E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Life Cycle Assessment on Green Building Implementation"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 March 2016)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Vivian W. Y. Tam

School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith NSW 2751, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61-02-4736-0105
Fax: +61-02-4736-0833
Interests: sustainable construction; green building; life cycle assessment
Guest Editor
Dr. Khoa N. Le

School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith NSW 2751, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61-02-4736-0382
Fax: +61-02-4736-0833
Interests: wireless communication; green building
Guest Editor
Prof. Liyin Shen

Faculty of Construction Management and Real Estate, Chongqing University, Shapingba District Chongqing 400045, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +86-23-6512-6265
Interests: sustainable construction; construction management; green building

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Greenhouse-gas emissions have become one of the most impacting environmental issues in today’s society. A rapidly increasing trend in global CO2 emissions particularly since the early nineties (23.64% since 1990) has led to the generation of about 50,000 million tons of CO2–equivalent (eqv) worldwide in 2010. According to mainstream climate experts, the increasing concentration of greenhouse-gases is having a warming effect on the world climate. To slow down global warming, there is a global focus on reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. Life cycle assessment in green building implementation is the focus of this Special Issue.

Dr. Vivian W. Y. Tam
Dr. Khoa N. Le
Prof. Liyin Shen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • green building
  • life cycle assessment
  • greenhouse gas emissions

Published Papers (13 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-13
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Life Cycle CO2 Assessment by Block Type Changes of Apartment Housing
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 752; doi:10.3390/su8080752
Received: 25 March 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The block type and structural systems in buildings affect the amount of building materials required as well as the CO2 emissions that occur throughout the building life cycle (LCCO2). The purpose of this study was to assess the life cycle
[...] Read more.
The block type and structural systems in buildings affect the amount of building materials required as well as the CO2 emissions that occur throughout the building life cycle (LCCO2). The purpose of this study was to assess the life cycle CO2 emissions when an apartment housing with ‘flat-type’ blocks (the reference case) was replaced with more sustainable ‘T-type’ blocks with fewer CO2 emissions (the alternative case) maintaining the same total floor area. The quantity of building materials used and building energy simulations were analyzed for each block type using building information modeling techniques, and improvements in LCCO2 emission were calculated by considering high-strength concrete alternatives. By changing the bearing wall system of the ‘flat-type’ block to the ‘column and beam’ system of the ‘T-type’ block, LCCO2 emissions of the alternative case were 4299 kg-CO2/m2, of which 26% was at the construction stage, 73% was as the operational stage and 1% was at the dismantling and disposal stage. These total LCCO2 emissions were 30% less than the reference case. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Proposal for the Evaluation of Eco-Efficient Concrete
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 705; doi:10.3390/su8080705
Received: 5 May 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
PDF Full-text (3352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The importance of environmental consequences due to diverse substances that are emitted during the production of concrete is recognized, but environmental performance tends to be evaluated separately from the economic performance and durability performance of concrete. In order to evaluate concrete from the
[...] Read more.
The importance of environmental consequences due to diverse substances that are emitted during the production of concrete is recognized, but environmental performance tends to be evaluated separately from the economic performance and durability performance of concrete. In order to evaluate concrete from the perspective of sustainable development, evaluation technologies are required for comprehensive assessment of environmental performance, economic performance, and durability performance based on a concept of sustainable development called the triple bottom line (TBL). Herein, an assessment method for concrete eco-efficiency is developed as a technique to ensure the manufacture of highly durable and eco-friendly concrete, while minimizing both the load on the ecological environment and manufacturing costs. The assessment method is based on environmental impact, manufacturing costs, and the service life of concrete. According to our findings, eco-efficiency increased as the compressive strength of concrete increased from 21 MPa to 40 MPa. The eco-efficiency of 40 MPa concrete was about 50% higher than the eco-efficiency of 24 MPa concrete. Thus eco-efficiency is found to increase with an increasing compressive strength of concrete because the rate of increase in the service life of concrete is larger than the rate of increase in the costs. In addition, eco-efficiency (KRW/year) was shown to increase for all concrete strengths as mixing rates of admixtures (Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag) increased to 30% during concrete mix design. However, when the mixing rate of admixtures increased to 40% and 60%, the eco-efficiency dropped due to rapid reduction in the service life values of concrete to 74 (year/m3) and 44 (year/m3), respectively. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation Analysis of the CO2 Emission and Absorption Life Cycle for Precast Concrete in Korea
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 663; doi:10.3390/su8070663
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 23 June 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
PDF Full-text (1930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To comply with recent international trends and initiatives, and in order to help achieve sustainable development, Korea has established a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target of 37% (851 million tons) of the business as usual (BAU) rate by 2030. Regarding environmentally-oriented standards
[...] Read more.
