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Special Issue "Sustainability in Solid Waste Management"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Dimitrios Komilis

Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Kimmeria Campus, Xanthi, GR 671 00, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: (+30) 2541079391
Interests: compost quality and compost stability indices; landfill processes; solid waste characterization and decomposition processes; life cycle analysis and mathematical optimization in solid waste management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Solid waste management has been a wide area of research that has attracted the attention of many scientists over the past few decades. Municipal solid waste, which has traditionally been studied the most, is a stream which, by weight, is at relatively low percentages compared to the total amounts of solid wastes generated worldwide. Emphasis is lately given on special solid waste streams that may, or may not, have hazardous properties. The aspect of sustainability has been particularly introduced into solid waste management during the past two decades. For example, “sustainable landfilling” was a term introduced during the nineties to suggest the use of stabilization techniques prior to landfilling to reduce landfill emissions. Recently, and especially after the introduction of the H2020 funding proposal calls in Europe, the valorization of solid wastes to obtain useful products, or to recover energy, has been a clear priority with typical treatment technologies (i.e., “end of pipe” technologies) becoming a secondary priority. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been a strong tool to reach decisions and to compare technologies and management scenarios in the solid waste field.

This Special Issue aims to focus on this diverse nature of sustainable solid waste management: from valorization techniques to legal, economic and behavioral aspects and from LCA to quality assessment methods. The main topics of the manuscripts invited in this Special Issue are listed below.

Dr. Dimitrios Komilis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Valorization of solid wastes and recovery of useful products
  • Solid waste prevention and minimization
  • Solid waste pretreatment and sustainable landfilling
  • Sustainable hazardous waste management
  • Special solid waste streams
  • Life cycle analysis and economics in solid waste management
  • From waste to end product: Quality assessment methods
  • Legal issues in solid waste management
  • Behavioral aspects of solid waste management

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Economic and Environmental Cost Analysis of Incineration and Recovery Alternatives for Flammable Industrial Waste: The Case of South Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1638; doi:10.3390/su9091638
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
As the generation of industrial wastes increases, waste treatment is steadily becoming a serious economic and environmental issue. Existing waste has mainly been treated by landfilling after incineration. A shortage of landfill sites necessitates waste management alternatives other than traditional incineration and landfill.
[...] Read more.
As the generation of industrial wastes increases, waste treatment is steadily becoming a serious economic and environmental issue. Existing waste has mainly been treated by landfilling after incineration. A shortage of landfill sites necessitates waste management alternatives other than traditional incineration and landfill. This paper focuses on a cost-benefit analysis that evaluates the economic and environmental performances of five treatment strategies for flammable industrial wastes: incineration, refuse plastic fuel (RPF) boiler, RPF cement furnace, cement furnace after shredding of wastes, and paper incineration after shredding of wastes. For such purposes, our model considered the entire process of each waste treatment, which involves collection, transportation, treatment, recovery, and the disposal of flammable industrial wastes that pose risks to their surroundings. Case studies of each treatment processes are reviewed, and a cost-benefit analysis is performed to evaluate and identify the selection of treatment and disposal facilities, along with an allocation of flammable industrial wastes and waste residues from generators to treatment and disposal facilities and transportation routes, in order to achieve the minimum economic and environmental costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle Healthcare Waste Generation Worldwide and Its Dependence on Socio-Economic and Environmental Factors
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 220; doi:10.3390/su9020220
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the dependence of the healthcare waste (HCW) generation rate on several social-economic and environmental parameters. Correlations were calculated between the quantities of healthcare waste generated (expressed in kg/bed/day) versus economic indices (GDP, healthcare expenditure per capita), social indices (HDI, IHDI,
[...] Read more.
This paper examines the dependence of the healthcare waste (HCW) generation rate on several social-economic and environmental parameters. Correlations were calculated between the quantities of healthcare waste generated (expressed in kg/bed/day) versus economic indices (GDP, healthcare expenditure per capita), social indices (HDI, IHDI, MPI, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, HIV prevalence, deaths due to tuberculosis and malaria, and under five mortality rate), and an environmental sustainability index (total CO2 emissions) from 42 countries worldwide. The statistical analysis included the examination of the normality of the data and the formation of linear multiple regression models to further investigate the correlation between those indices and HCW generation rates. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were also calculated for all pairwise comparisons. Results showed that the life expectancy, the HDI, the mean years of schooling and the CO2 emissions positively affect the HCW generation rates and can be used as statistical predictors of those rates. The resulting best reduced regression model included the life expectancy and the CO2 emissions and explained 85% of the variability of the response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Mechanisms behind Changing People’s Recycling Behavior at Work by Applying a Comprehensive Action Determination Model
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 204; doi:10.3390/su9020204
Received: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study moves toward a better understanding of the mechanisms behind changing people’s recycling behavior at work by mapping out which pathways and variables change in recycling behavior as triggered by interventions. A questionnaire was designed based on the theory of planned behaviour,
[...] Read more.
