability was not compromised by toxin concentrations up to 1 μM for 72 h. Okadaic acid and DTX2 induced no significant damage; nevertheless, DTX1 was able to disrupt the integrity of Caco-2 monolayers at concentrations above 50 nM. In addition, confocal microscopy imaging confirmed that the tight-junction protein, occludin, was affected by DTX1. Permeability assays revealed that only DTX1 was able to significantly cross the intestinal epithelium at concentrations above 100 nM. These data suggest a higher oral toxicity of DTX1 compared to OA and DTX2. Full article
Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Effect of Temperature and Irradiance on Growth and Okadaic Acid Production from the Marine Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 229-253; doi:10.3390/toxins6010229
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 24 December 2013 / Accepted: 27 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Benthic marine dioflagellate microalgae belonging to the genus Prorocentrum are a major source of okadaic acid (OA), OA analogues and polyketides. However, dinoflagellates produce these valuable toxins and bioactives in tiny quantities, and they grow slowly compared to other commercially used microalgae. This
[...] Read more.
Benthic marine dioflagellate microalgae belonging to the genus Prorocentrum are a major source of okadaic acid (OA), OA analogues and polyketides. However, dinoflagellates produce these valuable toxins and bioactives in tiny quantities, and they grow slowly compared to other commercially used microalgae. This hinders evaluation in possible large-scale applications. The careful selection of producer species is therefore crucial for success in a hypothetical scale-up of culture, as are appropriate environmental conditions for optimal growth. A clone of the marine toxic dinoflagellate P. belizeanum was studied in vitro to evaluate its capacities to grow and produce OA as an indicator of general polyketide toxin production under the simultaneous influence of temperature (T) and irradiance (I0). Three temperatures and four irradiance levels were tested (18, 25 and 28 °C; 20, 40, 80 and 120 µE·m−2·s−1), and the response variables measured were concentration of cells, maximum photochemical yield of photosystem II (PSII), pigments and OA. Experiments were conducted in T-flasks, since their parallelepipedal geometry proved ideal to ensure optically thin cultures, which are essential for reliable modeling of growth-irradiance curves. The net maximum specific growth rate (µm) was 0.204 day−1 at 25 °C and 40 µE·m−2·s−1. Photo-inhibition was observed at I0 > 40 μEm−2s−1, leading to culture death at 120 µE·m−2·s−1 and 28 °C. Cells at I0 ≥ 80 µE·m−2·s−1 were photoinhibited irrespective of the temperature assayed. A mechanistic model for µm-I0 curves and another empirical model for relating µm-T satisfactorily interpreted the growth kinetics obtained. ANOVA for responses of PSII maximum photochemical yield and pigment profile has demonstrated that P. belizeanum is extremely light sensitive. The pool of photoprotective pigments (diadinoxanthin and dinoxanthin) and peridinin was not able to regulate the excessive light-absorption at high I0-T. OA synthesis in cells was decoupled from optimal growth conditions, as OA overproduction was observed at high temperatures and when both temperature and irradiance were low. T-flask culture observations were consistent with preliminary assays outdoors. Full article

