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Special Issue "Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Developing Countries: Current Trends and Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Mohammad Nurunnabi

College of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;
St Antony's College, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Website | E-Mail
Interests: CSR; sustainability; governance; business and society; policy; culture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is designed to spotlight contemporary research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries, with preference given to research emphasizing local or context. Previous research on CSR has been focused principally based on the western-contexts in the last 40 years. The Special Issue will, therefore, provide an opportunity for contributors to spotlight their contributions to the broad fields of business, economics, political science, law accounting, finance, marketing, supply chain, international business and management are all welcome. The following themes would be of particular interest (NB: this list is not exhaustive):

  • What are the current trends of CSR research in developing countries?
  • What are the important developments of CSR so far in developing countries?
  • What questions needed to be asked to develop fruitful future research directions on CSR in developing countries?
  • What are theoretical implications of CSR in developing countries?
  • How can CSR be specified and compared in different developing countries contexts?
  • Where can CSR research offer best practices in developing countries?
  • What are the practical and methodological challenges of conducting CSR research?
  • What are the practical challenges of implementing CSR strategy in developing countries?

 Dr. Mohammad Nurunnabi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • CSR
  • Developing Countries
  • Challenge
  • Opportunities
  • Development

Published Papers (39 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Embedding Diversity in Sustainability Reporting
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2487; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072487
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The relevance of diversity has been recognised by academics and researchers as well as decision-makers. Diversity reporting can be perceived as the first step in addressing inequalities in organisations and potential assistance for the diversity agenda, because it allows measuring diversity and ultimately
[...] Read more.
The relevance of diversity has been recognised by academics and researchers as well as decision-makers. Diversity reporting can be perceived as the first step in addressing inequalities in organisations and potential assistance for the diversity agenda, because it allows measuring diversity and ultimately managing it. However, the recognition of the importance of diversity and diversity reporting does not necessarily contribute to a greater inclusion of diversity into sustainability reporting. The following paper attempts to determine the scope of diversity reporting, the specificity of the collected and disclosed diversity data, as well as the determinants of diversity reporting. For this purpose, a CATI (computer-assisted telephone interview) research was conducted, involving companies indexed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The results were analysed using the Cramer’s V contingency measure, the Kruskal–Wallis H test and ordinal regression. The results show a substantial difference in the collection of diversity information between organisations that map and that do not map their stakeholders. Furthermore, they show that, when organisations collect diversity data, their specificity is rather high, however this does not translate into an equally high level of diversity disclosure. Furthermore, the paper analyses the possible determinants of diversity disclosure, which do not necessarily overlap with the determinants of sustainability reporting. Full article
Open AccessArticle Employees’ Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility Impact on Employee Outcomes: Mediating Role of Organizational Justice for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072429
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Corporate social responsibility is emerging topic in the modern business world. Employees are vital assets for any organization. Corporate Social Responsibility practices have a significant influence on employee’s performance. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between employee perception of corporate social responsibility
[...] Read more.
Corporate social responsibility is emerging topic in the modern business world. Employees are vital assets for any organization. Corporate Social Responsibility practices have a significant influence on employee’s performance. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between employee perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and employee’s outcome in Pakistan for SMEs. Additionally, it examined the relationship of Employee’ Perception of CSR as an independent variable. Further, this study considers mediating role of organizational justice between employee’s perception of CSR and employee’ outcomes. The quantitative method was used to collect data from 300 SME’s. Hypotheses were tested by using statistical software (SPSS). Correlation analysis shows the significant relationship between variables, i.e., employee’s perception of CSR and employee outcomes. Moreover, regression analysis was performed for mediation analysis. The results show that organizational justice partially mediated between employee’s perception of corporate social responsibility and employee’s outcomes. Practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were recommended. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Carbon Emissions by South American Companies: Driving Factors for Reporting Decisions and Emissions Reduction
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072411
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decade, companies have started to disclose information on carbon emissions. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to look into this phenomenon in South America, which is a very important geographical area regarding climate change because of the local
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In the last decade, companies have started to disclose information on carbon emissions. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to look into this phenomenon in South America, which is a very important geographical area regarding climate change because of the local nature and developing economies. This paper explores the relationships between some corporate variables and two important decisions: (i) whether to report carbon emissions, and (ii) the impact on the evolution of carbon emissions. Logit and linear panel data models are used to determine the driving factors for decisions (i) and (ii). Our results show that regarding the carbon reporting decision, a company’s size, sustainability reporting, existence of a sustainability committee, and whether it belongs to a certain sector (telecom, utilities, and consumer discretionary) are significant positive factors, whereas the country is a negatively significant factor if the company is based in either Chile or Peru. Regarding the factors that lead to more sustainable behavior, our results reveal that a company’s size, the existence of a corporate social responsibility (CSR) committee, and the disclosure of a sustainability report lead to a decrease in emissions levels. Full article
Open AccessArticle CSR and the Supply Chain: Effects on the Results of SMEs
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2356; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072356
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, companies and SMEs (small and medium enterprises) are looking to be more competitive. To achieve this, they are adopting new business models and strategies that allow them to move towards sustainability. Strategies such as CSR (Corporate social responsibility) and supply chain management
[...] Read more.
