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Special Issue "Heat-Stable Enterotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Scott A. Waldman

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: guanylate cyclase C in health and disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diarrheagenic bacterial heat-stable enteroxins (STs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This family of homologous toxins induces diarrhea by recapitulating the structure of the endogenous intestinal paracrine hormones guanylin and uroguanylin. This molecular mimicry confers on STs the ability to co-opt signaling through the intestinal receptor guanylate cyclase C (GCC), which regulates epithelial fluid and electrolyte balance. Beyond secretion, GCC and its cognate ligands have emerged as important regulators of fundamental homeostatic processes which organize the intestinal crypt-surface axis. Moroever, dysregulation of this signaling system plays a key role in pathophysiological processes beyond infectious diarrhea, including intestinal transformation, mucosal inflammation, and gut–brain satiety signaling. Understanding the normal function of the GCC signaling axis, and mechanisms underlying its pathophysiological disruption, provides unique opportunities to create therapeutic solutions using toxins and their cognate receptors for major diseases including infectious diarrhea, chronic constipation, colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and obesity.

Prof. Dr. Scott A. Waldman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • heat-stable enterotoxins;
  • guanylate cyclase C;
  • guanylin;
  • uroguanylin;
  • secretory diarrhea;
  • chronic constipation;
  • colorectal cancer;
  • irritable bowel syndrome (constipation type);
  • inflammatory bowel disease;
  • obesity

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessArticle Interaction between Various Apple Procyanidin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A and Their Inhibitory Effects on Toxin Activity
Toxins 2017, 9(8), 243; doi:10.3390/toxins9080243
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
PDF Full-text (1970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
In this study, we investigated the interaction between apple polyphenols (AP; mainly consisting of procyanidin (PC) from an apple) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and the inhibitory effects of AP on SEA activity. According to the degree of polymerization, in particularly highly polymerized
[...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the interaction between apple polyphenols (AP; mainly consisting of procyanidin (PC) from an apple) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and the inhibitory effects of AP on SEA activity. According to the degree of polymerization, in particularly highly polymerized PC (more than pentamer) strongly interacted with SEA. The binding affinity of AP with SEA molecules was determined using Biacore analysis. AP reacted with SEA immobilized on a Biacore sensor chip. After treatment with pepsin and pancreatin, to examine the changes of binding affinity of AP in intragastric conditions, AP maintained interaction with SEA. We examined whether AP inhibits the proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production induced by SEA in mouse spleen cells. AP strongly inactivated the proliferation and IFN-γ production induced by SEA. These results suggest that AP, which has a higher degree of polymerization, inactivates stronger biological activity of SEA through interaction with SEA. Our studies are the first to demonstrate the relationship between the degree of polymerization of AP and the inhibitory effects on SEA activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat-Stable Enterotoxins)

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