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Special Issue "Tetrodotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Panagiota Katikou

Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Directorate General of Sustainable Rural Development, Directorate of Research, Innovation and Education, School of Meat Professionals of Thessaloniki, Hapsa & Karatasou 1, 54626, Thessaloniki, Greece
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Interests: marine biotoxins; phycotoxins; harmful algal blooms; toxic pufferfish; emerging marine toxins; tetrodotoxins; lipophilic toxins; toxic episodes management; phycotoxins regulatory monitoring; marine toxins analysis; mouse bioassay; liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent naturally-occuring neurotoxins, responsible for many human intoxications and fatalities. The recent occurences of TTX and its analogues (TTXs) in edible aquatic organisms, such as marine gastropods and bivalve molluscs, as well as in new latitudes, has raised concerns in Europe about the necessity to regulate this group of toxins in order to protect human health. In this context, further investigations regarding TTXs presence and origin in aquatic environments, development of more sophisticated analysis methods, further data on human intoxication incidents and toxicological potency of TTX and its analogues are considered extremely important and necessary.

This Special Issue aims to focus on new information and scientific evidence mainly with regard to: (i) TTXs occurrence in aquatic environments, with an emphasis on edible aquatic organisms; (ii) analysis methods for the determination of TTXs; (iii) advances in the clarification of TTX producing organisms, (iv) environmental factors involved in the presence of TTXs and (v) assessment of public health risks related to the presence of TTXs, as well as risk management and mitigation strategies. Studies addressing any other questions of relevance related to TTXs would also be considered of interest and are also welcome to be submitted.

Dr. Panagiota Katikou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tetrodotoxin
  • aquatic organisms
  • bivalve mollusks
  • pufferfish
  • climate change
  • tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria
  • mouse bioassay
  • liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • human poisoning
  • tetrodotoxin analogues

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Detection of the Potential Inactivation of Tetrodotoxin by Lactic Acid Bacterial Exopolysaccharide
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Screening for compounds that can neutralize the toxicity of tetrodotoxin (TTX) or reduce its negative effects is necessary. Our study tested the TTX detoxification capacity of exopolysaccharide (EPS) extracted from lactic acid bacteria. EPS of Leuconostoc mesenteroides N3 isolated from the Vung Tau
[...] Read more.
Screening for compounds that can neutralize the toxicity of tetrodotoxin (TTX) or reduce its negative effects is necessary. Our study tested the TTX detoxification capacity of exopolysaccharide (EPS) extracted from lactic acid bacteria. EPS of Leuconostoc mesenteroides N3 isolated from the Vung Tau sea (Vietnam), Lactobacillus plantarum PN05, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 were used in the study. To more completely evaluate the importance of EPS in detoxification, EPS samples of Leuconostoc mesenteroides N3, Lactobacillus plantarum PN05 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 were also tested. The majority of EPS of these bacteria contained glucose; this was observed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. As observed with FTIR analysis, only EPS of Lactobacillus plantarum PN05 contained methyl groups. The results indicated that detoxification of TTX in mice could be obtained at an optimal dose of 248 µg EPS from Leuconostoc mesenteroides incubated with 54 µg cuprous oxide for 40 min or 148 µg EPS Lactobacillus rhamnosus incubated with 55 µg cuprous oxide for 40 min, while EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum showed TTX detoxification capacity without cuprous oxide combination. Consequently, EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum PN05 can be used in TTX prevention. This is the first report on the importance of lactic acid bacteria in TTX detoxification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxins)
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Open AccessArticle Distribution of Tetrodotoxin in the New Zealand Clam, Paphies australis, Established Using Immunohistochemistry and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
PDF Full-text (7560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent neurotoxins known. It was originally thought to only occur in puffer fish but has now been identified in twelve different classes of freshwater and marine organisms, including bivalves. Despite being one of the world’s most
[...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent neurotoxins known. It was originally thought to only occur in puffer fish but has now been identified in twelve different classes of freshwater and marine organisms, including bivalves. Despite being one of the world’s most studied biotoxins, its origin remains uncertain. There is contradictory evidence regarding the source of TTX and its pathway through food webs. To date, the distribution of TTX has not been examined in bivalves. In the present study, 48 Paphies australis, a TTX-containing clam species endemic to New Zealand, were collected. Thirty clams were dissected, and organs and tissues pooled into five categories (siphons, digestive gland, adductor muscles, and the ‘rest’) and analyzed for TTX using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The micro-distribution of TTX was visualized in the remaining 18 individuals using an immunohistological technique incorporating a TTX-specific monoclonal antibody. The LC-MS analysis revealed that siphons contained the highest concentrations of TTX (mean 403.8 µg/kg). Immunohistochemistry analysis showed TTX in the outer cells of the siphons, but also in the digestive system, foot, and gill tissue. Observing TTX in organs involved in feeding provides initial evidence to support the hypothesis of an exogenous source in P. australis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxins)
Figures

Figure 1

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