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Special Issue "Sustainable Utilization of Waste Heat"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr.-Ing. Florian Heberle

Department of Engineering Thermodynamics and Transport Processes (LTTT), Center of Energy Technology (ZET), University of Bayreuth
Website | E-Mail
Interests: thermodynamics; heat transfer; energy efficiency; organic Rankine cycle; Kalina cycle; heat pumps; waste heat recovery; renewable energy; geothermal; hybrid power plants; thermoeconomic analysis; life cycle assessment
Guest Editor
Prof. (FH) Dr.-Ing. Markus Preißinger

Illwerke vkw Endowed Professor for Energy Efficiency, Energy Research Center, University of Applied Sciences Vorarlberg, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: thermodynamics; thermoeconomics; Organic Rankine Cycle; industrial waste heat recovery; optimization of thermal processes; energy efficiency in mobile applications; thermal (waste) water treatment; desalination; humidification dehumidification technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The efficient and sustainable utilization of energy is a crucial aspect to reduce global Green House Gas emissions in such quantity to reach the goals of the 2015 COP21 Paris climate agreement. Hereby, waste heat is an unconventional and often neglected energy source, which has a high recovery potential throughout different countries and sectors. Several studies confirm, for example, huge amounts of industrial waste heat with temperatures ranging from as low as 50 °C up to as high as 1000 °C. Further waste heat potentials can be found for stationary and mobile internal combustion engines, e.g., in the truck and automotive industry.

In the last decades, different technologies have been proposed to recover the aforementioned thermal energy: electricity generation, direct utilization or thermal water treatment systems, just to name a few. Researchers mostly focused on theoretical or experimental studies, dealing with thermodynamic and constructional aspects. However, sustainable systems have to cover a broad range of additional characteristics such as environmental, economic and social aspects.

Therefore, this Special Issue aims to investigate the recovery of waste heat from industrial sites as well as from mobile and stationary internal combustion engines from a more holistic point of view.

Contributions within this Special Issue may address the following methods:

  • Definition and application of novel sustainability parameters
  • Multi-criteria evaluation including sustainability factors
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Life Cycle Cost Analysis
  • Thermoeconomic evaluation

The Special Issue favours, but is not limited to, contributions dealing with the following technologies:

  • Thermodynamic power cycles (e.g., Organic Rankine Cycle, Rankine Cycle, Kalina Cycle)
  • Thermal water treatment systems (e.g., humidification cycles, distillation processes)
  • Refrigeration cycles (e.g., absorption cycles) and heat pumps
  • District heating systems
  • Heat to X technologies in general

We believe that this Special Issue can provide a broad overview of waste heat recovery from the perspective of sustainability and we are looking forward to your contribution.

Dr.-Ing. Florian Heberle
Dr.-Ing. Markus Preißinger
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • waste heat recovery
  • thermodynamics
  • thermoeconomics
  • sustainable processes
  • thermal processes
  • Organic Rankine Cycle
  • refrigeration
  • water treatment systems