Currently, companies and SMEs (small and medium enterprises) are looking to be more competitive. To achieve this, they are adopting new business models and strategies that allow them to move towards sustainability. Strategies such as CSR (Corporate social responsibility) and supply chain management have become essential for ensuring a company’s permanence and financial consolidation. The literature has stated that theories on stakeholders and sustainability are fundamental pillars for the development and sustained growth of business. The purpose of this article is to examine the effects of CSR and SCMM (supply chain management) on innovation, image and reputation, and, in turn, their influences on profitability in SMEs. An additional purpose is to verify the bidirectional relationship that exists between CSR and SCM in SMEs. This research was based on a sample of 143 companies in the city of Guaymas Sonorain Mexico. For the analysis and validation of the results, we used the ordinal least squares method (OLS) through multiple linear regressions and SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) statistical technique based on the variance, through PLS (Partial Least Squares) (using SmartPLS version 3.2.6 Professional). The findings show that SMEs that develop social and sustainable practices increase their level of innovation, and improve their image, their reputation, and their financial profitability. The results also indicate that CSR and SCM have a strong interdependence. This work contributes mainly to the development of the literature on stakeholders and sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bridging Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility: Culture of Monitoring and Evaluation of CSR Initiatives in India
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072353 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
This study examines the continuum of sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies, and analyzes broad patterns that have emerged with respect to monitoring and evaluation practices in the CSR programs of Indian companies under new CSR regulations. Under these regulations, the Indian
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This study examines the continuum of sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies, and analyzes broad patterns that have emerged with respect to monitoring and evaluation practices in the CSR programs of Indian companies under new CSR regulations. Under these regulations, the Indian firms are mandated to spend at least 2% of their profits on social and development sectors. We specifically analyze (i) how Indian companies have conceptualized the idea of sustainability in their annual sustainability reports, and how these ideas get reflected in their CSR policies, and (ii) the monitoring and evaluation practices in CSR interventions. The study uses both primary and secondary data sources, and employs text network analysis and narratives-based content analysis to analyze the data. We find that the conceptualization of sustainability is a largely rhetoric and customary exercise that does not take into account variations in firms’ businesses. This approach toward sustainability initiatives presents serious challenges to sustainability, including social sustainability. The study also finds that there is lack of ‘willingness’ and ‘readiness’ among Indian companies to measure and monitor the outcomes of CSR interventions, which is arguably one of the most robust ways to signal their commitment toward corporate sustainability. Although mandatory CSR spending is a recent phenomenon in India, our study establishes that it is only through the design of effective CSR policies that the best practices for Indian business community can emerge in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Corruption and Technological Innovation in Private Small-Medium Scale Companies: Does Female Top Management Play a Role?
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072252
Received: 22 April 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Common acts of corruption such as bribery and informal payments are virtually illegal everywhere and prevalent in every corner of the world. This paper aims to contribute to the literature by considering the influences of corruption and female top management on the likelihood
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Common acts of corruption such as bribery and informal payments are virtually illegal everywhere and prevalent in every corner of the world. This paper aims to contribute to the literature by considering the influences of corruption and female top management on the likelihood of technological innovation by using a nationwide survey and a sample of private small-medium sized companies (SMCs) in China. Interestingly, we find that female top managers have less enthusiasm for innovation than their male counterparts. Corruption, when measured by informal payments, poses a positive effect on the possibility of innovation after controlling for firm-level characteristics. However, female executives may weaken the positive innovation effects caused by corruption. Furthermore, one of our implied findings is that a firm with a female top manager is less likely to engage in corruption because this may raise the costs of doing business without any benefits for innovation. The results collectively illustrate the role that female top management and corrupt actions have in shaping innovative activities of private SMCs, and suggest that bribe-combating actions in firms are necessary, such as a framework for rationalizing the proportion of female executives involved in management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Firm Performance Influence Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting of Chinese Listed Companies?
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2217; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072217
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 23 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate whether firm performance influences corporate social responsibility reporting of Chinese listed companies. We have used the sample of all A-share listed firms on Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges for the period 2008 to 2015. The authors used pooled
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This study aims to investigate whether firm performance influences corporate social responsibility reporting of Chinese listed companies. We have used the sample of all A-share listed firms on Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges for the period 2008 to 2015. The authors used pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) regression as a baseline methodology. To control the possible problem of endogeneity we use one year lagged and two-stage least squares regression. We find that firm performance has a statistically significant impact on CSR reporting. Moreover, we see that firms with high performance are more likely to report CSR activities than low-performance firms. Additionally, five of the control variables (board size, CEO power, SOE, firm size, and Big4) have some influence on CSR reporting. These findings hold for a set of robustness tests. Our results have implications for the development of CSR reporting in developing countries like China. Our research suggests that, in China, companies with better financial performance undertake more CSR reporting. The paper contributes to the existing literature by investigating the effect of firm performance on CSR reporting of Chinese listed companies. Additionally, this paper enriches the current literature on CSR reporting and highlights the importance of a firm’s financial performance for better environmental performance and reporting. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organizational Commitment: The Sequential Mediating Effect of Meaningfulness of Work and Perceived Organizational Support
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072208
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
Although many scholars have investigated the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization, there has been relatively minimal research regarding the CSR’s impacts on employees as well as the underlying mechanisms of it. Considering the research gaps, in the present research,
[...] Read more.
Although many scholars have investigated the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization, there has been relatively minimal research regarding the CSR’s impacts on employees as well as the underlying mechanisms of it. Considering the research gaps, in the present research, we examine how CSR practices influence attitudes of employees. In particular, we hypothesize that perceived CSR would enhance organizational commitment (OC) of employees through the sequential mediation of meaningfulness of work (MOW) and perceived organizational support (POS). In order to empirically test this, we utilized two-wave time-lagged survey data from 378 employees who work for companies in South Korea. The results show that MOW and POS sequentially mediate the relationship between perceived CSR and OC. The findings suggest that CSR practices could be an active investment which enhances important attitudes of employees, instead of merely being a cost or obligation for firms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Authentic Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behaviours and the Mediating Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Banking Sector of Pakistan
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2170; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072170
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
This study was designed to examine the effect of authentic leadership on organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), as well as to examine the mediating mechanism of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the aforementioned relationship. Using the cross-sectional design method, the data were collected from
[...] Read more.
This study was designed to examine the effect of authentic leadership on organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), as well as to examine the mediating mechanism of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the aforementioned relationship. Using the cross-sectional design method, the data were collected from 395 employees working in the banking sector of Pakistan. Drawing on social exchange theory, it was hypothesized that authentic leadership would positively predict organizational citizenship behaviour. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that CSR would positively mediate the relationship between authentic leadership and OCB. The results of the study indicate that authentic leadership positively predicts OCB. Importantly, CSR was found to positively mediate the effect of authentic leadership on OCB. Theoretical implications of the study and future research directions are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Value Creation from a Stakeholder Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062062
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, we have witnessed how companies and institutions have devoted significant effort to developing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies, basing their decision on the improvement in company results and the subsequent benefits for shareholders and other stakeholders. CSR means that managers
[...] Read more.
