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Special Issue "Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Marco Ragazzi

Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, Trento I-38123, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Management, treatment and recovery of municipal waste, sewage sludge and biomass waste collection, aerobic and anaerobic treatment, heat treatment; Management and Waste Water Treatment; Remediation of contaminated sites; Air pollution and health risk: indoor and outdoor; Eutrophication of lakes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on eutrophication with the aim of presenting this phenomenon through an integrated vision that may come both from specialized and from interdisciplinary articles. Received papers are expected to cover a wide range of topics: From the sustainable management of catchment basins of lakes (prevention) to the analysis of the suitability of in-lake solutions for the water body recovery (treatment), from the detailed study of algal species to understand the evolution of eutrophication to the study of the sediments of lakes. Of course, the sustainable management of water bodies will be not limited to lakes: Coastal areas of seas, lagoons, reservoirs will be dealt with the same attention. Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a peer review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of their contents.

Prof. Marco Ragazzi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • eutrophication
  • algae
  • sediment
  • lake
  • sea
  • lagoon
  • nutrients
  • reservoir
  • recovery
  • management

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Eutrophication, Research and Management History of the Shallow Ypacaraí Lake (Paraguay)
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072426
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
Ypacaraí Lake is the most renowned lake in landlocked Paraguay and a major source of drinking and irrigation water for neighbouring towns. Beyond its socioeconomic and cultural significance, it has great ecological importance, supporting a rich biodiversity. Rapid growth of human presence and
[...] Read more.
Ypacaraí Lake is the most renowned lake in landlocked Paraguay and a major source of drinking and irrigation water for neighbouring towns. Beyond its socioeconomic and cultural significance, it has great ecological importance, supporting a rich biodiversity. Rapid growth of human presence and activities within its basin has led to its environmental degradation, a heartfelt matter of high political concern that compels intervention. Here, by reconstructing the history of scientific and management-oriented research on this system, we provide a comprehensive assessment of current knowledge and practice to which we contribute our recent, novel findings. An upward trend in total phosphorus concentration confirms ongoing eutrophication of an already eutrophic system, evidenced by consistently high values of trophic state indices. Downward trends in water transparency and chlorophyll-a concentration support the hypothesis that primary production in this lake is fundamentally light limited. Statistical and other analyses suggest high sensitivity of the system to hydraulic, hydro-morphological and hydro-meteorological alterations arising, respectively, from engineering interventions, land use and climate change. By discussing knowledge gaps, opportunities for research and challenges for management and restoration, we argue that this case is of high scientific value and that its study can advance theoretical understanding of shallow subtropical lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Assessment of Water Quality Issues in Hongze Lake, China, Related to the Operation of a Water Diversion Project
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061885
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
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Abstract
The Hongze Lake serves as the first important transfer and storage path along the East Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP-ER). After the Project began operating in 2013, eutrophication in the lake has created increasing public concern regarding the direct effect
[...] Read more.
The Hongze Lake serves as the first important transfer and storage path along the East Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP-ER). After the Project began operating in 2013, eutrophication in the lake has created increasing public concern regarding the direct effect on water quality from the project. In this paper, we used multivariate statistical methods to examine the variances between water quality variables at four site groups (inlets and outlets in the study area) and during three seasons (wet, normal, and dry seasons) in Eastern Hongze Lake. We also used redundancy analysis (RDA) to analyze environmental factors’ impact on water quality. We found that (1) the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were exceeding the standard values; (2) No significant spatial heterogeneity regarding nitrogen and phosphorus among the inlet/outlet of Eastern Hongze Lake existed in normal and wet seasons, and there was no evidence demonstrating that SNWDP-ER could improve eutrophication or even contribute to eutrophication in the dry season; (3) Environmental factors (land use, water diversion, and population) have limited influences on water quality, which was possibly caused by the overly-high river input and artificial input of nitrogen and phosphorus. Thus, it is critical to reinforce the control of pollution sources and enhance the ecological restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Quantification of Physicochemical Parameters Influencing Chlorophyll-a Concentrations through Combined Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis: A Case Study of the Yuqiao Reservoir in China
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040936
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
Algal outbreaks caused by excessive nutrients in lakes result in eutrophication. Chlorophyll-a, as a primary productivity feature, is used as a representative index of algal presence in lakes. Physicochemical parameters are known to affect the type and amount of nutrients in lakes, which
[...] Read more.
