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Special Issue "Sustainable Built Environment of Post-Carbon Era (Sustainable Built Environment 2016 Seoul Conference)"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Yong Han Ahn

^School of Architecture & Architecture Engineering, Hanyang University, Room 525, Engineering II Building 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu Ansan-city, Gyeonggi-do 426-791, South Korea
E-Mail
Phone: 031 400 5127 (mobile) 82 10 9979 5214
Interests: sustainable construction; sustainable infrastructure; key competencies of sustainable construction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable Built Environments is the main approach in the construction industry to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability encompasses a triple bottom line that meets three pillars; environmental, social, and cultural development, and economic dimensions in the built environment. To advance sustainable built environments, the all participants in the built environment need to concentrate on “Zero or Nearly-zero Energy Building”, “Sustainable Policy and Governance”, “Sustainability for Market Penetration and Commercialization”, “Industry, University and Government Collaboration”, and “Longevity and Durability of Structure”. In addition, it is also very important to recognize how all stakeholders in the built environment prepare for the post carbon-era, complying with COP 21.

This Special Issue will consist of selected papers from the “SBE 16 Seoul Conference”, a conference held in Seoul, South Korea, 11–14 December, 2015. The main theme of this conference is “Actions for the Built Environment of Post-Carbon Era, Complying with COP 21”. The purpose of this conference is for scientists, scholars, engineers, and graduate students, from universities/research institutes, to present ongoing research activities in order to exchange research ideas in the area of sustainability in the built environment. The Guest Editor will work with the conference international committee members, who are renowned experts in the areas of sustainability, to select high quality research work that improves the body of knowledge in sustainability.

Dr. Yong Han Ahn
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Zero or Nearly-Zero Energy Building
  • Government actions for reducing carbon emissions after COP21
  • Sustainable Policy and Governance
  • Sustainability for Market Penetration and Commercialization
  • Industry, University and Government Collaboration
  • Longevity and Durability