In recent years, we have witnessed how companies and institutions have devoted significant effort to developing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies, basing their decision on the improvement in company results and the subsequent benefits for shareholders and other stakeholders. CSR means that managers must go beyond the mere satisfaction of the shareholders and take steps to establish balanced relations with all their stakeholders. The principles behind the CSR approach empower stakeholder governance. To test whether CSR policy constitutes a factor in value creation for shareholders and certain stakeholders such as employees, creditors and the State, we conducted an explanatory study, using a Correlated Random Effects approach, which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the companies listed on the other indices of the IBEX family. On the one hand, the data show that sustainability reporting is well established in large companies in Spain but that it needs to be introduced more extensively in small and medium-sized enterprises. On the other hand, the findings point out that CSR has a positive and significant influence on the distribution of value in favor of the State, a negative influence for employees and no influence on other stakeholders. Full article
Open AccessArticle Doing Good Is Not Enough, You Should Have Been Authentic: Organizational Identification, Authentic Leadership and CSR
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2026; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062026
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and organizational performance have emphasized how CSR influences the external stakeholders such as shareholders, customers, and local communities to explain the association. Thus, it is relatively less studied how CSR influences internal stakeholders,
[...] Read more.
Previous studies on the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and organizational performance have emphasized how CSR influences the external stakeholders such as shareholders, customers, and local communities to explain the association. Thus, it is relatively less studied how CSR influences internal stakeholders, which ultimately accrue to organizational performance. Grounded on institutional theory which proposes that institutional enablers such as CSR activities affect macro-level outcomes (i.e., organizational performance) through micro-level mechanisms (i.e., attitudes or behaviors of members), we argue that internal processes are critical to explaining the CSR–performance link. Using 2-wave time-lagged survey data of 301 employees from various companies in South Korea, we first investigate how organizational identification (OI) mediates the CSR–performance link. In addition, we also investigate how authentic leadership moderates the link between CSR and OI. The results showed that OI is an important internal process that CSR enhances for organizational performance. In addition, authentic leadership positively moderated the effect of CSR on OI. Our results suggest that we need to understand “internal” intermediating mechanisms as well as critical contextual factors to elaborately explain the relationship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Opportunism Motivation of Environmental Protection Activism and Corporate Governance: An Empirical Study from China
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061725
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
In the study of environmental protection issues for more than forty years, research on the impact of financial performance on environmental protection has been one of the important branches. In the framework of principal-agent theory, this paper explores the opportunism motives in a
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In the study of environmental protection issues for more than forty years, research on the impact of financial performance on environmental protection has been one of the important branches. In the framework of principal-agent theory, this paper explores the opportunism motives in a company’s environmental protection activism and the moderating role of corporate governance using the data of Chinese listed companies from 2005 to 2016. The study finds that: (1) the company’s environmental protection activism is driven by the opportunist motives of policymakers who want to mask their inability; and (2) environmental protection activism does not enhance the company’s future performance and value creation capability. Further studies find that corporate governance mechanisms play different moderating roles. Fund Shareholders play a positive governance role and reduce the correlation between financial performance and environmental protection activism. However, independence of the board of directors intensifies the opportunist motives. This paper provides new theoretical explanations for environmental protection decision-making, provides novel enlightenment for the protection of environmental protection policies in developing countries and regions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Corporate Social Responsibility, Internal Controls, and Stock Price Crash Risk: The Chinese Stock Market
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051675
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
As the core of sustainable development strategy, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept that influences business missions, management, operations, finance, and marketing. Studies of the economic consequences of CSR have focused on the theoretical and practical arenas. However, few studies have examined
[...] Read more.
As the core of sustainable development strategy, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept that influences business missions, management, operations, finance, and marketing. Studies of the economic consequences of CSR have focused on the theoretical and practical arenas. However, few studies have examined the impact of CSR on the market price fluctuations of company shares. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CSR on stock price crash risk and its relationship with the role of internal controls in China. After empirical analysis, we found a significantly negative association between CSR and stock price crash risk. Furthermore, we determined that internal controls play a significant and partially mediating role between CSR and stock price crash risk. Internal controls have become an important system for Chinese companies to improve their social responsibility and reduce their operating risk, especially the risk of a stock price crash. We also found that internal controls had a significant and partial moderating effect on the relationship between CSR and stock price crash risk. In certain environments with higher levels of internal controls, CSR prominently reduced the risk of stock price crash. In theory, our study adds to the growing literature about CSR, expands the scope of CSR research, elaborates upon relevant CSR economic consequences, and complements the literature about the determinants of stock price crash risk. In practice, our conclusions provide a reference for Chinese managers, investors, and the related government departments to evaluate the effects of CSR and internal controls, and provides regulators with a method to help control abnormal fluctuations in the stock market. More importantly, the results of this study have reference value for scholars and practitioners in developing countries like China. Full article
Open AccessArticle CSR Communication Strategies of Colombian Business Groups: An Analysis of Corporate Reports
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051602
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to assess stakeholder orientation and corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication strategies in the business groups (BGs) of an emerging economy by means of content analysis. We worked with 30 non-financial BGs taken from the Colombian Stock Exchange.