Algal outbreaks caused by excessive nutrients in lakes result in eutrophication. Chlorophyll-a, as a primary productivity feature, is used as a representative index of algal presence in lakes. Physicochemical parameters are known to affect the type and amount of nutrients in lakes, which are related to eutrophication. In this study, factor analysis was used in conjunction with principal component analysis to reveal the relationship between chlorophyll-a and its associated parameters. The combination of these two methods helps to identify the main influencing parameters by quantifying the respective extent of parameters using FA, after which the meaning is explained by PCA. We investigate physicochemical parameters, including temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand, as well as nutrients, such as ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP). Yuqiao Reservoir, an important drinking water source in northern China, has been affected by eutrophication for years. Analysis was performed using daily monitoring data of physicochemical parameters and chlorophyll-a concentrations collected from Yuqiao Reservoir between 2003 and 2014. Results show that main parameters affecting chl-a concentrations are TP, temperature, DO, COD, and nitrogen, with correlation coefficients of 0.977, 1.983, 1.797, and 1.595, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle Research into the Eutrophication of an Artificial Playground Lake near the Yangtze River
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030867
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water pollution in urban rivers is serious in China. Eutrophication and other issues are prominent. Taking the artificial Playground Lake in Zhenjiang as an example, a numerical model combining particle tracing, hydrodynamics, water quality and eutrophication was constructed to simulate the water quality
[...] Read more.
Water pollution in urban rivers is serious in China. Eutrophication and other issues are prominent. Taking the artificial Playground Lake in Zhenjiang as an example, a numerical model combining particle tracing, hydrodynamics, water quality and eutrophication was constructed to simulate the water quality improvement in Playground Lake with or without water diversion by pump and sluice. Simulation results using particle tracking showed that the water residence time depended on wind direction: east wind, 125 h; southeast wind, 115 h; south wind, 95 h. With no water diversion, the lower the flow velocity of Playground Lake under three wind fields, the more serious the eutrophication. Under pump diversion, the water body in Playground Lake can be entirely replaced by water diversion for 30 h. When the temperature is lower than 15 °C, from 15 °C to 25 °C and higher than 25 °C, the water quality can be maintained for 15 d, 10 d and 7 d, respectively. During high tide periods of spring tides in the Yangtze River from June to August, the water can be diverted into the lake through sluices. The greater the Δh (the water head between the Yangtze River and Playground Lake), the more the water quality will improve. Overall, the good-to-bad order of water quality improvements for Playground Lake is as follows: pumping 30 h > sluice diversion > no water diversion. This article is relevant for the environmental management of the artificial Playground Lake, and similar lakes elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle Shifting Scarcities? The Energy Intensity of Water Supply Alternatives in the Mass Tourist Resort of Benidorm, Spain
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030824
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The energy intensity of water—‘energy (electricity)-for-water’—is calculated for Benidorm, a mass tourism resort in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, where the urban water cycle has evolved in response to a series of episodes of water stress. The analysis is based on primary data compiled
[...] Read more.
The energy intensity of water—‘energy (electricity)-for-water’—is calculated for Benidorm, a mass tourism resort in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, where the urban water cycle has evolved in response to a series of episodes of water stress. The analysis is based on primary data compiled from various actors involved in the urban water cycle encompassing water extraction, end uses, and wastewater treatment, including tertiary treatment. The results provide one of the first analyses of the relations between energy and water in a mass tourist center, which may be of potential interest for other tourist areas. It is estimated that a total of 109 GWh/year of electricity is required to operate the water cycle of Benidorm. About 4% of total energy use in Benidorm is dedicated to extracting, transporting, and treating water. The most energy-intensive stage is represented by end uses, which accounts for 20% of the total energy use in Benidorm when the energy required for water pumping and hot water use is considered. Additionally, energy intensity for water extraction was estimated for normal, wet, and two dry year scenarios. In comparison with the normal scenario, energy intensity is six times larger when desalinated water is incorporated during a dry year, whereas the emergency interbasin water transfer resulted in a more moderate increase in energy intensity. While treated wastewater and emergency water transfers appear to be a more convenient solution in energy terms, the strong impulse given to desalination in Spain is forcing local water authorities towards the use of a resource that is much more energy intensive, although, on the other hand, much less dependent on the vagaries of climate. In light of recent technological and managerial developments, the Benidorm case illuminates the challenges appearing in the analysis of the water-energy nexus, especially the fact that scarcity may be transferred from water to energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence of the Impact of Surface Water Quality on Property Values
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020500
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality
[...] Read more.
