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Special Issue "Sustainable Development of Electrical Energy Storage Technologies in Energy Production"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Photometry Laboratory, GR15780—Zografou Campus, Athens, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sustainable development; environmental protection; energy policies; socio-economic impact of technological advancements; renewables dynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, energy production increase has been proven a globally contentious issue, as it counts variable stakeholders of competitive interests. Such indicative competitive interests are land use for energy crops against maximizing agricultural production yields, as well as the gradually localized trend of energy production from renewables, compared to the central overexploitation of fossil-fuelled energy sources in mainland grids of energy production. In response to this multi-parametric contradiction on traditional and novel approaches of energy production, this Special Issue aims at attracting researchers whose scientific interest resides in the electrical energy storage (EES) systems in a wide range of applicability: Technological advancements, environmental impacts, economies of scale achievement, active involvement of renewables in EES technologies, socio-economic impacts upon EES diffusion in regional and globalized contexts of analysis. The main limitations and the challenges derived from these scientific approaches will formulate a fresher scientific viewpoint of novel insights upon EES applicability in developed and developing economies, accordingly. Papers selected for this Special Issue are subject to a rigorous peer review procedure, enabling an integrated manner of dissemination upon research advancements and multi-disciplinary dynamics, accordingly.

Dr. Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • electrical energy storage
  • sustainability assessment and policies
  • energy production
  • renewables dynamics
  • economies of scale
  • environmental sustainability
  • socio-economic impact of energy production
  • multi-disciplinary energy issues
  • land biodiversity

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Multi-Port High Voltage Gain Modular Power Converter for Offshore Wind Farms
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072176
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
In high voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission of offshore wind power systems, DC/DC converters are applied to transfer power from wind generators to HVDC terminals, and they play a crucial role in providing a high voltage gain, high efficiency, and high fault
[...] Read more.
In high voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission of offshore wind power systems, DC/DC converters are applied to transfer power from wind generators to HVDC terminals, and they play a crucial role in providing a high voltage gain, high efficiency, and high fault tolerance. This paper introduces an innovative multi-port DC/DC converter with multiple modules connected in a scalable matrix configuration, presenting an ultra-high voltage step-up ratio and low voltage/current rating of components simultaneously. Additionally, thanks to the adoption of active clamping current-fed push–pull (CFPP) converters as sub-modules (SMs), soft-switching is obtained for all power switches, and the currents of series-connected CFPP converters are auto-balanced, which significantly reduce switching losses and control complexity. Furthermore, owing to the expandable matrix structure, the output voltage and power of a modular converter can be controlled by those of a single SM, or by adjusting the column and row numbers of the matrix. High control flexibility improves fault tolerance. Moreover, due to the flexible control, the proposed converter can transfer power directly from multiple ports to HVDC terminals without bus cable. In this paper, the design of the proposed converter is introduced, and its functions are illustrated by simulation results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Day-Ahead Probabilistic Model for Scheduling the Operation of a Wind Pumped-Storage Hybrid Power Station: Overcoming Forecasting Errors to Ensure Reliability of Supply to the Grid
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061989
Received: 19 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Variable renewable energy sources (VRES), such as solarphotovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines (WT), are starting to play a significant role in several energy systems around the globe. To overcome the problem of their non-dispatchable and stochastic nature, several approaches have been proposed so
[...] Read more.