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to assess stakeholder orientation and corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication strategies in the business groups (BGs) of an emerging economy by means of content analysis. We worked with 30 non-financial BGs taken from the Colombian Stock Exchange. The study uses as its unit of analysis corporate reports that have been classified into four categories: annual reports (ARs), sustainability reports (SRs), combined reports (CRs), and integrated reports (IRs). The results show that IRs are the most similar reports, that Colombian BGs are mainly employee-oriented (ARs, SRs, CRs) and shareholder-oriented (IRs), and that response and involvement communication strategies are the most commonly used. Our research has theoretical and practical implications based on the assumption that the study of corporate reports has particular importance for those BGs with diversification strategies and international orientation, since it opens possibilities for future research. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Fusion Approach for Exploring the Key Factors of Corporate Governance on Corporate Social Responsibility Performance
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051582
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
It is widely recognized that a firm’s well-established corporate governance (CG) has a considerable impact on its corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance. How to determine the main trigger among CG’s indicators for strengthening CSR performance is thus an urgent and complicated task due
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It is widely recognized that a firm’s well-established corporate governance (CG) has a considerable impact on its corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance. How to determine the main trigger among CG’s indicators for strengthening CSR performance is thus an urgent and complicated task due to its (i.e., CSR) multi-dimensional and numerous perspectives. In order to solve this critical problem, the study breaks down CSR into four dimensions and further examines the impact of CG’s indicators on each CSR dimension by joint utilization of rough set theory (RST) and decision tree (DT). By doing so, users can realize which one CG indicator is the most essential to CSR performance. Managers can take the results as a reference to allocate valuable and scarce resources to the right place so as to enhance CSR performance in the future. To solidify our research finding, we transform the CSR forecasting model selection into a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) task and execute a MCDM algorithm. By implementing the MCDM algorithm, users can achieve a much more reliable and consensus decision in today’s highly turbulent economic environment. The proposed mechanism, examined by real cases, is a promising alternative for CSR performance forecasting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Drivers and Barriers in Socially Responsible Human Resource Management
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051532
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
The current recession has caused a large number of companies to reevaluate their valuable resources and ways to preserve and invest those resources. Given the relevance of employees as key stakeholders, developing a socially responsible orientation in human resource management for taking care
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The current recession has caused a large number of companies to reevaluate their valuable resources and ways to preserve and invest those resources. Given the relevance of employees as key stakeholders, developing a socially responsible orientation in human resource management for taking care of workers and their needs must be an essential process for business success. This study, based on stakeholder theory and a social integrative approach, examines the main drivers and barriers in the implementation of socially responsible actions in human resource management. The research uses a quantitative analysis based on questionnaires responded to by 85 human resource managers from large Spanish companies. We conclude that there are two significant drivers of socially responsible actions in human resource management (HRM): access to public subsidies and the improvement of the working environment. The main significant barriers highlighted by human resource managers are conflicts in decisions with boards and/or management teams and the lack of employees’ acceptance. The professional implications of the research are discussed at the end of the paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Crowdfunding as an Alternative Means for Funding Sustainable Appropriate Technology: Acceptance Determinants of Backers
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051456
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The research and development as well as the propagation of sustainable, appropriate technology requires the availability of stable funding. Crowdfunding is a form of funding whereby small sums of investments or contributions are collected from the general public and used to finance the
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The research and development as well as the propagation of sustainable, appropriate technology requires the availability of stable funding. Crowdfunding is a form of funding whereby small sums of investments or contributions are collected from the general public and used to finance the development of goods or services. This method has been widely used in the arts and cultural fields and presents a useful alternative means by which to fund appropriate technology projects. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence backers who participate in appropriate technology projects through crowdfunding platforms, analyze the connections among these factors, and thereby establish the usefulness of crowdfunding as a viable new funding alternative. Results indicate that the key factors influencing user intention to crowdfund appropriate technology projects include social influence, effort expectancy, and perceived trust. In comparison to the findings of previous studies, performance expectancy was not found to have a significant effect. When compared to crowdfunding conducted in other fields, these results suggest that crowdfunding for appropriate technology is closer in nature to donations. Accordingly, for funding of these projects to be successful, aggressive online exposure using the social network service (SNS) of backers should be pursued from the earliest stages of funding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Development Perspectives of Sustainable Management Accounting in Central and Eastern European Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051445
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 6 May 2018
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Abstract
Central and Eastern European countries undergo many political, structural, social and economic changes, with growing public awareness of the need for corporate sustainability among them. These changes influence all business activities of companies; the management accounting system, however, is particularly susceptible to the
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Central and Eastern European countries undergo many political, structural, social and economic changes, with growing public awareness of the need for corporate sustainability among them. These changes influence all business activities of companies; the management accounting system, however, is particularly susceptible to the effects of these changes. Management accounting research is usually carried out using a conventional, mainstream approach, followed by most scientific researchers analyzing management accounting. This paper aims to promote the perception of the changes and prospects of the development of management accounting in Central and Eastern European countries with in-depth consideration of corporate social responsibility, viewing the role of accounting in a wider social, ethical, environmental, cultural and historical context. Therefore, the aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of sustainable management accounting in the context of socio-economic transformations and developments in these countries, in the research perspectives of alternative management accounting. The paper relies on theoretical and methodological triangulation, using inductive and deductive reasoning as well as descriptive and comparative analysis. A bibliometric analysis, based on the scientific paper in Web of Science’ database relating management accounting research in Central and Eastern Europe countries in 1945–2017, reveals key trends in changes in the field of management accounting research, and allows us to anticipate the direction of future research in this region. The results of research in these areas determine the future growth, importance, and character of the sustainable management accounting practices of companies from Central and Eastern Europe. It offers findings which are potentially useful for both theory and practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is Green Regulation Effective or a Failure: Comparative Analysis between Bangladesh Bank (BB) Green Guidelines and Global Reporting Initiative Guidelines
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041267
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Green reporting and green regulation have been commonly used in the sustainability movement. This study evaluates Bangladesh Bank’s (BB’s) green regulation by considering the global reporting initiative (GRI) of environmental regulation along with self-determined content to justify BB’s institutional effort in the banking
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Green reporting and green regulation have been commonly used in the sustainability movement. This study evaluates Bangladesh Bank’s (BB’s) green regulation by considering the global reporting initiative (GRI) of environmental regulation along with self-determined content to justify BB’s institutional effort in the banking sector. The analytical study has considered secondary data of all listed banks on the Dhaka Stock Exchange between 2013 to 2016. A multi-theoretical framework has been adopted in which the research is comprised of institutional, stakeholder, and legitimacy theories. Considering the analytical research, we have drawn-up a green reporting score and undertaken SWOT analysis. The results of the study have identified the narrow coverage of BB’s regulation and strategic limitations. Moreover, the findings of the study show that banking companies disclosed more green information in line with BB’s regulation. Furthermore, our analysis has found the lack of transparency of green reporting in terms of absent global reporting as well as external verification. Additionally, we have documented that BB’s regulation falls into a legitimacy threat owing to political, corporate, and social responsibility. Therefore, we concluded that for BB to overcome all possible weaknesses and threats, it should consider all possible opportunities for a holistic international reporting framework while taking into account a transparent financial sector. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relational Benefit on Satisfaction and Durability in Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041104