To comply with recent international trends and initiatives, and in order to help achieve sustainable development, Korea has established a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target of 37% (851 million tons) of the business as usual (BAU) rate by 2030. Regarding environmentally-oriented standards such as the IGCC (International Green Construction Code), there are also rising demands for the assessment on CO2 emissions during the life cycle in accordance with ISO (International Standardization Organization’s Standard) 14040. At present, precast concrete (PC) engineering-related studies primarily cover structural and construction aspects, including improvement of structural performance in the joint, introduction of pre-stressed concrete and development of half PC. In the manufacture of PC, steam curing is mostly used for the early-strength development of concrete. In steam curing, a large amount of CO2 is produced, causing an environmental problem. Therefore, this study proposes a method to assess CO2 emissions (including absorption) throughout the PC life cycle by using a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. Using the proposed assessment method, CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a precast concrete girder (PCG) were assessed. In addition, CO2 absorption was assessed against a PCG using conventional carbonation and CO2 absorption-related models. As a result, the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1365.6 (kg-CO2/1 PCG). The CO2 emissions during the production of raw materials among the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1390 (kg-CO2/1 PCG), accounting for a high portion to total CO2 emissions (nearly 90%). In contrast, the transportation and manufacture stages were 1% and 10%, respectively, having little effect on total CO2 emissions. Among the use of the PCG, CO2 absorption was mostly decided by the CO2 diffusion coefficient and the amount of CO2 absorption by cement paste. The CO2 absorption by carbonation throughout the service life of the PC was about 11% of the total CO2 emissions, which is about 16% of CO2 emissions from ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Insight into the Commercial Viability of Green Roofs in Australia
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 603; doi:10.3390/su8070603
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Construction industries around the world have, in recent history, become increasingly concerned with the sustainability of building practices. Inherently, the development of the built environment results in partial or complete destruction of the natural environment. Advanced European and North American countries have turned
[...] Read more.
Construction industries around the world have, in recent history, become increasingly concerned with the sustainability of building practices. Inherently, the development of the built environment results in partial or complete destruction of the natural environment. Advanced European and North American countries have turned to green roofs as a means of sustainable development. Australia, on the other hand, has yet to fully realize the potential of green roof technology. In the first case, an extensive review of green roof literature was undertaken to establish the dominant perspectives and over-riding themes within the established body of international literature. The collection of primary data took the form of qualitative, semi-structured interviews with a range of construction practitioners and green roof experts; landscape architects, consultants and academics. The information gained from the interviews facilitated the primary aim of the paper; to critically analyse the state-of-practice in the Australian green roof industry. Green roofs, despite their proven sustainability benefits and their international success, have experienced a relatively sluggish uptake in the Australian construction industry. With this being said, the Australian green roof industry is considered to have promising potential for the future; should there be legislative changes made in its favour or greater education within the industry. To advance the local industry, it was found that government authorities are required to adapt policy settings to better encourage the use of green roofs, whilst industry bodies are required to host better, more targeted educational programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Environmental Impact Analysis of Acidification and Eutrophication Due to Emissions from the Production of Concrete
Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 578; doi:10.3390/su8060578
Received: 2 May 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concrete is a major material used in the construction industry that emits a large amount of substances with environmental impacts during its life cycle. Accordingly, technologies for the reduction in and assessment of the environmental impact of concrete from the perspective of a
[...] Read more.
