Special Issue "Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies"

A special issue of Technologies (ISSN 2227-7080). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gustavo A. Fimbres Weihs

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, Col. Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, México, D.F.
E-Mail
Phone: +52-644-410-9000 (ext.1863)
Interests: carbon capture and storage (CCS); membrane science and technology; economics of CCS; economics of CO2 transport; optimization of CO2 pipeline networks; source-sink matching

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is regarded as one of the most promising transitional technologies for the world’s existing carbon intensive power generation infrastructure to continue to operate in the short- to medium-term with significantly lower emissions. The CCS process consists of a chain of operations that include the capture of CO2 from emission sources, compression, transportation, and injection of the CO2 into a geological storage formation. CCS targets large, stationary emitters and can also be implemented on biomass co-fired processes to achieve negative emissions, which will be required to compensate for industrial emissions if we are serious about achieving a zero-emissions target.

Ten years have passed since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) compiled a review of the state-of-the-art of CCS technologies in their Special Report on CCS. Since then, there have been many developments, some of them game-changing, and many pilot and industrial scale projects are now online using second or third generation technologies. However, the rate of deployment is falling short of achieving the emission reductions required by the Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) 2 °C Scenario, and there is still significant potential for lowering the cost and increasing the energy efficiency of CO2 capture, transport, and storage technologies.

This Special Issue will focus on the latest developments and progress in each of the aspects of CCS, from novel solvents, adsorbents, advanced membranes, chemical looping and cryogenic separation for CO2 capture, air and hydrogen separation, novel approaches for transporting CO2 via pipeline or ship dynamic networks, to innovative ways to store CO2 in different types of geological formations and its use to enhance the recovery of other natural resources.

Dr. Gustavo A. Fimbres Weihs
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Technologies is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • CO2 Capture
  • CO2 Transport
  • CO2 Storage
  • CCS Economics
  • CCS Network
  • Solvents
  • Adsorbents
  • Membranes
  • Chemical Looping
  • Biomass CCS
  • CO2 Pipelines
  • CO2 Shipping
  • EOR
  • EGR
  • Negative emissions