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
These days, companies are moving from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities for short-term profit generation to the ones for achieving economic and social long-term goals. This phenomenon results from the idea that CSR is not a mere cost but can be used as
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These days, companies are moving from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities for short-term profit generation to the ones for achieving economic and social long-term goals. This phenomenon results from the idea that CSR is not a mere cost but can be used as a source of opportunity, innovation and competitive advantage. Deemed as a great business strategy, strategic CSR activities are being emphasized by various stakeholders in the global market. The purpose of this study is to present specific implications and to empirically research the relations among relational benefits, commitment, and authenticity. It identifies the main factors of relationship management in expanding the stakeholder pool and forming relationships for strategic CSR activities. To this end, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 113 CSR practitioners in Korea and analyzed how social, psychological, and economic benefits affect the satisfaction and durability of strategic CSR activities through relational commitment and authenticity. Consequently, social, psychological, and economic benefits have an impact on relationships and, by extension, have a positive effect on relational satisfaction and durability. However, economic benefits affect relational authenticity, but social and psychological benefits do not. As a result, relational benefits cannot affect satisfaction through relationships. Therefore, relational benefits and commitment are more important variables for the satisfaction and durability of strategic CSR activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Doing Well or Doing Good: The Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit in Romanian Companies
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041041
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
The traditional goal of a company is to earn profit to pay its shareholders, but, nowadays, for the business to be sustainable in the long term, a strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities is needed to meet stakeholder demands, respect ethical principles
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The traditional goal of a company is to earn profit to pay its shareholders, but, nowadays, for the business to be sustainable in the long term, a strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities is needed to meet stakeholder demands, respect ethical principles and give an appropriate answer to organizational stakeholders. The objective of the paper is to identify how strong the correlation between CSR and profit is, and how companies behave in the periods they have losses, whether they continue to do CSR activities, they reduce the activities, or they give them up. Thus, CSR is attributed to the concept of “doing good” and profit to the expression of “doing well”, from which a “positive business” can be built. Our empirical research consists of a panel data econometric model using logistics regressions to highlight the correlation between profit and the decision to do CSR activities and feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) regressions to identify the correlations between the level of CSR activities and the dimension of profit, an expression of financial performance. The main results emphasize that the companies which implement CSR activities in a greater extent are more profitable in economic terms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Sustainability in Apparel Supply Chains—The Role of the Sourcing Intermediary in a Developing Country
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041039
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
After considering significant literature on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM), it is evident that research has neglected the social dimension and still lacks in highlighting the role of sourcing intermediaries in supply chains. The apparel supply chain has increased enormously in length and
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After considering significant literature on sustainable supply chain management (SSCM), it is evident that research has neglected the social dimension and still lacks in highlighting the role of sourcing intermediaries in supply chains. The apparel supply chain has increased enormously in length and complexity, driving apparel retailers to employ sourcing intermediaries who manage their sourcing activities with suppliers from developing countries overseas. Thus, the purpose of this study is to enrich existing findings on SSCM by exploring the management of social sustainability when sourcing intermediaries are in between the focal company and the respective developing country factories. More specifically, this study aims to understand the role of apparel sourcing intermediaries for the implementation of social management strategies based on the perception of multiple supply chain actors. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews conducted in Vietnam and Europe. Ultimately ten propositions are presented, all explicitly concentrating on the apparel intermediary’s role as a significant enabler for social sustainability in apparel supply chains. The roles are social sustainability, supplier developer and coordinator, gatekeeper and safeguard, cultural broker, and social risk manager. The social sustainability roles assumed by the apparel sourcing intermediary offer great opportunities to both apparel retailers and developing country factories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle P2P Network Lending, Loss Given Default and Credit Risks
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041010
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Peer-to-peer (P2P) network lending is a new mode of internet finance that still holds credit risk as its main risk. According to the internal rating method of the New Basel Accord, in addition to the probability of default, loss given default is also
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Peer-to-peer (P2P) network lending is a new mode of internet finance that still holds credit risk as its main risk. According to the internal rating method of the New Basel Accord, in addition to the probability of default, loss given default is also one of the important indicators of evaluation credit risks. Proceeding from the perspective of loss given default (LGD), this paper conducts an empirical study on the probability distribution of LGDs of P2P as well as its influencing factors with the transaction data of Lending Club. The results show that: (1) the LGDs of P2P loans presents an obvious unimodal distribution, the peak value is relatively high and tends to concentrate with the decrease of the borrower’s credit rating, indicating that the distribution of LGDs of P2P lending is similar to that of unsecured bonds; (2) The total asset of the borrower has no significant impact on LGD, the credit rating and the debt-to-income ratio exert a significant negative impact, while the term and amount of the loan produce a relatively strong positive impact. Therefore, when evaluating the borrower’s repayment ability, it is required to pay more attention to its assets structure rather than the size of its total assets. When carrying out risk control for the P2P platform, it is necessary to give priority to the control of default rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Firm Size and Age, and Its Social Responsibility Actions—Focus on a Developing Country (Romania)
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030805
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 11 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility covers a wide range of actions which have been practiced for many years in Western countries. As well as in other developing and transitional countries, the concept of social responsibility emerged in Romania after 1990, concurrently with
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The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility covers a wide range of actions which have been practiced for many years in Western countries. As well as in other developing and transitional countries, the concept of social responsibility emerged in Romania after 1990, concurrently with the set-up of many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the entrance of multinational companies and was rapidly adopted by several firms. The main purpose of our paper is to investigate practices and actions related to social responsibility, which are undertaken by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Romania and to reveal which factors really matter in determining different degrees of involvement in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) actions. The level of social responsibility actions undertaken by SMEs often depends on the decisions of their managers and the value orientation of the entrepreneur. Moreover, the younger a firm is, the less likely it is that it gets involved in CSR. This is our main assumption: young ventures display a weaker propensity for CSR actions. In order to validate this hypothesis, we used survey data, collected from 84 SMEs, operating in Oradea, Romania. Data were collected between July–September 2016 and analysed by the authors through correlations, independent sample T-tests and linear regression modelling. Our findings reveal that there are significant differences between newly established ventures and those with a longer history; however, age is not a determining factor of CSR. Although, in the literature, there is no clear consensus regarding whether there is a different model of implementation of CSR related practices in developing and transitional countries, especially in the case of SMEs, our results show there are no essential differences between the models of CSR involvement as these are known in the theory and practice of developed countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Corporate Social-Environmental Performance versus Financial Performance of Banks in Central and Eastern European Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030772