Concrete is a major material used in the construction industry that emits a large amount of substances with environmental impacts during its life cycle. Accordingly, technologies for the reduction in and assessment of the environmental impact of concrete from the perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA) must be developed. At present, the studies on LCA in relation to greenhouse gas emission from concrete are being carried out globally as a countermeasure against climate change. However, the studies on the impact of the substances emitted in the concrete production process on acidification and eutrophication are insufficient. As such, assessing only a single category of environmental impact may cause a misunderstanding about the environmental friendliness of concrete. The substances emitted in the concrete production process have an impact not only on global warming but also on acidification and eutrophication. Acidification and eutrophication are the main causes of air pollution, forest destruction, red tide phenomena, and deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. For this reason, the main substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that have an impact on acidification and eutrophication were deduced. In addition, an LCA technique through which to determine the major emissions from concrete was proposed and a case analysis was carried out. The substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that are related to eutrophication were deduced to be NOx, NH3, NH4+, COD, NO3, and PO43−. The substances among those emitted in the concrete production process that are related to acidification, were found to be NOx, SO2, H2S, and H2SO4. The materials and energy sources among those input into the concrete production process, which have the biggest impact on acidification and eutrophication, were found to be coarse aggregate and fine aggregate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Building Simplified Life Cycle CO2 Emissions Assessment Tool (B‐SCAT) to Support Low‐Carbon Building Design in South Korea
Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 567; doi:10.3390/su8060567
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Various tools that assess life cycle CO2 (LCCO2) emissions are currently being developed throughout the international community. However, most building LCCO2 emissions assessment tools use a bill of quantities (BOQ), which is calculated after starting a building’s construction. Thus,
[...] Read more.
Various tools that assess life cycle CO2 (LCCO2) emissions are currently being developed throughout the international community. However, most building LCCO2 emissions assessment tools use a bill of quantities (BOQ), which is calculated after starting a building’s construction. Thus, it is difficult to assess building LCCO2 emissions during the early design phase, even though this capability would be highly effective in reducing LCCO2 emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a Building Simplified LCCO2 emissions Assessment Tool (B‐SCAT) for application in the early design phase of low‐carbon buildings in South Korea, in order to facilitate efficient decision‐making. To that end, in the construction stage, the BOQ and building drawings were analyzed, and a database of quantities and equations describing the finished area were conducted for each building element. In the operation stage, the “Korea Energy Census Report” and the “Korea Building Energy Efficiency Rating Certification System” were analyzed, and three kinds of models to evaluate CO2 emissions were proposed. These analyses enabled the development of the B‐SCAT. A case study compared the assessment results performed using the B‐SCAT against a conventional assessment model based on the actual BOQ of the evaluated building. These values closely approximated the conventional assessment results with error rates of less than 3%. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Use of MIVES as a Sustainability Assessment MCDM Method for Architecture and Civil Engineering Applications
Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 460; doi:10.3390/su8050460
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 1 May 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental and sustainability assessment tools have an important role in moving towards a better world, bringing knowledge and raising awareness. In the architecture and civil engineering sector, these assessment tools help in moving forward to constructions that have less economic, environmental and social
[...] Read more.