2013

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Open AccessArticle Fates of Microcystis aeruginosa Cells and Associated Microcystins in Sediment and the Effect of Coagulation Process on Them
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 152-167; doi:10.3390/toxins6010152
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 21 December 2013 / Accepted: 23 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During toxic Microcystis aeruginosa blooms, large amounts of cells can enter sediment through natural settlement, and coagulation treatment used to control water blooms can enhance the accumulation of cells. However, the current understanding of the fates of these cells and associated microcystins (MCs),
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During toxic Microcystis aeruginosa blooms, large amounts of cells can enter sediment through natural settlement, and coagulation treatment used to control water blooms can enhance the accumulation of cells. However, the current understanding of the fates of these cells and associated microcystins (MCs), as well as the effect of coagulation treatment on these factors, is limited. The results of the present study show that Microcystis aeruginosa cells in sediment were steadily decomposed under experimental conditions, and that they completely disappeared within 28 days. The major MCs released from settled cells were immediately degraded in sediment, and microbial degradation may be the main mechanism involved in this process. Coagulation treatment with PAC (polyaluminium chloride) + sepiolite can efficiently remove Microcystis aeruginosa cells from the water column and prevent their re-invasion. Furthermore, coagulation treatment with PAC + sepiolite had no significant effect on the release and decomposition of MCs and, thus, will not enhance the MCs pollution. However, coagulation treatment can accelerate the nutrient cycle by enhancing the settlement of cells. More attention should be paid to the effect on nutrient cycle when coagulation treatment is used for restoration of aquatic ecosystems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Method for Palytoxin Detection Based on Na+,K+-ATPase Affinity
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 96-107; doi:10.3390/toxins6010096
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Palytoxin (PLTX), produced by dinoflagellates from the genus Ostreopsis was first discovered, isolated, and purified from zoanthids belonging to the genus Palythoa. The detection of this toxin in contaminated shellfish is essential for human health preservation. A broad range of studies indicate
[...] Read more.
Palytoxin (PLTX), produced by dinoflagellates from the genus Ostreopsis was first discovered, isolated, and purified from zoanthids belonging to the genus Palythoa. The detection of this toxin in contaminated shellfish is essential for human health preservation. A broad range of studies indicate that mammalian Na+,K+-ATPase is a high affinity cellular receptor for PLTX. The toxin converts the pump into an open channel that stimulates sodium influx and potassium efflux. In this work we develop a detection method for PLTX based on its binding to the Na+,K+-ATPase. The method was developed by using the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to monitor biomolecular reactions. This technique does not require any labeling of components. The interaction of PLTX over immobilized Na+,K+-ATPase is quantified by injecting different concentrations of toxin in the biosensor and checking the binding rate constant (kobs). From the representation of kobs versus PLTX concentration, the kinetic equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the PLTX-Na+,K+-ATPase association can be calculated. The value of this constant is KD = 6.38 × 10−7 ± 6.67 × 10−8 M PLTX. In this way the PLTX-Na+,K+-ATPase association was used as a suitable method for determination of the toxin concentration in a sample. This method represents a new and useful approach to easily detect the presence of PLTX-like compounds in marine products using the mechanism of action of these toxins and in this way reduce the use of other more expensive and animal based methods. Full article
Open AccessReview Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Cnidarian Venoms. A Review on Health Implications and Possible Therapeutic Applications
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 108-151; doi:10.3390/toxins6010108
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested
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The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible therapeutic employment. The review aims to emphasize the up-to-date knowledge about this subject taking in consideration the importance of such venoms in human pathology, the health implications and the possible therapeutic application of these natural compounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Phormidium autumnale Growth and Anatoxin-a Production under Iron and Copper Stress
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2504-2521; doi:10.3390/toxins5122504
Received: 23 October 2013 / Revised: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Studies on planktonic cyanobacteria have shown variability in cyanotoxin production, in response to changes in growth phase and environmental factors. Few studies have investigated cyanotoxin regulation in benthic mat-forming species, despite increasing reports on poisoning events caused by ingestion of these organisms. In
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Studies on planktonic cyanobacteria have shown variability in cyanotoxin production, in response to changes in growth phase and environmental factors. Few studies have investigated cyanotoxin regulation in benthic mat-forming species, despite increasing reports on poisoning events caused by ingestion of these organisms. In this study, a method was developed to investigate changes in cyanotoxin quota in liquid cultures of benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria. Iron and copper are important in cellular processes and are well known to affect growth and selected metabolite production in cyanobacteria and algae. The effect of iron (40–4000 μg L1) and copper (2.5–250 μg L1) on growth and anatoxin-a quota in Phormidium autumnale was investigated in batch culture. These concentrations were chosen to span those found in freshwater, as well as those previously reported to be toxic to cyanobacteria. Anatoxin-a concentrations varied throughout the growth curve, with a maximum quota of between 0.49 and 0.55 pg cell1 measured within the first two weeks of growth. Growth rates were significantly affected by copper and iron concentrations (P < 0.0001); however, no statistically significant difference between anatoxin-a quota maxima was observed. When the iron concentrations were 800 and 4000 μg L1, the P. autumnale cultures did not firmly attach to the substratum. At 250 μg L1 copper or either 40 or 4000 μg L1 iron, growth was suppressed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Appearance of Planktothrix rubescens Bloom with [D-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR in Gravel Pit Pond of a Shallow Lake-Dominated Area
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2434-2455; doi:10.3390/toxins5122434
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
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Abstract
Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria are well-known phenomena in many regions of the world. Microcystin (MC), the most frequent cyanobacterial toxin, is produced by entirely different cyanobacteria, including unicellular, multicellular filamentous, heterocytic, and non-heterocytic bloom-forming species. Planktothrix is one of the most important MC-producing
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Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria are well-known phenomena in many regions of the world. Microcystin (MC), the most frequent cyanobacterial toxin, is produced by entirely different cyanobacteria, including unicellular, multicellular filamentous, heterocytic, and non-heterocytic bloom-forming species. Planktothrix is one of the most important MC-producing genera in temperate lakes. The reddish color of cyanobacterial blooms viewed in a gravel pit pond with the appearance of a dense 3 cm thick layer (biovolume: 28.4 mm3 L−1) was an unexpected observation in the shallow lake-dominated alluvial region of the Carpathian Basin. [d-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR was identified from the blooms sample by MALDI-TOF and NMR. Concentrations of [d-Asp3, Mdha7]MC–RR were measured by capillary electrophoresis to compare the microcystin content of the field samples and the isolated, laboratory-maintained P. rubescens strain. In analyzing the MC gene cluster of the isolated P. rubescens strain, a deletion in the spacer region between mcyE and mcyG and an insertion were located in the spacer region between mcyT and mcyD. The insertion elements were sequenced and partly identified. Although some invasive tropical cyanobacterial species have been given a great deal of attention in many recent studies, our results draw attention to the spread of the alpine organism P. rubescens as a MC-producing, bloom-forming species. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita
Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2420-2433; doi:10.3390/toxins5122420
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 6 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (993 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions,
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The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. Full article
Open AccessReview Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2109-2137; doi:10.3390/toxins5112109
Received: 19 September 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the
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Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. Full article
Open AccessArticle Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2093-2108; doi:10.3390/toxins5112093
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
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Abstract
In vivo, after administration by gavage to mice and rats, okadaic acid has been reported to produce lesions in liver, small intestine and forestomach. Because several reports differ in the damage detected in different organs, and on okadaic acid distribution after consumption,
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In vivo, after administration by gavage to mice and rats, okadaic acid has been reported to produce lesions in liver, small intestine and forestomach. Because several reports differ in the damage detected in different organs, and on okadaic acid distribution after consumption, we determined the toxicity of this compound after oral administration to mice. After 24 hours, histopathological examination showed necrotic foci and lipid vacuoles in the livers of intoxicated animals. By immunohistochemical analysis, we detected this toxin in the liver and kidneys of intoxicated animals. Okadaic acid induces oxidative stress and can be activated in vitro into reactive compounds by the post-mitochondrial S9 fraction, so we studied the okadaic effect on the gene expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes in liver. We observed a downregulation in the expression of these enzymes and a reduction of protein expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1 in intoxicated animals. Full article
Open AccessReview Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers
Toxins 2013, 5(8), 1343-1352; doi:10.3390/toxins5081343
Received: 18 June 2013 / Revised: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 25 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae,
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Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers. Full article

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