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 11 March 2018
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Abstract
Developed market economies demonstrate a growing interest in issues concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and its effects, confirmed by the sizeable theoretical and empirical literature on this issue. A substantial research proves also the positive relation between CSR commitment and financial results of
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Developed market economies demonstrate a growing interest in issues concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and its effects, confirmed by the sizeable theoretical and empirical literature on this issue. A substantial research proves also the positive relation between CSR commitment and financial results of banks in mature markets. However, there is less evidence on CSR existence and its impact in other geographical areas, especially in the research concerning Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). In our study we analyze the interrelation between being socially responsible and tangible financial outcome (Corporate Financial Performance—CFP) of banks in the CEEC. The aim is also to empirically verify the relation between efficiency of corporate social-environmental performance (CSP) and the efficiency of CFP for CEEC banks. In our study, we analyze the financial and CSP data of the biggest public banks in CEEC. The researched period is 2012–2016. The empirical part analyzes the interrelation between CSP and CFP based on the panel regression. Moreover, in order to evaluate the CSP efficiency and the CFP efficiency we use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. The empirical results reveal that in case of banks in the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) region being socially responsible is not reflected in the bottom line. The financial condition of the banks also does not impact the CSR engagement. Our study confirms, however, that CEEC banks with better financial efficiency have higher efficiency of CSR activities. The conclusions may lead to the improved decision-making processes concerning CSR activities and their communication in banks in CEEC. Full article
Open AccessArticle Training the CSR Sensitive Mind-Set: The Integration of CSR into the Training of Business Administration Professionals
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030754
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
Current corporations are subject to stringent requirements in terms of sustainable development; however, a relevant problem is highlighted on the basis of the studies conducted. On the one hand, corporations experience greater or lesser pressure, while on the other hand, it must be
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Current corporations are subject to stringent requirements in terms of sustainable development; however, a relevant problem is highlighted on the basis of the studies conducted. On the one hand, corporations experience greater or lesser pressure, while on the other hand, it must be admitted that the problem of demand for professionals, which is presupposed by the insufficient quality of training in higher education institutions, is important. This is somewhat strange given that the issues of business ethics, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability have attracted increased attention in management education in recent years, and a five-fold increase in the number of stand-alone ethics courses has been noted since 1988. This interaction could contribute to the development of CSR, however a certain dissonance of cooperation between higher education and business exists, as there is a lack of leadership in this area in the study programs of business administration approved by the states, as well as in higher education institutions. Given these facts, the goal of the paper is to analyze the Master of Business Administration programs in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia to offer direction to the challenge of integrating corporate social responsibility (CSR) into management and training. The method of analysis of professional business and administration training program content in terms of the integration of CSR was used during the survey. Using panel data of 28 full-time MBA programs, our findings show that that the core parts of MBAs under analysis merely—and mostly indirectly—cover CSR issues through one core course on business ethics. However, the leading MBA programs are currently missing an opportunity by ignoring their responsibility to support the training of CSR-minded future business administration professionals. The results of our research may act as a guide to which areas should be modified and/or changed. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Human Resources Perspective on Responsible Corporate Behavior. Case Study: The Multinational Companies in Western Romania
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030726
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
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Abstract
This article aims to show the extent to which socially responsible Human Resource Management practices are implemented in multinational companies. As more recent studies highlight, the manner in which companies in Romania presently comprehend the social responsibility of their actions is mostly aimed
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This article aims to show the extent to which socially responsible Human Resource Management practices are implemented in multinational companies. As more recent studies highlight, the manner in which companies in Romania presently comprehend the social responsibility of their actions is mostly aimed towards the social component of the outer environment in which they function and less towards their own employees. In Romania, at the moment, there are only a few studies that catalogue the efforts made by companies in order to become more responsible towards their employees, or in other words, studies that present Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within its relationship with Human Resources Management (HRM). The research method we used for our case study was the semi-structured interview, applied on 32 respondents from the multinational companies carrying out their activities in the automotive sector in western Romania. Our study shows that multinational companies from the automotive sector are aware that CSR effects a series of long-term advantages, either externally—enhancing the company’s reputation and consolidating its brand as employer, its competitive advantage on the market, its media visibility—or internally—fostering an organizational culture that may generate greater engagement from its own employees, and financial advantages. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Concession Period and Price Determination Model for PPP Projects: Based on Real Options and Risk Allocation
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030706
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
Concession period of PPP (Public–Private Partnership) projects is the most essential feature in determining the time span of various rights, obligations and responsibilities between the government and concessionaire. Most traditional methods are based on the analysis of the future cash flow to determine
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Concession period of PPP (Public–Private Partnership) projects is the most essential feature in determining the time span of various rights, obligations and responsibilities between the government and concessionaire. Most traditional methods are based on the analysis of the future cash flow to determine the concession period, but either ignored the potential values or the risks that might emerge during the project life span, thus failing to find the proper concession period for the project. This paper builds a new model taking both recognized real option value and risk into concession period decision-making, and considering the distribution coefficient of option value, which uses game theory integrated with risk sharing, which increases the flexibility of the negotiation. Real option theory is introduced based on traditional NPV (Net Present Value); its potential value and strategic importance are further exploited. A case shows that the project concession period and the price of the sewage disposal are different when considering option value and risk sharing simultaneously and respectively, which give the two side’s references during negotiation. Allocating the option value and the risk properly between the government and concessionaire can also avoid dispute and promote cooperation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Outcomes of Corporate Social Responsibility to Employees: Empirical Evidence from a Developing Country
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030698
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
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Abstract
Employees creativity has been recognized as a crucial part of an organization’s ability to be innovative. To know which factors contribute to employee involvement in creative work, in this paper, we first examine the effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to employees. Moreover,
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Employees creativity has been recognized as a crucial part of an organization’s ability to be innovative. To know which factors contribute to employee involvement in creative work, in this paper, we first examine the effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to employees. Moreover, we study the employees’ positive work attitudes and their intention to leave as a mediating mechanism to explain the effect of CSR to employees on the involvement of employees in creative work. Survey data from 209 employees in 45 small-sized enterprises in Iran were used to test the hypotheses of the study. The hypotheses were tested with hierarchical regression analyses using SPSS software. The results support the direct impact of CSR to employees on employees’ creative work involvement. In addition, the findings indicate that the indirect effect of CSR to employees on the involvement of employees in creative work through positive work attitudes and their intention to leave are significant. Consequently, small-sized enterprises should reinforce CSR to employees to elevate their involvement in creative work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Principles of Islamic Finance and Principles of Corporate Social Responsibility: What Convergence?