Variable renewable energy sources (VRES), such as solarphotovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines (WT), are starting to play a significant role in several energy systems around the globe. To overcome the problem of their non-dispatchable and stochastic nature, several approaches have been proposed so far. This paper describes a novel mathematical model for scheduling the operation of a wind-powered pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) hybrid for 25 to 48 h ahead. The model is based on mathematical programming and wind speed forecasts for the next 1 to 24 h, along with predicted upper reservoir occupancy for the 24th hour ahead. The results indicate that by coupling a 2-MW conventional wind turbine with a PSH of energy storing capacity equal to 54 MWh it is possible to significantly reduce the intraday energy generation coefficient of variation from 31% for pure wind turbine to 1.15% for a wind-powered PSH The scheduling errors calculated based on mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) are significantly smaller for such a coupling than those seen for wind generation forecasts, at 2.39% and 27%, respectively. This is even stronger emphasized by the fact that, those for wind generation were calculated for forecasts made for the next 1 to 24 h, while those for scheduled generation were calculated for forecasts made for the next 25 to 48 h. The results clearly show that the proposed scheduling approach ensures the high reliability of the WT–PSH energy source. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Behavior of Secondary Education Students: A Case Study at Central Greece
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1663; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051663
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
During the last three decades, human behavior has been becoming energy alarming towards environmental sustainability. One of the most influential initiatives towards environmental protection and increased environmental consciousness is the solidification of primary and secondary environmental education. The purpose of this paper is
[...] Read more.
During the last three decades, human behavior has been becoming energy alarming towards environmental sustainability. One of the most influential initiatives towards environmental protection and increased environmental consciousness is the solidification of primary and secondary environmental education. The purpose of this paper is to investigate different environmental profiles amongst secondary education students, in light of a multi-parametric analysis that involved the contributive role of school and family towards environmental awareness and participation. By reviewing relevant studies, the benefits offered by environmental education are presented. Accordingly, a questionnaire survey was deployed using a sample of 270 secondary education students, from schools situated in the prefecture of Larissa, central Greece. The statistical methods included factor analysis and cluster analysis. Particularly, four groups of different environmental characteristics are identified and interviewed. Results suggest that most students are environmental affectionate, although there is a need for more solidified environmental education and motivation from out-of-school societal opportunities, such as in the contexts of family and public socialization. The deployed research method and analysis can be proven supportive in adopting and scheduling school environmental programs after an initial identification of the various environmental attitudes among the student population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Social Assessment of the Usage of Renewable Energy Sources and Its Contribution to Life Quality: The Case of an Attica Urban Area in Greece
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051414
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and their contribution to citizens’ life quality. For this purpose, a survey was conducted using a sample of 400 residents in an urban area of the
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and their contribution to citizens’ life quality. For this purpose, a survey was conducted using a sample of 400 residents in an urban area of the Attica region in Greece. The methods of Principal Components Analysis and Logit Regression were used on a dataset containing the respondents’ views on various aspects of RES. Two statistical models were constructed for the identification of the main variables that are associated with the RES’ usage and respondents’ opinion on their contribution to life quality. The conclusions that can be drawn show that the respondents are adequately informed about some of the RES’ types while most of them use at least one of the examined types of RES. The benefits that RES offer, were the most crucial variable in determining both respondents’ perceptions on their usage and on their contribution to life quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Agricultural Commodities and Crude Oil Prices: An Empirical Investigation of Their Relationship
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041199
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Within the last few decades, the extended use of biodiesel and bioethanol has established interlinkages between energy markets and agricultural commodity markets. The present work examines the bivariate relationships of crude oil–corn and crude oil–soybean futures prices with the assistance of the ARDL
[...] Read more.
Within the last few decades, the extended use of biodiesel and bioethanol has established interlinkages between energy markets and agricultural commodity markets. The present work examines the bivariate relationships of crude oil–corn and crude oil–soybean futures prices with the assistance of the ARDL cointegration approach. Our findings confirm that crude oil prices affect the prices of agricultural products used in the production of biodiesel, as well as of ethanol, validating the interaction of energy and agricultural commodity markets. The practical value of the present work is that the findings provide policy makers with insight into the interlinkages between agricultural and energy markets to promote biodiesel or bioethanol by affecting crude oil prices. The novelty of the present work stands on the use of futures prices that incorporate all available information and thus are more appropriate to identify supply and demand shocks and price spillovers than real prices. Finally, the period of study includes extremely low, as well as extremely high, crude oil prices and the results illustrate that biofuels cannot be substituted for crude oil and protect economies from energy volatility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle First Approach to a Holistic Tool for Assessing RES Investment Feasibility
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041153
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
Combining availability, viability, sustainability, technical options, and environmental impact in an energy-planning project is a difficult job itself for the today’s engineers. This becomes harder if the potential investors also need to be persuaded. Moreover, the problem increases even more if various consumptions
[...] Read more.