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle An ESCO Business Model Using CER for Buildings’ Energy Retrofit
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 591; doi:10.3390/su9040591
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study proposes an Energy Service Company (ESCO) business model to which Certified Emission Reduction (CER) is applied mainly for guaranteed savings. To verify the effectiveness of this ESCO business model, option theory is used. Notably, along with call and put options, which
[...] Read more.
This study proposes an Energy Service Company (ESCO) business model to which Certified Emission Reduction (CER) is applied mainly for guaranteed savings. To verify the effectiveness of this ESCO business model, option theory is used. Notably, along with call and put options, which are appropriate for profit structure evaluation of existing guaranteed savings contract, an up and knock-out option was used to analyze the option of securing profit from CER. Based on this analysis, the values of the guarantee acquired by an energy user from the change in the amount of energy savings and the values of an ESCO’s right to profit from energy savings and CER, were calculated. Through these valuations, the profit sharing ratio between energy users and the ESCO was estimated. When the model proposed in this paper was applied to a project case, the profit sharing ratio was 16.37%. The model proposed in this paper is useful for motivating ESCOs to save more energy during operating periods by effectively using profit from CER. Additionally, this model will contribute to the expansion of ESCO market and the effectiveness of energy performance projects in Korea. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impacts of Global Warming and Sea Level Rise on Service Life of Chloride-Exposed Concrete Structures
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 460; doi:10.3390/su9030460
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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Abstract
Global warming will increase the rate of chloride ingress and the rate of steel corrosion of concrete structures. Furthermore, in coastal (atmospheric marine) zones, sea level rise will reduce the distance of concrete structures from the coast and increase the surface chloride content.
[...] Read more.
Global warming will increase the rate of chloride ingress and the rate of steel corrosion of concrete structures. Furthermore, in coastal (atmospheric marine) zones, sea level rise will reduce the distance of concrete structures from the coast and increase the surface chloride content. This study proposes a probabilistic model for analyzing the effects of global warming and sea level rise on the service life of coastal concrete structures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, an improved chloride diffusion model is proposed to determine chloride concentration. The Monte Carlo method is employed to calculate the service life in the corrosion initiation stage; Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, a numerical model is proposed to calculate the rate of corrosion, probability of corrosion cracking, and service life. Third, overall service life is determined as the sum of service life in the corrosion initiation and corrosion propagation stages. After considering the impacts of global warming and sea level rise, the analysis results show that for concrete structures having a service life of 50 years, the service life decreases by about 5%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle BIM-Based 4D Simulation to Improve Module Manufacturing Productivity for Sustainable Building Projects
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 426; doi:10.3390/su9030426
Received: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract
Modular construction methods, where products are manufactured beforehand in a factory and then transported to the site for installation, are becoming increasingly popular for construction projects in many countries as this method facilitates the use of the advanced technologies that support sustainability in
[...] Read more.
Modular construction methods, where products are manufactured beforehand in a factory and then transported to the site for installation, are becoming increasingly popular for construction projects in many countries as this method facilitates the use of the advanced technologies that support sustainability in building projects. This approach requires dual factory–site process management to be carefully coordinated and the factory module manufacturing process must therefore be managed in a detailed and quantitative manner. However, currently, the limited algorithms available to support this process are based on mathematical methodologies that do not consider the complex mix of equipment, factories, personnel, and materials involved. This paper presents three new building information modeling-based 4D simulation frameworks to manage the three elements—process, quantity, and quality—that determine the productivity of factory module manufacturing. These frameworks leverage the advantages of 4D simulation and provide more precise information than existing conventional documents. By utilizing a 4D model that facilitates the visualization of a wide range of data variables, manufacturers can plan the module manufacturing process in detail and fully understand the material, equipment, and workflow needed to accomplish the manufacturing tasks. Managers can also access information about material quantities for each process and use this information for earned value management, warehousing/storage, fabrication, and assembly planning. By having a 4D view that connects 2D drawing models, manufacturing errors and rework can be minimized and problems such as construction delays, quality lapses, and cost overruns vastly reduced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Current Trends of Durability Design and Government Support in South Korea: Chloride Attack
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 417; doi:10.3390/su9030417
Received: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Concrete is considered to be a construction material with high durability and excellent fire resistance. However, degradation occurs, leading to structural safety problems and expensive maintenance costs. Currently, durability design and its concepts are provided in the concrete specifications and structural design codes
[...] Read more.
Concrete is considered to be a construction material with high durability and excellent fire resistance. However, degradation occurs, leading to structural safety problems and expensive maintenance costs. Currently, durability design and its concepts are provided in the concrete specifications and structural design codes in many countries, but they vary in terms of the design methodologies and users’ demands. Reinforced concrete (RC) structures based on a reasonable durability design with a quantitative procedure can prevent unnecessary maintenance expenses and reduce environmental loads. This paper presents the current trends of durability design in South Korea and government support for infrastructure. In this work, the two representative durability design philosophies (deterministic and probabilistic approaches) are briefly summarized, and the current guidelines and related requirements for durability design in several countries are investigated. Durability design is now changing from simple material requirement control to performance-based design with quantitative parameters considering various exposure classifications and evaluation processes. RC structures based on reasonable durability design can make a great contribution to reducing maintenance costs and environmental effects like CO2 emissions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simple Technique for Tracking Chloride Penetration in Concrete Based on the Crack Shape and Width under Steady-State Conditions
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 282; doi:10.3390/su9020282
Received: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
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Abstract
Chloride attack is considered one of the most threatening deterioration mechanisms in concrete. Any cracks or other imperfections on the surface open up additional routes for chloride intrusion. This paper develops existing anisotropic (1-D) and isotropic (2-D) models for chloride diffusion in concrete
[...] Read more.
Chloride attack is considered one of the most threatening deterioration mechanisms in concrete. Any cracks or other imperfections on the surface open up additional routes for chloride intrusion. This paper develops existing anisotropic (1-D) and isotropic (2-D) models for chloride diffusion in concrete with cracks by considering the crack shape and roughness. In order to verify the proposed model, concrete samples with crack widths from 0.0 to 0.4 mm were prepared and the chloride diffusion coefficients under steady-state conditions evaluated. The proposed model for a wedge-shaped model with roughness reduced chloride diffusion and provided more reasonable results than previous models based on rectangular shaped cracks with no roughness, which have tended to overestimate the effect. Our results revealed that including roughness in the model produced a 10%–20% reduction in chloride diffusion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Climate Change on Service Life of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Subjected to Carbonation—A Korean Case Study
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 157; doi:10.3390/su9010157
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2136 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increase in CO2 concentrations and global warming will increase the carbonation depth of concrete. Furthermore, temperature rise will increase the rate of corrosion of steel rebar after carbonation. On the other hand, compared with normal concrete, high volume fly ash (HVFA)
[...] Read more.
The increase in CO2 concentrations and global warming will increase the carbonation depth of concrete. Furthermore, temperature rise will increase the rate of corrosion of steel rebar after carbonation. On the other hand, compared with normal concrete, high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete is more vulnerable to carbonation-induced corrosion. Carbonation durability design with climate change is crucial to the rational use of HVFA concrete. This study presents a probabilistic approach that predicts the service life of HVFA concrete structures subjected to carbonation-induced corrosion resulting from increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, a hydration-carbonation integration model is used to evaluate the contents of the carbonatable material, porosity, and carbonation depth of HVFA concrete. The Monte Carlo method is adopted to determine the probability of corrosion initiation. Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, an updated model is proposed to evaluate the rate of corrosion, degree of corrosion for cover cracking of concrete, and probability of corrosion cracking. Third, the whole service life is determined considering both corrosion initiation stage and corrosion propagation stage. The analysis results show that climate change creates a significant impact on the service life of durable concrete. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 784; doi:10.3390/su8080784
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 11 August 2016
PDF Full-text (1439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO
[...] Read more.
Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1) the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2) economic level (S) was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P) also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E) and energy efficiency (C) significantly reduced the net CO2 emission. Full article
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