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030637
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 25 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
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Abstract
Islamic Finance, among its other features, figures as a financial and economic model based on principles and ethical values in which sustainable development and social responsibility play an essential role. The aim of this study is to illustrate the concept of Corporate Social
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Islamic Finance, among its other features, figures as a financial and economic model based on principles and ethical values in which sustainable development and social responsibility play an essential role. The aim of this study is to illustrate the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) with specific reference to Islamic financial institutions, their principles, values and objectives, in order to understand the underpinning dynamics and identify the convergences between the principles underlying conventional CSR and those of Islamic Finance. Specifically, the ultimate purpose of the comparison is to highlight how CSR may constitute a significant factor of convergence between Islamic and conventional finance systems, going beyond the logic of sustainability in short-term marketing policy and implementing medium- and long-term sustainability. This approach aims at increasing the potential for value creation and the pursuit of economic, social and environmental results for all stakeholders. This convergence should, finally, create conditions favourable to the harmonisation of the regulations and directives relative to CSR in the different countries, and therefore a better integration between Islamic finance institutions and conventional ones in the economic contexts. Full article
Open AccessArticle Does Corporate Governance Affect Sustainability Disclosure? A Mixed Methods Study
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010207
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
This research paper aims to understand the impact of corporate governance (CG) on economic, social, and environmental sustainability disclosures. This paper adopted an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach. The data regarding corporate governance and sustainability disclosure were collected from top 100 companies listed
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This research paper aims to understand the impact of corporate governance (CG) on economic, social, and environmental sustainability disclosures. This paper adopted an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach. The data regarding corporate governance and sustainability disclosure were collected from top 100 companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSE) for the period ranging from 2012 to 2015. In addition to the quantitative data, we collected qualitative data through interviews with five board members of different companies. Overall, our results indicate that CG elements enhance sustainability disclosures. This study concludes that a large board size consisting of a female director and a CSR committee (CSRC) is better able to check and control management decisions regarding sustainability issues (be they economic, environment, or social) and resulted in better sustainability disclosure. This paper, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, provides a methodological and empirical contribution to the literature on corporate governance and sustainability reporting in emerging and developing countries. Full article
Open AccessArticle CSR Reporting Practices in Visegrad Group Countries and the Quality of Disclosure
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2322; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122322
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
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Abstract
Companies around the world more often issue publicly available reports to disclose how responsibly they conduct their business. The practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting are more popular in western part of Europe then in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and
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Companies around the world more often issue publicly available reports to disclose how responsibly they conduct their business. The practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting are more popular in western part of Europe then in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and empirical studies related to these practices in the region are sporadic and fragmented. The Visegrad Group countries have undergone tremendous changes in political, environmental and social area during the last twenty years. The CSR concept in these countries is relatively new but is rapidly spreading, in particular as part of their integration with the European Union, as well as under the influence of transnational corporations (TNCs) and foreign investors. Therefore, acquisition of knowledge, which presents the functioning of CSR reporting practices in the region seems to be of interest to both the scientific community and enterprises themselves. An important part of the analysis conducted in the study was the assessment of quality of CSR reports issued in this region. The quality indicator of the studied reports was based on seventeen criteria related to relevance and credibility of disclosed information. The findings indicate that CSR reporting practices are not widespread among V4 countries and suggest some area of improvements. Furthermore, the achieved results confirm the existence of a relationship between two factors (external verification of a report and usage of the GRI guidelines when developing a report) and the level of quality of the CSR report. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Organizational Identification Perspective of CSR on Creative Performance: The Moderating Role of Creative Self-Efficacy
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112125
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an emerging and fast-growing concept for both academic research and organizations. In recent years, the far-reaching influence of CSR practices on stakeholders has made both researchers and practitioners pay heed to this dimension. Employees are one of the
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an emerging and fast-growing concept for both academic research and organizations. In recent years, the far-reaching influence of CSR practices on stakeholders has made both researchers and practitioners pay heed to this dimension. Employees are one of the most important stakeholders influenced by CSR practices. CSR brings in many ideas, concepts, and techniques. In the past, different antecedents and consequences of corporate social responsibility have been studied, but there is still a deficit in regard to whether employee creative performance is an outcome of corporate social responsibility, and the interlinked variables that might enhance this relationship. The main objective of this study is to examine how CSR practices enhance employee performances within the organization, and which other variables may enhance this relationship. The literature suggests that employees who value CSR campaigns and other practices identify with their company to a greater degree, work with more devotion and loyalty, and show more creativity in their work performance. In this study, organizational identification has been taken as the mediator, and creative self-efficacy has been taken as the moderator. The hypotheses were tested within the sample of companies engaging in CSR practices in Pakistan. A questionnaire survey was conducted using simple random sampling. Simple linear regression, hierarchical regression, and Barron and Kenny tests were applied through SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) for data analysis, and results were found according to the proposed model of the study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Signaling Product Quality Information in Supply Chains via Corporate Social Responsibility Choices
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2113; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112113
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
This study focuses on how an upstream supplier signals the private information of its product quality with corporate social responsibility (CSR) choices to a downstream retailer and uninformed consumers in the final market. We build a signaling model to: capture the strategic interactions
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This study focuses on how an upstream supplier signals the private information of its product quality with corporate social responsibility (CSR) choices to a downstream retailer and uninformed consumers in the final market. We build a signaling model to: capture the strategic interactions among the supplier, the retailer, and the final consumers in the supply chain; characterize completely the set of all separating perfect Bayesian equilibriums (PBEs); and finally, select a unique equilibrium that satisfies the intuitive criterion for exploring some comparative statics. The equilibrium results show that under some technical conditions: (1) a set of moderate levels of CSR conduct signal the upstream supplier’s high quality in the sense of separating PBEs; (2) the unique separating PBE satisfying the intuitive criterion is the one with the lowest CSR level that separates a high-quality supplier from a low-quality supplier; (3) the lowest CSR level decreases in the proportion of informed consumers and the low-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost, but is independent of the high-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost; (4) the profits of the high-quality supplier increase in proportion to the number of informed consumers and the low-quality supplier’s marginal cost CSR, but decrease in proportion to the high-quality supplier’s marginal CSR cost. Managerial insights are also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Workforce of Selected Business Firms in the United Arab Emirates: A Nascent Economy
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112077
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to explore the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on employees working in two United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based companies. “Hilti Emirates” and “EROS Group” are the two companies that engage in a number of CSR applications
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The main purpose of this study is to explore the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on employees working in two United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based companies. “Hilti Emirates” and “EROS Group” are the two companies that engage in a number of CSR applications which were focused on India in 2015. The impact of CSR on the companies is the key focus in this study by gauging employees’ and managers’ perceptions. Primary data were collected by means of a prepared questionnaire that concentrated on employee and managerial behavior and attitudes, while secondary data were collected from theoretical articles and published company reports. Data were analyzed by means of statistical analysis using SPSS software. Methods like factor analysis, descriptive analysis and ANOVA in SPSS software are helpful in assessing the effect of CSR on employees, and hence companies, in the UAE. The main findings of the study are that employees can develop a behavioral change depending on the nature of CSR practices within the company. In turn, CSR polices are sustainable in relation to company profit which may vary from one company to another and one financial year to another. Therefore, this study concludes that employee behavior regarding CSR policies has notable and positive implications, relevant to the company as well as to the employees and management. The two leading UAE companies demonstrate a confluent pattern of CSR practices and effects that may also relate to employee behavior in other economies, although the researchers encourage more investigations to corroborate that view. Full article
Open AccessArticle Do Peer Firms Affect Firm Corporate Social Responsibility?