Environmental and sustainability assessment tools have an important role in moving towards a better world, bringing knowledge and raising awareness. In the architecture and civil engineering sector, these assessment tools help in moving forward to constructions that have less economic, environmental and social impacts. At present, there are numerous assessment tools and methods with different approaches and scopes that have been analyzed in numerous technical reviews. However, there is no agreement about which method should be used for each evaluation case. This research paper synthetically analyzes the main sustainability assessment methods for the construction sector, comparing their strengths and weaknesses in order to present the challenges of the Spanish Integrated Value Model for Sustainability Assessment (MIVES). MIVES is a Multi-Criteria Decision Making method based on the value function concept and the Seminars of experts. Then, this article analyzes MIVES advantages and weak points by going through its methodology and two representative applications. At the end, the area of application of MIVES is described in detail along with the general application cases of the main types of assessment tools and methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Environmental Impact for Concrete Using LCA by Varying the Recycling Components, the Compressive Strength and the Admixture Material Mixing
Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 389; doi:10.3390/su8040389
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concrete is a type of construction material in which cement, aggregate, and admixture materials are mixed. When cement is produced, large amounts of substances that impact the environment are emitted during limestone extraction and clinker manufacturing. Additionally, the extraction of natural aggregate causes
[...] Read more.
Concrete is a type of construction material in which cement, aggregate, and admixture materials are mixed. When cement is produced, large amounts of substances that impact the environment are emitted during limestone extraction and clinker manufacturing. Additionally, the extraction of natural aggregate causes soil erosion and ecosystem destruction. Furthermore, in the process of transporting raw materials such as cement and aggregate to a concrete production company, and producing concrete in a batch plant, substances with an environmental impact are emitted into the air and water system due to energy use. Considering the fact that the process of producing concrete causes various environmental impacts, an assessment of various environmental impact categories is needed. This study used a life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of concrete in terms of its global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential (GWP, AP, EP, ODP, POCP, ADP). The tendency was that the higher the strength of concrete, the higher the GWP, POCP, and ADP indices became, whereas the AP and EP indices became slightly lower. As the admixture mixing ratio of concrete increased, the GWP, AP, ODP, ADP, and POCP decreased, but EP index showed a tendency to increase slightly. Moreover, as the recycled aggregate mixing ratio of concrete increased, the AP, EP, ODP, and ADP decreased, while GWP and POCP increased. The GWP and POCP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa) of high strength concrete were found to be about 13% lower than that for its normal strength concrete counterpart. Furthermore, in the case of AP, EP, ODP, and ADP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa), high-strength concrete was found to be about 10%~25% lower than its normal strength counterpart. Among all the environmental impact categories, ordinary cement was found to have the greatest impact on GWP, POCP, and ADP, while aggregate had the most impact on AP, EP, and ODP. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Analysis on the Impact Factors of the GSHP System Considering Energy Generation and Environmental Impact Using LCA
Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 376; doi:10.3390/su8040376
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The world is facing a crisis due to energy depletion and environmental pollution. The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, the most efficient new/renewable energy (NRE) system that can reduce the load of heating/cooling equipment in a building, can be used to address
[...] Read more.
The world is facing a crisis due to energy depletion and environmental pollution. The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, the most efficient new/renewable energy (NRE) system that can reduce the load of heating/cooling equipment in a building, can be used to address this crisis. Designers and contractors have implemented such systems depending on their experience, although there are many factors that affect the performance of the GSHP system. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a sensitivity analysis on the impact factors in terms of energy generation and environmental impact. This study was conducted as follows: (i) collecting the impact factors that affect the GSHP system’s performance; (ii) establishing the GSHP system’s scenarios with the impact factors; (iii) determining the methodology and calculation tool to be used for conducting sensitivity analysis; and (iv) conducting sensitivity analysis on the impact factors of the GSHP system in terms of energy generation and environmental impact using life cycle assessment. The results of this study can be used: (i) to establish the optimal design strategy for different application fields and different seasons; and (ii) to conduct a feasibility study on energy generation and environmental impact at the level of the life cycle. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Carbon Dioxide Uptake of Slag-Blended Concrete Structures, Considering the Effect of Carbonation
Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 312; doi:10.3390/su8040312
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the production of concrete, cement, water, aggregate, and chemical and mineral admixtures will be used, and a large amount of carbon dioxide will be emitted. Conversely, during the decades of service life of reinforced concrete structures, carbon dioxide in the environment can
[...] Read more.