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Interactions between the Ionic Liquid and the ZrO2 Support in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO2 Separation
Technologies 2016, 4(4), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies4040032
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
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Abstract
This work reports the interaction study of two supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]), which were impregnated into porous zirconia supports with 20 nm average pore diameters.
[...] Read more.
This work reports the interaction study of two supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C4mim][BF4]), which were impregnated into porous zirconia supports with 20 nm average pore diameters. The interaction of ionic liquid-support observed from diffuse reflectance (DR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) is reported. The IR spectrum in the 600 to 4000 cm−1 range showed a specific interaction of the ionic liquid with the support. The N2 and CO2 permeances in the SILMs with [C4mim][BF4] were 8.7 × 10−8 mol·s−1·m−2·Pa−1 and 9.6 × 10−7 mol·s−1·m−2·Pa−1, respectively. The separation factor through the ionic liquid in the membrane as a function of temperature showed that the SILMs studied here can be used for CO2 separation at low temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Assessment of the Initial Compression Power Requirement in CO2 Pipeline “Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies”
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies4020015
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 23 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CO2 captured from fossil-fueled power generation plants is said to be economically transported via pipelines over long distances. The CO2 must be compressed to pipeline specifications using compressors and pumps that are driven by gas turbine (GT) or other prime movers.
[...] Read more.
CO2 captured from fossil-fueled power generation plants is said to be economically transported via pipelines over long distances. The CO2 must be compressed to pipeline specifications using compressors and pumps that are driven by gas turbine (GT) or other prime movers. This paper presents the evaluation of actual work transfer or required prime power by modeling the governing equations of compression using the Peng–Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS). A computer code was developed to carry out the modeling and subsequent simulation of the compression power requirement. The simulation of prime mover power was carried out for different technology (head per stage) of the compressor ranging from 10-staged compression to double stage compression. The results show that the current technology of the centrifugal compressor could require as much as 23MW of prime mover power to compress 1.5 million tonnes per year of CO2—a projected equivalent CO2 released from a 530MW combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power generation plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Membrane-Cryogenic Post-Combustion Carbon Capture of Flue Gases from NGCC
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies4020014
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 4 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Membrane gas separation for carbon capture has traditionally been focused on high pressure applications, such as pre-combustion capture and natural gas sweetening. Recently a membrane-cryogenic combined process has been shown to be cost competitive for post-combustion capture from coal fired power stations. Here,
[...] Read more.
Membrane gas separation for carbon capture has traditionally been focused on high pressure applications, such as pre-combustion capture and natural gas sweetening. Recently a membrane-cryogenic combined process has been shown to be cost competitive for post-combustion capture from coal fired power stations. Here, the membrane-cryogenic combined process is investigated for application to post-combustion carbon capture from the flue gas of a Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) process. This process involves a three-membrane process, where the combustion air is used as the sweep gas on the second membrane stage to recycle CO2 through the turbine. This ensures high CO2 recovery and also increases the CO2 partial pressure in the flue gas. The three-CO2-selective membrane process with liquefaction and O2-enrichment was found to have a cost of capture higher than the corresponding process for coal post-combustion capture. This was attributed to the large size and energy duty of the gas handling equipment, especially the feed blower, because of the high gas throughput in the system caused by significant CO2 recycling. In addition, the economics were uncompetitive compared to a modelled solvent absorption processes for NGCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Thermal Treatment and Steam Addition on Integrated CuO/CaO Chemical Looping Combustion for CO2 Capture
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies4020011
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
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Abstract
The combination of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) with Calcium Looping (CaL) using integrated pellets is an alternative CO2 capture process to the current amine-based sorbent processes, but the pellets lose sorption capacity over time. In this paper, the deactivation behavior of CaO,
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The combination of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) with Calcium Looping (CaL) using integrated pellets is an alternative CO2 capture process to the current amine-based sorbent processes, but the pellets lose sorption capacity over time. In this paper, the deactivation behavior of CaO, CuO and CuO/CaO integrated pellets used for multiple (16–20) cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer was studied. The impact of thermal treatment and the presence of steam on the deactivation were also investigated. Nitrogen physisorption and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the pellets. The analysis revealed significant migration of the copper to the surface of the composite pellets, which likely suppressed carbonation capacity by reducing the accessibility of the CaO. While thermal pre-treatment and steam addition enhanced the performance of the base CaO pellets, the former led to cracks in the pellets. In contrast, thermal pretreatment of the CuO/CaO composite pellets resulted in worse CLC and CaL performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Performance of Hypothetical Canadian Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Processes Using Life-Cycle Techniques
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 13 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
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Abstract
The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis
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The methodology of life-cycle assessment was applied in order to evaluate the environmental performance of a hypothetical Saskatchewan lignite-fueled Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electricity generation, with and without pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from a full life-cycle perspective. The emphasis here is placed on environmental performance associated with air contaminants of the comparison between IGCC systems (with and without CO2 capture) and a competing lignite pulverized coal-fired electricity generating station in order to reveal which technology offers the most positive environmental effects. Moreover, ambient air pollutant modeling was also conducted by using American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) air dispersion modeling to determine the ground-level concentration of pollutants emitted from four different electricity generating stations. This study assumes that all stations are located close to Estevan. The results showed a significant reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and acidification potential by applying both post-combustion and pre-combustion CO2 capture processes. The GHG emissions were found to have reduced by 27%–86%, and IGCC systems were found to compare favorably to pulverized coal systems. However, in other environmental impact categories, there are multiple environmental trade-offs depending on the capture technology used. In the case of post-combustion capture, it was observed that the environmental impact category of eutrophication potential, summer smog, and ozone depletion increased due to the application of the CO2 capture process and the surface mining coal operation. IGCC systems, on the other hand, showed the same tendency as the conventional coal-fired electricity generation systems, but to a lesser degree. This is because the IGCC system is a cleaner technology that produces lower pollutant emission levels than the electricity generating station; thus, the benefits of capture are reduced on a comparative basis. The results from air dispersion analysis showed that the maximum ground-level concentrations of pollutants from all electricity generating stations are in compliance with all air quality standards, except for Co, Pb and Ni. The IGCC with capture revealed the lowest nitrogen dioxide (NO2) ground-level concentration compared to all other scenarios. Moreover, IGCC systems both with and without pre-combustion CO2 capture revealed no ground-level concentration of trace elements. This is because the IGCC system operates with an acid gas cleaning process that removes most of the trace contaminants from the syngas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note Scale-Up Effects of CO2 Capture by Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solutions in Terms of Loading Capacity
Technologies 2016, 4(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies4030019
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 22 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, results from three different CO2 capture experimental scales (laboratory, pilot unit, and a larger pilot unit), using aqueous amine solutions of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) 20 wt %, are compared in terms of loading capacity. All three tested scales produced
[...] Read more.
In the present study, results from three different CO2 capture experimental scales (laboratory, pilot unit, and a larger pilot unit), using aqueous amine solutions of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) 20 wt %, are compared in terms of loading capacity. All three tested scales produced results regarding CO2 absorption using MDEA aqueous solutions, which were largely in accordance with the theoretical loading capacity of the used amine. Nevertheless, the observed differences between the theoretical and actual absorption behaviors of MDEA solutions for the different scales can be justified with the relative weight that process variables exhibit when the process is scaled up. Therefore, in order to achieve a correct scale-up of the process, simulations should be performed in order to define the best set of operational parameters in order to achieve high production yields and therefore more process profitability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technologies)
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