Combining availability, viability, sustainability, technical options, and environmental impact in an energy-planning project is a difficult job itself for the today’s engineers. This becomes harder if the potential investors also need to be persuaded. Moreover, the problem increases even more if various consumptions are considered, as their patterns depend to a large extent on the type of facility and the activity. It is therefore essential to develop tools to assess the balance between generation and demand in a given installation. In this paper, a valuable tool is developed for the seamless calculation of the integration possibilities of renewable energies and the assessment of derived technical, financial and environmental impacts. Furthermore, it also considers their interaction with the power grid or other networks, raising awareness of the polluting emissions responsible for global warming. Through a series of Structured Query Language databases and a dynamic data parameterization, the software is provided with sufficient information to encode, calculate, simulate and graphically display information on the generation and demand of electric, thermal and transport energy, all in a user-friendly environment, finally providing an evaluation and feasibility report. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transforming Data Centers in Active Thermal Energy Players in Nearby Neighborhoods
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040939
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we see the Data Centers (DCs) as producers of waste heat integrated with smart energy infrastructures, heat which can be re-used for nearby neighborhoods. We provide a model of the thermo-electric processes within DCs equipped with heat reuse technology, allowing
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we see the Data Centers (DCs) as producers of waste heat integrated with smart energy infrastructures, heat which can be re-used for nearby neighborhoods. We provide a model of the thermo-electric processes within DCs equipped with heat reuse technology, allowing them to adapt their thermal response profile to meet various levels of hot water demand. On top of the model, we have implemented computational fluid dynamics-based simulations to determine the cooling system operational parameters settings, which allow the heat to build up without endangering the servers’ safety operation as well as the distribution of the workload on the servers to avoid hot spots. This will allow for setting higher temperature set points for short periods of time and using pre-cooling and post-cooling as flexibility mechanisms for DC thermal profile adaptation. To reduce the computational time complexity, we have used neural networks, which are trained using the simulation results. Experiments have been conducted considering a small operational DC featuring a server room of 24 square meters and 60 servers organized in four racks. The results show the DCs’ potential to meet different levels of thermal energy demand by re-using their waste heat in nearby neighborhoods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Socio-Cultural Impact of Energy Saving: Studying the Behaviour of Elementary School Students in Greece
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030737
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Education makes it possible for students to become familiar with the rational management of energy as well as learn to implement energy saving practices in their everyday life. The study of certain student characteristics helps in the direction of applying strategies of behavioural
[...] Read more.