This study moves toward a better understanding of the mechanisms behind changing people’s recycling behavior at work by mapping out which pathways and variables change in recycling behavior as triggered by interventions. A questionnaire was designed based on the theory of planned behaviour, the norm-activation model, habits, and a comprehensive action determination model (CADM). The data was collected in two rounds: before the intervention and after a three-month pilot period with implemented interventions using a sample of n = 1269 students and employees. The CADM model appears to be a good fit with the data. The results from the structural equation modelling indicate the pathways to influencing behavioural change. The most important psychological variables accounting for waste separation behaviour are intentions, perceived behavioural control, personal norms, social norms and habits. No difference in waste separation behaviour was observed in the control building. Interventions targeting the increase in waste separation raised participants’ intentions to engage in such behaviour. Results indicate that waste separation at work must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success. Furthermore, understanding human behavior is key in determining the performance and success of an integrated and effective recycling intervention strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle Fungal Pretreatment of Willow Sawdust with Abortiporus biennis for Anaerobic Digestion: Impact of an External Nitrogen Source
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 130; doi:10.3390/su9010130
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
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Abstract
In this study the effect of nitrogen (N) supplementation in the fungal pretreatment of willow sawdust (WSD) via the white rot fungus Abortiporus biennis (A. biennis) was studied in terms of the fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass and biochemical methane potential (BMP). Thus, different
[...] Read more.
In this study the effect of nitrogen (N) supplementation in the fungal pretreatment of willow sawdust (WSD) via the white rot fungus Abortiporus biennis (A. biennis) was studied in terms of the fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass and biochemical methane potential (BMP). Thus, different external nitrogen sources (yeast extract (YE), urea (UR), and ammonium nitrate (AN)) at different ratios (N/C of 1/250 and 1/50) were added and the effect of the above parameters on the chemical composition of WSD during solid-state fermentation (SSF) experiments with A. biennis was assessed and compared to the experiment of fungal pretreatment without N supplementation (N/C was 1/500, control experiment). The results indicated that the addition of an external nitrogen source did not facilitate delignification, regardless of the type of nitrogen source and the ratio of N/C used. On the other hand, enhanced cellulose uptake was observed. Samples of the 28th day of cultivation, with and without N supplementation, were used for BMP tests, where a reduction in methane yield was observed, compared to the control experiment. In addition, a combination of fungal with alkali (20% NaOH w/w dry mass) pretreatment was performed in order to assess the effect of combined pretreatment on the lignocellulosic content and the BMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Cellulase and Xylanase Production by Micrococcus Species under Submerged Fermentation
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1168; doi:10.3390/su8111168
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports on the optimization of culture conditions for cellulase and xylanase production by bacterial isolate from lignocellulosic biomass. The bacterial isolate was screened for cellulase and xylanase production on carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and birch wood xylan as substrates, respectively. One
[...] Read more.
This paper reports on the optimization of culture conditions for cellulase and xylanase production by bacterial isolate from lignocellulosic biomass. The bacterial isolate was screened for cellulase and xylanase production on carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and birch wood xylan as substrates, respectively. One bacterial isolate showing the highest halo zone diameter (isolate PLY1) was selected for detailed studies. The analysis of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene nucleotide sequence of PLY1 revealed it to have 98% similarity to Micrococcus luteus strain Fse9 and the sequence was deposited in the GenBank as Micrococcus luteus strain SAMRC-UFH3 with accession number KU171371. Cellulase production was achieved in the presence of CMC (1% w/v) under an incubation temperature of 25 °C (198 U/mL), pH 5 (173 U/mL), agitation speed 50 rpm (173 U/mL) and incubation period of 96 h (102 U/mL). Xylanase was produced maximally when birch wood xylan (1% w/v) was used as the substrate at 25 °C (1007 U/mL), pH 10 (2487 U/mL), 200 rpm (1814 U/mL), and under an incubation period of 84 h (1296 U/mL). Our findings showed that Micrococcus sp. SAMRC-UFH3 appears to be a potentially important candidate for lignocellulosic waste degradation and other relevant industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle Model of Chinese Household Kitchen Waste Separation Behavior: A Case Study in Beijing City
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 1083; doi:10.3390/su8101083
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High participation rates by the public in authority projects are key in increasing resident recycling levels. Understanding waste separation behavior is crucial to achieving sustainable waste management within such household-based schemes. To identify the driving forces behind the seldom-discussed kitchen garbage separation behavior,
[...] Read more.