During the production of concrete, cement, water, aggregate, and chemical and mineral admixtures will be used, and a large amount of carbon dioxide will be emitted. Conversely, during the decades of service life of reinforced concrete structures, carbon dioxide in the environment can ingress into concrete and chemically react with carbonatable constitutes of hardened concrete, such as calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate. This chemical reaction process is known as carbonation. Carbon dioxide will be absorbed into concrete due to carbonation. This article presents a numerical procedure to quantitatively evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and the absorption of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) blended concrete structures. Based on building scales and drawings, the total volume and surface area of concrete are calculated. The carbon dioxide emission is calculated using the total volume of concrete and unit carbon dioxide emission of materials. Next, using a slag blended cement hydration model and a carbonation model, the carbonation depth is determined. The absorbed carbon dioxide is evaluated using the carbonation depth of concrete, the surface area of concrete structures, and the amount of carbonatable materials. The calculation results show that for the studied structure with slag blended concrete, for each unit of CO2 produced, 4.61% of carbon dioxide will be absorbed during its 50 years of service life. Full article
Open AccessArticle Improving Sustainability Performance for Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) Projects
Sustainability 2016, 8(3), 289; doi:10.3390/su8030289
Received: 22 January 2016 / Revised: 12 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improving sustainability performance in developing infrastructure projects is an important strategy for pursuing the mission of sustainable development. In recent years, the business model of public-private-partnership (PPP) is promoted as an effective approach in developing infrastructure projects. It is considered that the distribution
[...] Read more.
Improving sustainability performance in developing infrastructure projects is an important strategy for pursuing the mission of sustainable development. In recent years, the business model of public-private-partnership (PPP) is promoted as an effective approach in developing infrastructure projects. It is considered that the distribution of the contribution on project investment between private and public sectors is one of the key variables affecting sustainability performance of PPP-type projects. This paper examines the impacts of the contribution distribution between public and private sectors on project sustainability performance. A model named the sustainability performance-based evaluation model (SPbEM) is developed for assisting the assessment of the level of sustainability performance of PPP projects. The study examines the possibility of achieving better sustainability through proper arrangement of the investment distribution between the two primary sectors in developing PPP-type infrastructure projects. Full article
Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building
Sustainability 2016, 8(1), 89; doi:10.3390/su8010089
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 13 January 2016 / Published: 18 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a
[...] Read more.
The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling. Full article
Open AccessArticle Relationship between Quarry Activity and Municipal Spatial Planning: A Possible Mediation for the Case of Sardinia, Italy
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16148-16163; doi:10.3390/su71215801
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite its economic importance, quarrying activity for the production of natural aggregates (sand, gravel, and crushed stone) can result in overexploitation of the natural environment. This paper investigates the current state of natural and recycled aggregates in Sardinia Italy and how to limit
[...] Read more.
Despite its economic importance, quarrying activity for the production of natural aggregates (sand, gravel, and crushed stone) can result in overexploitation of the natural environment. This paper investigates the current state of natural and recycled aggregates in Sardinia Italy and how to limit the production of natural aggregates (NA) and increase the use of recycled aggregates (RA). The municipalities of Cagliari, Sant’Antioco and Tortolì of Sardinia, Italy, were chosen as case studies because they fall within a particular territorial context. Owing to its geographic condition, the island of Sardinia must produce its own raw materials. The results of this research show how the combined use of NA and RA can help meet local and regional demand for aggregates. This proposal is derived from a needs assessment of NA based on urban masterplans for each municipality. Possible strategies for limiting the consumption of NA, as well as the use of RA, are also described. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Sustainability Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Sustainability Edit a special issue Review for Sustainability
logo
loading...
Back to Top