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Special Issue "Sensors in Flow Analysis"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 November 2006)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Spas D. Kolev

School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +61 3 9347 5180
Interests: electrochemical sensors; optodes; gas sensors; flow analysis; membrane studies; environmental monitoring; polymer inclusion membranes; membrane mass transfer

Special Issue Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Novel Type of Tri-Colour Light-Emitting-Diode-Based Spectrometric Detector for Low-Budget Flow-Injection Analysis
Sensors 2007, 7(2), 166-184; doi:10.3390/s7020166
Received: 31 July 2006 / Accepted: 13 February 2007 / Published: 23 February 2007
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we describe a low-cost spectrometric detector that can be easily assembled in a laboratory for less than €80 with a minimal number of optical components and which has proved sensitive and flexible enough for real-life applications. The starting point for
[...] Read more.
In this paper we describe a low-cost spectrometric detector that can be easily assembled in a laboratory for less than €80 with a minimal number of optical components and which has proved sensitive and flexible enough for real-life applications. The starting point for the idea to construct this small, compact low-cost spectrometric detector was the decision to use a tri-colour light-emitting diode (LED) of the red-green-blue (RGB) type as a light source with the objective of achieving some flexibility in the selection of the wavelength (430 nm, 565 nm, 625 nm) but avoiding the use of optical fibres. Due to the dislocation of the emitters of the different coloured light, the tri-colour LED-based detector required an optical geometry that differs from those that are described in literature. The proposed novel geometry, with a coil-type glass flow-through cell with up to four ascending turns, proved useful and fit for the purpose. The simplicity of the device means it requires a minimal number of optical components, i.e., only a tri-colour LED and a photoresistor. In order to make a flow-injection analysis (FIA) with the spectrometric detector even more accessible for those with a limited budget, we additionally describe a low-cost simplified syringe-pump- based FIA set-up (€625), the assembling of which requires no more than basic technical facilities. We used such a set-up to test the performance of the proposed spectrometric detector for flow-injection analyses. The tests proved its suitability for real-life applications. The design procedures are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessArticle E.M.I Effects of Cathodic Protection on Electromagnetic Flowmeters
Sensors 2007, 7(1), 75-83; doi:10.3390/s7010075
Received: 8 August 2006 / Accepted: 23 January 2007 / Published: 26 January 2007
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electromagnetic flowmeters are used to measure the speed of water flow in water distribution systems. Corrosion problem in metal pipelines can be solved by cathodic protection methods. This paper presents a research on corruptive effects of the cathodic protection system on electromagnetic flowmeter
[...] Read more.
Electromagnetic flowmeters are used to measure the speed of water flow in water distribution systems. Corrosion problem in metal pipelines can be solved by cathodic protection methods. This paper presents a research on corruptive effects of the cathodic protection system on electromagnetic flowmeter depending on its measuring principle. Experimental measurements are realized on the water distribution pipelines of the Izmir Municipality, Department of Water and Drainage Administration (IZSU) in Turkey and measurement results are given. Experimental results proved that the values measured by the electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) are affected by cathodic protection system current. Comments on the measurement results are made and precautions to be taken are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Design of a Flow-through Polarographic Sensor Based on Metal Films for Determining N-nitrosodiethanolamine Levels in Rabbit Biological Fluids
Sensors 2006, 6(11), 1555-1567; doi:10.3390/s6111555
Received: 25 February 2006 / Revised: 5 October 2006 / Accepted: 10 November 2006 / Published: 11 November 2006
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The construction and characterization of a flow-through polarographic detectorfor catalyzing the electroreduction of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), is discussed. Theflow-through cell is equipped with a gold wire electrode (a thin mercury film deposited on agold substance). The response is evaluated with respect to substance diameter,
[...] Read more.
The construction and characterization of a flow-through polarographic detectorfor catalyzing the electroreduction of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), is discussed. Theflow-through cell is equipped with a gold wire electrode (a thin mercury film deposited on agold substance). The response is evaluated with respect to substance diameter, length,concentration of modifying film, operating potential, supporting electrolyte and pH, andflow rate in the DC mode. The system allows the determination of N-nitrosodiethanolaminein rabbit biological fluids with relatively inexpensive equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Flow Injection Analysis Coupled with Carbon Electrodes as the Tool for Analysis of Naphthoquinones with Respect to Their Content and Functions in Biological Samples
Sensors 2006, 6(11), 1466-1482; doi:10.3390/s6111466
Received: 16 October 2006 / Accepted: 27 October 2006 / Published: 6 November 2006
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Naphthoquinones are one of the groups of secondary metabolites widespread innature, where they mostly appear as chromatic pigments. They embody broad-range ofbiological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. An anticancer effect of naphthoquinonesstimulates an interest in determination and characterization of single derivatives of 1,2-
[...] Read more.