The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality continues to be altered by human use and activity, and in light of new threats posed by projected climate and associated environmental change, understanding the impact of changing quality on property prices, and the associated property tax base, is paramount. This paper reviews the body of evidence on this topic to date. Of the 43 distinct studies represented in the 48 publications reviewed, the expected, statistically significant relationship between water quality and property price was demonstrated in at least one of the models developed in all but two studies. As a whole, they provide convincing evidence that clean water has a positive effect on property values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
Open AccessArticle Effluents from Fish Farming Ponds: A View from the Perspective of Its Main Components
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010003
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Among the animal protein production activities, world aquaculture has the highest growth rate, and is mainly practiced in ground-excavated ponds. However, with great productivity comes the concern about the increasing generation of effluents, mainly at the moment of fish removal, when high loads
[...] Read more.
Among the animal protein production activities, world aquaculture has the highest growth rate, and is mainly practiced in ground-excavated ponds. However, with great productivity comes the concern about the increasing generation of effluents, mainly at the moment of fish removal, when high loads of organic matter and nutrients are released into the environment. Thus, this study evaluated the quality of effluents through the principal component analysis (PCA) in samples from nurseries of different sizes in four sampling scenarios. Analysis was performed during the process of fish removal in Nile Tilapia intensive fish farming sites at various properties in the Western region of Paraná State in Brazil. Twenty physical and chemical parameters were analyzed in each effluent sample using standard methods of effluent analysis. The results indicated that the concentrations of Suspended Solids (SS), Total Solids (TS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Total Phosphorus (TP) increased significantly at the end of the fish removal process, which caused a progressive deterioration in the effluent released into the environment. Hence, regulating water management during cultivation, as well as mitigating the effects of effluent generated in fish removal, is indispensable to maintain the legality, profitability, and sustainability of this sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle Using Synergy between Water Limnology and Satellite Imagery to Identify Algal Blooms Extent in a Brazilian Amazonian Reservoir
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122194
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Monitoring algal blooms from space is a very challenging task, which becomes particularly difficult when dealing with cyanobacteria blooms. Cyanobacteria are strategic organisms adapted to a wide variety of environmental conditions. In high concentrations, they form scum on the water surface, which is
[...] Read more.
Monitoring algal blooms from space is a very challenging task, which becomes particularly difficult when dealing with cyanobacteria blooms. Cyanobacteria are strategic organisms adapted to a wide variety of environmental conditions. In high concentrations, they form scum on the water surface, which is a concern for public health due to the production of toxins, as well as being a nuisance. Knowledge of the ecological role of these organisms is, therefore, essential when trying to estimate their extent from satellite-based data. We present a multidisciplinary approach, based on both the ecological and the optical perspective. This approach is applied in a Brazilian Amazonian reservoir using spatial and temporal scales. The ACOLITE processor is employed to perform atmospheric correction. Extent of the algal bloom is mapped with outputs such as Rayleigh reflectance atmospheric corrected images. Chlorophyll-a estimation is accomplished using a blue-green edge algorithm from the Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG), and shows reasonable results (R2 = 0.95; RMSE = 0.40). The SAred-NIR slope algorithm identifies the extent of the algal bloom at both the spatial and temporal scale. Unfortunately, the performance of these algorithms is most likely affected by weather conditions and glint effects. Therefore, this study recommends that cyanobacteria or phytoplankton studies in this area ensure that their ecological functioning is carefully considered when attempting to map occurrence using limited satellite imagery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle Employing SWOT Analysis and Normal Cloud Model for Water Resource Sustainable Utilization Assessment and Strategy Development
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081439
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water Resource Sustainable Utilization (WRSU) is becoming increasingly important, given growing water resource shortages and widening gaps between water supply and demand. Most existing studies have focused on WRSU levels without a dedicated strategy-oriented framework. In addition, uncertainties occur in the process of
[...] Read more.