High participation rates by the public in authority projects are key in increasing resident recycling levels. Understanding waste separation behavior is crucial to achieving sustainable waste management within such household-based schemes. To identify the driving forces behind the seldom-discussed kitchen garbage separation behavior, five psychological factors, namely, attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, moral norms, and responsibility denial, are established. Our data originate from a social study of Beijing citizens conducted in July 2013 (n = 362). Through structural equation modeling, we find that moral norms are consistently the most important predictor of household kitchen waste (KW) separation behavior. Subjective norms have a larger effect on such behavior than responsibility denial. Data analysis shows that perceived behavior control contributes significantly and independently to the explanation of such behavior. By contrast, attitude towards KW separation is found to be significantly negatively correlated with separation behavior. In conclusion, the model with direct and indirect effects of psychological factors explains 50.3% of the variance in household KW source separation behavior. Implications of the results for the promotion of household KW separation programs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle Municipal Solid Waste Characterization According to Different Income Levels: A Case Study
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 1044; doi:10.3390/su8101044
Received: 3 September 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid waste generation and characterization are some of the most important parameters which affect environmental sustainability. Municipal solid waste (MSW) characterization depends on social structure and income levels. This study aims to determine the variations in waste components within MSW mass by income
[...] Read more.
Solid waste generation and characterization are some of the most important parameters which affect environmental sustainability. Municipal solid waste (MSW) characterization depends on social structure and income levels. This study aims to determine the variations in waste components within MSW mass by income levels and seasonal conditions following the analysis conducted on the characterization of solid wastes produced in the Kartal district of the province of Istanbul, which is the research area of this study. To this end, 1.9 tons of solid waste samples were collected to represent four different lifestyles (high, medium, and low income levels, and downtown) in the winter and summer periods, and characterization was made on these samples. In order to support waste characterization, humidity content and calorific value analyses were also conducted and various suggestions were brought towards waste management in line with the obtained findings. According to the results obtained in the study, organic waste had the highest rate of waste mass by 57.69%. Additionally, significant differences were found in municipal solid waste components (MSWC) based on income level. Average moisture content (MC) of solid waste samples was 71.1% in moisture analyses. The average of calorific (heating) value (HHV) was calculated as 2518.5 kcal·kg−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Hybrid Model for Estimating Construction Waste for Multifamily Residential Buildings Using Artificial Neural Networks and Ant Colony Optimization
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 870; doi:10.3390/su8090870
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 21 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the increasing costs of construction waste disposal, an accurate estimation of the amount of construction waste is a key factor in a project’s success. Korea has been burdened by increasing construction waste as a consequence of the growing number of construction
[...] Read more.
Due to the increasing costs of construction waste disposal, an accurate estimation of the amount of construction waste is a key factor in a project’s success. Korea has been burdened by increasing construction waste as a consequence of the growing number of construction projects and a lack of construction waste management (CWM) strategies. One of the problems associated with predicting the amount of waste is that there are no suitable estimation strategies currently available. Therefore, we developed a hybrid estimation model to predict the quantity and cost of waste in the early stage of construction. The proposed approach can be used to address cost overruns and improve CWM in the subsequent stages of construction. The proposed hybrid model uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) and ant colony optimization (ACO). It is expected to provide an accurate waste estimate by applying historical data from multifamily residential buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Solid-State Fermentation as a Novel Paradigm for Organic Waste Valorization: A Review
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 224; doi:10.3390/su9020224
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The abundance of organic solid waste throughout the world has become a common issue that needs complete management at every level. Also, the scarcity of fuel and the competition between food and substance as an alternative to a petroleum-based product has become a
[...] Read more.
The abundance of organic solid waste throughout the world has become a common issue that needs complete management at every level. Also, the scarcity of fuel and the competition between food and substance as an alternative to a petroleum-based product has become a major problem that needs to be properly handled. An urge to find renewable substances for sustainable development results in a strategy to valorize organic solid waste using solid state fermentation (SSF) and to manage the issue of solid wastes in a green approach. This paper reviews management of solid wastes using SSF, with regard to its current application, advantages and challenges, downstream processing in SSF, economic viewpoint, and future perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Solid Waste Management)
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