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Experimental Research on Heat Exchanger Control Based on Hybrid Time and Frequency Domain Identification
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082667
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
A heat exchanger is widely used for energy management or heat recovery in sustainable energy systems. In many application cases, the outlet temperature should be strictly controlled as desired. However, it is challenging to obtain an accurate dynamic model due to the high-order
[...] Read more.
A heat exchanger is widely used for energy management or heat recovery in sustainable energy systems. In many application cases, the outlet temperature should be strictly controlled as desired. However, it is challenging to obtain an accurate dynamic model due to the high-order dynamics, thus reducing the control performance. To this end, this paper proposes a novel identification method by considering the heating process as an approximate second-order plus time delay (SOPDT) model. A normalized analysis indicates that the time-scaled step responses of the general second-order models almost intersect at the same point, which leads to an equation describing the sum of the time constants. Critical stability analysis based on the Nyquist criterion gives another two equations in the frequency domain. Hence the time constants and time delay can be obtained by solving the equations. Illustrative examples show the identification efficiency of the proposed method in the parameter estimation, model reduction, and anti-noise performance. With an effective identification, the high-fidelity SOPDT model makes the PID controller tuning less challengeable. The simulation results based on a benchmark heat exchanger model demonstrate the feasibility of the identification and control. Finally, a real heat exchanger control facility is built and the experimental performance agrees well with the simulation expectation, depicting a promising application prospect in future sustainable applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Utilization of Waste Heat)
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Open AccessShort Note The Marginal Value of Heat in the Korean Manufacturing Industry
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061830
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
Thirty industrial heat (IH) providers in Korea have better energy efficiency and emit lower air pollutants than individual companies that produce and consume heat for their industrial production. Because these providers collect waste heat from garbage incineration plants, power plants, or industrial processes
[...] Read more.
Thirty industrial heat (IH) providers in Korea have better energy efficiency and emit lower air pollutants than individual companies that produce and consume heat for their industrial production. Because these providers collect waste heat from garbage incineration plants, power plants, or industrial processes of steel and chemical companies, as well as heat generated through combined heat and power plants and boilers. IH is an important input, used in industrial production as a form of hot water or steam. This note tries to assess the marginal value (MV) of IH in the manufacturing industry, using the specific case of Korea. To this end, a trans-log production function is estimated using the data gathered from a survey of 256 manufacturing firms in Korea. The MV of IH is estimated to be KRW 203,696 (USD 175.40) per tonne. This estimate is statistically significant at the 1% level. The average price of IH, defined as total expenditure on IH purchased in 2016 divided by total amount of IH purchased in 2016, is KRW 39,455 (USD 34.00) per tonne. Therefore, the MV of IH is about five times as large as the average price of IH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Utilization of Waste Heat)
Open AccessArticle Use Cases with Economics and Simulation for Thermo-Chemical District Networks
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030599
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermo-chemical networks using absorption and desorption to capture and valorise the potential of very low-grade residual heat (20 °C to 60 °C) to offer a reduction of end user costs and increased primary energy efficiency. The paper demonstrates the technical and economic potential
[...] Read more.
Thermo-chemical networks using absorption and desorption to capture and valorise the potential of very low-grade residual heat (20 °C to 60 °C) to offer a reduction of end user costs and increased primary energy efficiency. The paper demonstrates the technical and economic potential of thermo-chemical networks by defining use cases and their related level of energy efficiency and technological feasibility. Furthermore, specific economic scenarios, including estimations on investment and operation costs, demonstrate the economic benefit of the technology. Simple payback periods between about 0.5 and 7.5 years indicate a good economic feasibility with end user costs below 4 €ct/kWh-equivalent and refunds of 0.5 to 1 €ct/kWh for the required residual heat. Due to the low-temperature characteristics of the relevant systems and services, detailed simulations are required to approve the functioning and viability of the new technology. For this purpose, the paper demonstrates the simulation outline using the example of space heating based on a low-temperature air heating system partially driven with thermo-chemical fuel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Utilization of Waste Heat)
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Open AccessArticle Research on Energy-Saving Scheduling of a Forging Stock Charging Furnace Based on an Improved SPEA2 Algorithm
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112154
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to help the forging enterprise realize energy conservation and emission reduction, the scheduling problem of furnace heating was improved in this paper. Aiming at the charging problem of continuous heating furnace, a multi-objective furnace charging model with minimum capacity difference and
[...] Read more.
In order to help the forging enterprise realize energy conservation and emission reduction, the scheduling problem of furnace heating was improved in this paper. Aiming at the charging problem of continuous heating furnace, a multi-objective furnace charging model with minimum capacity difference and waiting time was established in this paper. An improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm 2 (SPEA2) algorithm was designed to solve this problem. The original fitness assignment strategy, crossover operator and population selection mechanism of SPEA2 are replaced with DOPGA (Domination Power of an Individual Genetic Algorithm), adaptive cross operator, and elitist strategy. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved SPEA2 was verified by actual arithmetic example. The comparison of results gained from three methods shows the superiority of the improved SPEA2 in solving this problem. Compared with strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) and SPEA2, the improved SPEA2 can get a better solution without increasing time complexity, the heating time is reduced by total 93 min, and can save 7533GJ energy. The research in this paper can help the forging enterprise improve furnace utilization, reduce heating time and unnecessary heating preservation time, as well as achieve sustainable energy savings and emissions reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Utilization of Waste Heat)
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Open AccessArticle Thermodynamic Analysis of ORC and Its Application for Waste Heat Recovery
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111974
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The analysis and optimization of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) used as a bottoming cycle in the Brayton/ORC and steam Rankine/ORC combined cycle configurations is the main focus of this study. The results show that CO2 and air are the best working
[...] Read more.
The analysis and optimization of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) used as a bottoming cycle in the Brayton/ORC and steam Rankine/ORC combined cycle configurations is the main focus of this study. The results show that CO2 and air are the best working fluids for the topping (Brayton) cycle. Depending on the exhaust temperature of the topping cycle, Iso-butane, R11 and ethanol are the preferred working fluids for the bottoming (ORC) cycle, resulting in the highest efficiency of the combined cycle. Results of the techno-economic study show that combined Brayton/ORC cycle has significantly lower total capital investment and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) compared to the regenerative Brayton cycle. An analysis of a combined steam Rankine/ORC cycle was performed to determine the increase in power output that would be achieved by adding a bottoming ORC to the utility-scale steam Rankine cycle, and determine the effect of ambient conditions (heat sink temperature) on power increase. For the selected power plant location, the large difference between the winter and summer temperatures has a considerable effect on the ORC power output, which varies by more than 60% from winter to summer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Utilization of Waste Heat)
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