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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 5th Iberoamerican Cyanotoxins Meeting"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luis M. Botana

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago of Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 34982822233

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 5th Iberoamerican Cyanotoxins Meeting will be held in Lugo, Spain, 17–19 July, 2017. The conference will cover the recent advances in the chemistry, ecology, and technology of cyanotoxins, with a special focus on climate change. The Special Issue aims to bring together active scholars and researchers to present their current scholarly work in cyanotoxins.

For additional links to the conference which you may find useful: www://5cic.com

Prof. Dr. Luis M. Botana
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Glycine and Arginine on Cylindrospermopsin Production and aoa Gene Expression in Aphanizomenon ovalisporum
Toxins 2017, 9(11), 355; doi:10.3390/toxins9110355
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Arginine (Arg) and glycine (Gly) seem to be the only substrates accepted by the amidinotransferase that catalyze the first step of the synthesis pathway of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN), leading to guanidinoacetate (GAA). Here, the effect of these amino acids on the production
[...] Read more.
Arginine (Arg) and glycine (Gly) seem to be the only substrates accepted by the amidinotransferase that catalyze the first step of the synthesis pathway of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN), leading to guanidinoacetate (GAA). Here, the effect of these amino acids on the production of CYN in cultures of the cylindrospermopsin-producing strain, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum UAM-MAO, has been studied. Arg clearly increased CYN content, the increment appearing triphasic along the culture. On the contrary, Gly caused a decrease of CYN, observable from the first day on. Interestingly, the transcript of the gene ntcA, key in nitrogen metabolism control, was also enhanced in the presence of Arg and/or Gly, the trend of the transcript oscillations being like that of aoa/cyr. The inhibitory effect of Gly in CYN production seems not to result from diminishing the activity of genes considered involved in CYN synthesis, since Gly, as Arg, enhance the transcription of genes aoaA-C and cyrJ. On the other hand, culture growth is affected by Arg and Gly in a similar way to CYN production, with Arg stimulating and Gly impairing it. Taken together, our data show that the influence of both Arg and Gly on CYN changes seems not to be due to a specific effect on the first step of CYN synthesis; it rather appears to be the result of changes in the physiological cell status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 5th Iberoamerican Cyanotoxins Meeting)
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Open AccessArticle Risk Levels of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Portuguese Recreational Freshwaters
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 327; doi:10.3390/toxins9100327
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Portuguese freshwater reservoirs are important socio-economic resources, namely for recreational use. National legislation concerning bathing waters does not include mandatory levels or guidelines for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. This is an issue of concern since cyanotoxin-based evidence is insufficient to change the law, and
[...] Read more.
Portuguese freshwater reservoirs are important socio-economic resources, namely for recreational use. National legislation concerning bathing waters does not include mandatory levels or guidelines for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. This is an issue of concern since cyanotoxin-based evidence is insufficient to change the law, and the collection of scientific evidence has been hampered by the lack of regulatory levels for cyanotoxins in bathing waters. In this work, we evaluate the profile of cyanobacteria and microcystins (MC) in eight freshwater reservoirs from the center of Portugal, used for bathing/recreation, in order to determine the risk levels concerning toxic cyanobacteria occurrence. Three of the reservoirs did not pose a risk of MC contamination. However, two reservoirs presented a high risk in 7% of the samples according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for MC in bathing waters (above 20 µg/L). In the remaining three reservoirs, the risk concerning microcystins occurrence was low. However, they exhibited recurrent blooms and persistent contamination with MC up to 4 µg/L. Thus, the risk of exposure to MC and potential acute and/or chronic health outcomes should not be disregarded in these reservoirs. These results contribute to characterize the cyanobacterial blooms profile and to map the risk of toxic cyanobacteria and microcystins occurrence in Portuguese inland waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 5th Iberoamerican Cyanotoxins Meeting)
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Open AccessArticle Temperature Influences the Production and Transport of Saxitoxin and the Expression of sxt Genes in the Cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 322; doi:10.3390/toxins9100322
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
The cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile is the most widely distributed producer of the potent neurotoxin saxitoxin in freshwaters. In this work, total and extracellular saxitoxin and the transcriptional response of three genes linked to saxitoxin biosynthesis (sxtA) and transport (sxtM,
[...] Read more.
The cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile is the most widely distributed producer of the potent neurotoxin saxitoxin in freshwaters. In this work, total and extracellular saxitoxin and the transcriptional response of three genes linked to saxitoxin biosynthesis (sxtA) and transport (sxtM, sxtPer) were assessed in Aphanizomenon gracile UAM529 cultures under temperatures covering its annual cycle (12 °C, 23 °C, and 30 °C). Temperature influenced saxitoxin production being maximum at high temperatures (30 °C) above the growth optimum (23 °C), concurring with a 4.3-fold increased sxtA expression at 30 °C. Extracellular saxitoxin transport was temperature-dependent, with maxima at extremes of temperature (12 °C with 16.9% extracellular saxitoxin; and especially 30 °C with 53.8%) outside the growth optimum (23 °C), coinciding with a clear upregulation of sxtM at both 12 °C and 30 °C (3.8–4.1 fold respectively), and yet with just a slight upregulation of sxtPer at 30 °C (2.1-fold). Nitrate depletion also induced a high extracellular saxitoxin release (51.2%), although without variations of sxtM and sxtPer transcription, and showing evidence of membrane damage. This is the first study analysing the transcriptional response of sxtPer under environmental gradients, as well as the effect of temperature on putative saxitoxin transporters (sxtM and sxtPer) in cyanobacteria in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 5th Iberoamerican Cyanotoxins Meeting)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Recreational Exposure during Algal Bloom in Carrasco Beach, Uruguay: A Liver Failure Case Report
Toxins 2017, 9(9), 267; doi:10.3390/toxins9090267
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In January 2015, a 20-month-old child and her family took part in recreational activities at Carrasco and Malvín beaches (Montevideo, Uruguay). An intense harmful algae bloom (HAB) was developing along the coast at that time. A few hours after the last recreational exposure
[...] Read more.
In January 2015, a 20-month-old child and her family took part in recreational activities at Carrasco and Malvín beaches (Montevideo, Uruguay). An intense harmful algae bloom (HAB) was developing along the coast at that time. A few hours after the last recreational exposure episode, the family suffered gastrointestinal symptoms which were self-limited except in the child’s case, who was admitted to hospital in Uruguay with diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, and jaundice. The patient had increased serum levels of liver enzymes and bilirubin and five days later presented acute liver failure. She was referred to the Italian Hospital in Buenos Aires, being admitted with grade II–III encephalopathy and hepatomegaly and requiring mechanical respiratory assistance. Serology tests for hepatitis A, B, and C, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were negative. Laboratory features showed anemia, coagulopathy, and increased serum levels of ammonium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin. Autoimmune Hepatitis Type-II (AH-II) was the initial diagnosis based on a liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (LKM-1) positive result, and twenty days later a liver transplant was performed. The liver histopathology had indicated hemorrhagic necrosis in zone 3, and cholestasis and nodular regeneration, which were not characteristic of AH-II. LC/ESI-HRMS (liquid chromatography electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis of MCs in the explanted liver revealed the presence of Microsytin-LR (MC-LR) (2.4 ng·gr−1 tissue) and [D-Leu1]MC-LR (75.4 ng·gr−1 tissue), which constitute a toxicological nexus and indicate a preponderant role of microcystins in the development of fulminant hepatitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 5th Iberoamerican Cyanotoxins Meeting)
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