Education makes it possible for students to become familiar with the rational management of energy as well as learn to implement energy saving practices in their everyday life. The study of certain student characteristics helps in the direction of applying strategies of behavioural change. The aim of this research is to record the knowledge and attitudes of elementary school students in the Prefecture of Evros with regard to energy saving. The collection of research data was done through the use of a structured and anonymous questionnaire with closed questions. The method used for the collection of the research data was cluster sampling. This involved 17 elementary schools of the continental part of the prefecture. 612 questionnaires were completed by students of the 5th and 6th grade of these schools. The evaluation of the research data showed that 69.6% of the students think that the most appropriate house temperature is 20°C with 79.1% of the students keeping the thermostat switched off while the house is aired. With regard to the use of TV, stereo, play station and PC the research showed that 93.8% of the students switch off the above devices when these are not in use. In parallel, 86.6% of the respondents usually or always switch off the lights when coming out of a room and 46.2% of the students use energy saving bulbs. Also, 93% of the students recycle because they believe that doing so contributes to the protection of the environment while 41% always chooses to walk to school. With regard to the significance of reasons concerning energy saving 85.9% thinks that energy saving is important to very important for reducing environmental pollution. Full article
Open AccessArticle Public Perceptions and Willingness to Pay for Renewable Energy: A Case Study from Greece
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030687
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 25 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (635 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to discover the factors shaping public opinion about renewable energy sources and investigate willingness to pay for expansion of renewable energy sources in the electricity mix. Data was collected through a questionnaire applied in Nikaia, an urban
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to discover the factors shaping public opinion about renewable energy sources and investigate willingness to pay for expansion of renewable energy sources in the electricity mix. Data was collected through a questionnaire applied in Nikaia, an urban municipality of Greece. The respondents have a positive attitude towards renewable energy systems. Most of them have good knowledge of solar and wind energy systems and are using solar water heating, while several respondents own a solar PV system. Environmental protection is seen as the most important reason for investing in a renewable energy system. Willingness to pay for a wider penetration of RES into the electricity mix was estimated to be 26.5 euros per quarterly electricity bill. The statistical analysis revealed the existence of a relationship between RES perceived advantages and willingness to pay for renewable energy. Furthermore, by using a binary logit model, willingness to pay was found to be positively associated with education, energy subsidies, and state support. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Investment Planning of Bulk Energy Storage Systems
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030610
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
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Abstract
Many countries have the ambition to increase the share of renewable sources in electricity generation. However, continuously varying renewable sources, such as wind power or solar energy, require that the power system can manage the variability and uncertainty of the power generation. One
[...] Read more.
Many countries have the ambition to increase the share of renewable sources in electricity generation. However, continuously varying renewable sources, such as wind power or solar energy, require that the power system can manage the variability and uncertainty of the power generation. One solution to increase flexibility of the system is to use various forms of energy storage, which can provide flexibility to the system at different time ranges and smooth the effect of variability of the renewable generation. In this paper, we investigate three questions connected to investment planning of energy storage systems. First, how the existing flexibility in the system will affect the need for energy storage investments. Second, how presence of energy storage will affect renewable generation expansion and affect electricity prices. Third, who should be responsible for energy storage investments planning. This paper proposes to assess these questions through two different mathematical models. The first model is designed for centralized investment planning and the second model deals with a decentralized investment approach where a single independent profit maximizing utility is responsible for energy storage investments. The models have been applied in various case studies with different generation mixes and flexibility levels. The results show that energy storage system is beneficial for power system operation. However, additional regulation should be considered to achieve optimal investment and allocation of energy storage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Spatial Decision Support System Framework for the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Production Locations: Case Study in the Regional Unit of Drama, Greece
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020531
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Renewable Energy Sources are expected to play a very important role in energy production in the following years. They constitute an energy production methodology which, if properly enabled, can ensure energy sufficiency as well as the protection of the environment. Energy production from
[...] Read more.
Renewable Energy Sources are expected to play a very important role in energy production in the following years. They constitute an energy production methodology which, if properly enabled, can ensure energy sufficiency as well as the protection of the environment. Energy production from biomass in particular is a very common method, which exploits a variety of resources (wood and wood waste, agricultural crops and their by-products after cultivation, animal wastes, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and food processing wastes) for the production of energy. This paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System, which enables managers to locate the most suitable areas for biomass power plant installation. For doing this, fuzzy logic and fuzzy membership functions are used for the creation of criteria layers and suitability maps. In this paper, we use a Multicriteria Decision Analysis methodology (Analytical Hierarchy Process) combined with fuzzy system elements for the determination of the weight coefficients of the participating criteria. Then, based on the combination of fuzzy logic and theAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a final proposal is created thatdivides the area into four categories regarding their suitability forsupporting a biomass energy production power plant. For the two optimal locations, the biomass is also calculated.The framework is applied to theRegional Unit of Drama, which is situated in Northern Greece and is very well known for the area’s forest and agricultural production. Full article
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