Water Resource Sustainable Utilization (WRSU) is becoming increasingly important, given growing water resource shortages and widening gaps between water supply and demand. Most existing studies have focused on WRSU levels without a dedicated strategy-oriented framework. In addition, uncertainties occur in the process of indicator quantification and grading, leading to a lack of accuracy in the assessment results. Therefore, in this study, stemming from water resource, societal, economic, and environmental dimensions, an indicator system with qualitative description was introduced by Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis to enable development and selection of sustainable water use strategies. A normal cloud model that is capable of addressing uncertainties was used to determine WRSU levels. The comprehensive evaluation results can both reflect the WRSU levels and select the most suitable strategy. The model’s utility was demonstrated by applying it to the case of Shandong province in China. Based on the results, most areas of Shandong province appear to be facing serious unsustainable issues. Appropriate development strategies based on the WRSU levels were provided for improving sustainable use of water resources. The proposed method offers an efficient means for WRSU assessment and strategy development. Moreover, it has the potential to be applied to other water resource issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Population Growth on the Water Quality of Natural Water Bodies
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081405
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human activities pose a significant threat to the water quality of rivers when pollution exceeds the threshold limit. Urban activities in particular are highlighted as one of the major causes of contamination in surface water bodies in Asian countries. Evaluation of sustainable human
[...] Read more.
Human activities pose a significant threat to the water quality of rivers when pollution exceeds the threshold limit. Urban activities in particular are highlighted as one of the major causes of contamination in surface water bodies in Asian countries. Evaluation of sustainable human population capacities in river watersheds is necessary to maintain better freshwater ecosystems in a country while achieving its development goals as a nation. We evaluated the correlation between the growth rate of the population in a watershed area and water quality parameters of a river ecosystem. The Kelani River in Sri Lanka was selected for the study. The highest correlation coefficients of 0.7, 0.69, 0.69 (p < 0.01) corresponding to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and total coliform (TC) were obtained with the population in watersheds of the Kelani river in Sri Lanka. Thus, we propose a quantitative approach to estimating the population capacity of watersheds based on water quality classification standards (WQCS), employing the Bayesian network (BN) classification model. The optimum population ranges were obtained from the probability distribution table of the population node in the BN. The results showed that the population density should be approximately less than 2375 to keep the water quality in the watershed for bathing and drinking purposes and approximately less than 2672 for fish and other aquatic organisms. This research will offer a means that can used to understand the impact of population on water quality in river basins and confer direct influence on natural water bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Vegetative Slope on Water Flow and Pollutant Transport through Embankments
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071128
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
Embankments are common structures along rivers or lakes in riparian zones in plain areas. They should have natural slopes instead of slopes covered by concrete or other hard materials, in order to rebuild sustainable ecosystems for riparian zones. This study was conducted to
[...] Read more.
Embankments are common structures along rivers or lakes in riparian zones in plain areas. They should have natural slopes instead of slopes covered by concrete or other hard materials, in order to rebuild sustainable ecosystems for riparian zones. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetative slopes on water flow and pollutant transport through the embankments. Three embankments with different slope treatments (a bare slope, a slope covered in centipede grass, a slope covered in tall fescue) were examined, and three inflow applications of pollute water with different concentration of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) used to simulate different agricultural non-point pollution levels. The results showed that the water flux rates of the three embankments were relatively stable under all inflow events, and almost all values were higher than 80%. The embankments with vegetative slopes had better nitrogen removal than the bare slope under all events, and the one with tall fescue slope was best, but the benefits of vegetative slopes decreased with increasing inflow concentration. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the embankments on phosphorus removal, for which the reductions were all high (above 90%) with most loads remaining in the front third of embankment bodies. Overall, the embankments with vegetative slopes had positive effects on water exchange and reducing non-point pollutant into lake or river water, which provides a quantitative scientific basis for the actual layout of lakeshores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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