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111967
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
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Abstract
Peer-firm strategies are a critical factor for corporate finance, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the main trend for evaluating the behavior of firms. On the basis of the connection between peer strategy and CSR, this paper explores the CSR strategies employed by
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Peer-firm strategies are a critical factor for corporate finance, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the main trend for evaluating the behavior of firms. On the basis of the connection between peer strategy and CSR, this paper explores the CSR strategies employed by a sample of Chinese firms during the 2008–2015 period. Our two main empirical findings are as follows. First, the CSR strategies of firms have a positive effect on their CSR behavior. Second, when there is the CSR gap between firms and peer firms, firms will feel the pressure from stakeholders and the public and improve the level of CSR performance. Our paper enriches empirical research on the CSR behavior of Chinese firms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Organizational Culture’s Moderating Role of Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on Firm Performance: Focused on Corporate Contributions in Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1883; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9101883
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of organizational culture in helping to translate corporate social responsibility (CSR) into firm performance. We employed arguments from the CSR strategy view to highlight the effectiveness of CSR and the contingency approach to
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The purpose of this study was to examine the role of organizational culture in helping to translate corporate social responsibility (CSR) into firm performance. We employed arguments from the CSR strategy view to highlight the effectiveness of CSR and the contingency approach to explain the vertical fit between CSR and the organizational culture in a firm. Furthermore, we examined the moderating influence of organizational culture on the CSR–firm performance linkage. The results suggest that some organizational cultures moderate the relationship between CSR and financial outcomes, and that organizational culture may play an important role in enhancing a positive relationship between CSR and firm performance. Full article
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Open AccessReview Institutional Voids and the Philanthropization of CSR Practices: Insights from Developing Economies
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072400
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and conceptions vary across sectors and nations. However, there is a general tendency among academics and practitioners to present CSR in Africa as activities characterized by philanthropy due to the existence of institutional voids. This review of the
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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices and conceptions vary across sectors and nations. However, there is a general tendency among academics and practitioners to present CSR in Africa as activities characterized by philanthropy due to the existence of institutional voids. This review of the current literature demonstrates that weak institutions lead to weaker bargaining powers designed through the historical and geopolitical institutional frameworks of international business and global governance systems. Accordingly, multinational corporations (MNCs) take advantage of such weaknesses to define CSR on their own terms by replacing the ideal responsible and sustainable innovations with ad hoc philanthropy that diverts the attention from the negative consequences of neoliberal ‘structures of accumulation’. This is akin to aid that hardly contributes to structural changes, but rather leads to complacency, corruption, dependency, boutique projects, disguised exploitation, and the misuse of corporate political power to achieve corporate bottom lines. The implications of the results are vast, and they are generalizable to all weaker institutional settings. Thus, weaker institutions create the necessary regulatory, political, economic, and governance climate that perpetuates a pattern of abuses and ethical violations that are then masked with philanthropy. It is argued that the fundamental institutional and geopolitical contexts within which MNCs interact with nation states cannot be ignored in any comprehensive analysis that seeks to meaningfully shed light on the comparative differences of CSR practices. The neglect of the web of contextual, historical, and geopolitical issues in which CSR is entrenched and framed diverts attention from the origins of the socio-economic and environmental questions to philanthropy as a final solution, which has hitherto been perpetuated with undesirable outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessHypothesis Corporate Sustainability Management and Its Market Benefits
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051455
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
An increasing number of firms around the world are applying corporate sustainability management (CSM) to their business operations, and the research interest on the effect of CSM in terms of the capital market benefit has grown rapidly under the different research settings across
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An increasing number of firms around the world are applying corporate sustainability management (CSM) to their business operations, and the research interest on the effect of CSM in terms of the capital market benefit has grown rapidly under the different research settings across various countries. This study investigates whether CSM contributes to increasing firm value and improving the market response to earnings disclosure, using Korean firms as the sample. The test results show that firms with CSM reporting outperform the other firms in terms of Tobin’s Q and the market-adjusted stock returns over a year. Further, investors respond more strongly to the earnings announcement events of the CSM firms than the non-CSM firms, which is more likely to be attributed to the enhanced corporate disclosure practice of the CSM firms than an improvement in earnings quality. Our findings indicate that the shareholders of firms with CSM reporting can enjoy relatively higher market valuations and enhanced information content of earnings disclosures. In conclusion, the results show that the CSM activities in pursuit of a harmonious relationship with the various stakeholders bring different forms of market benefits to shareholders as well. Full article
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