Naphthoquinones are one of the groups of secondary metabolites widespread innature, where they mostly appear as chromatic pigments. They embody broad-range ofbiological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. An anticancer effect of naphthoquinonesstimulates an interest in determination and characterization of single derivatives of 1,2- and1,4-quinones in biological samples. The main aim of this work was to suggest a techniquesuitable to determine lawsone, juglone and/or plumbagin in biological samples and to studyof their influence on BY-2 tobacco cells. The BY-2 tobacco cells were cultivated in thepresence of the naphthoquinones of interest (500 μg.l-1) for 24 h and then the morphologicalchanges were observed. We found out that naphthoquinones triggered the programmed celldeath at BY-2 cells, which can be confirmed by the apoptotic bodies in nucleus. After thatwe suggested and optimized different electrochemical techniques such differential pulsevoltammetry (DPV) coupled with hanging mercury drop (HMDE) and carbon pasteelectrode, micro flow device coupled with carbon screen printed electrodes and flowinjection analysis coupled with Coulochem III detector to determine them. The detectionlimits of naphthoquinones of interest were expressed as 3S/N and varied from units tohundreds of ng per millilitres according to methods used. Moreover, we utilized DPVcoupled with HMDE and micro flow device to determine content of juglone in leavesPersian walnut (Juglans regia). We determined that the leaves contained juglone tenths of gper 100 g of fresh weight. The results obtained show the convincing possibilities of using ofthese methods in analysis of plant secondary metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Sensors for Detection of Acetylsalicylic Acid
Sensors 2006, 6(11), 1483-1497; doi:10.3390/s6111483
Received: 16 October 2006 / Accepted: 27 November 2006 / Published: 6 November 2006
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acetylsalicylic acid (AcSA), or aspirin, was introduced in the late 1890s and hasbeen used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. The aim of this work was to suggestelectrochemical sensor for acetylsalicylic detection. Primarily, we utilized square wavevoltammetry (SWV) using both carbon paste
[...] Read more.
Acetylsalicylic acid (AcSA), or aspirin, was introduced in the late 1890s and hasbeen used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. The aim of this work was to suggestelectrochemical sensor for acetylsalicylic detection. Primarily, we utilized square wavevoltammetry (SWV) using both carbon paste electrode (CPE) and of graphite pencilelectrode (GPE) as working ones to indirect determination of AcSA. The principle ofindirect determination of AcSA bases in its hydrolysis on salicylic acid (SA), which isconsequently detected. Thus, we optimized both determination of SA and conditions forAcSA hydrolysis and found out that the most suitable frequency, amplitude, step potentialand the composition and pH of the supporting electrolyte for the determination of SA was260 Hz, 50 mV, 10 mV and Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 1.81), respectively. The detectionlimit (S/N = 3) of the SA was 1.3 ng/ml. After that, we aimed on indirect determination ofAcSA by SWV CPE. We tested the influence of pH of Britton-Robinson buffer andtemperature on yield of hydrolysis, and found out that 100% hydrolysis of AcSA wasreached after 80 minutes at pH 1.81 and 90°C. The method for indirect determination ofAcSA has been utilized to analyse pharmaceutical drug. The determined amount of AcSA in the pharmaceutical drug was in good agreement with the declared amounts. Moreover, weused GPE for determination of AcSA in a pharmaceutical drug. Base of the results obtainedfrom stationary electrochemical instrument we used flow injection analysis withelectrochemical detection to determine of salicylates (SA, AcSA, thiosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid – SuSA). We found out that we are able todetermine all of detected salicylates directly without any pre-treatment, hydrolysis and so onat units of femtomoles per injection (5 μl). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessArticle New Hydrodynamic Electrochemical Arrangement for Cadmium Ions Detection Using Thick-Film Chemical Sensor Electrodes
Sensors 2006, 6(11), 1498-1512; doi:10.3390/s6111498
Received: 16 October 2006 / Accepted: 27 October 2006 / Published: 6 November 2006
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Miniaturization and integration of chemical devices into modules that aredimensionally comparable with electronic chips (Lab on Chip) is nowadays developingworldwide. The aim of our work was to suggest and optimize the best conditions forfabrication of TFT sensor due to its sensitivity and low
[...] Read more.
Miniaturization and integration of chemical devices into modules that aredimensionally comparable with electronic chips (Lab on Chip) is nowadays developingworldwide. The aim of our work was to suggest and optimize the best conditions forfabrication of TFT sensor due to its sensitivity and low experimental deviations. Newelectrochemical analytical device was developed to ensure certain known mass transport toelectrodes, which is the most limiting process that influencing the response quality of thesensor. The device consists from rotating conic vessel for measured sample and stick-inthick-film sensor. The sensors responses were tested under trace analysis of cadmium.Measurements were done also with the others electrochemical arrangements to comparewith the new one. The sensor output current response dependence on the liquid velocity andgeometrical arrangement within using standard electrochemical couple of potassiumferrocyanide-ferricyanide is presented. We found out that the new device with controlledflow of electrolyte to sensor worked properly and gave satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Flow-through Bulk Optode for Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate and Its Application to Water and Saliva Analysis
Sensors 2006, 6(10), 1224-1233; doi:10.3390/s6101224
Received: 23 June 2006 / Accepted: 3 October 2006 / Published: 9 October 2006
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A flow-through spectrophotometric bulk optode for the flow-injectiondetermination of thiocyanate is described. As active constituents, the optode incorporatesthe lipophilized pH indicator 5-octadecanoyloxy-2-(4-nitrophenylazo)phenol andmethyltridodecyl ammonium chloride, dissolved in a plasticized poly(vinyl)chloridemembrane entrapped in a cellulose support. The optode is applied, in conjunction with theflow
[...] Read more.
A flow-through spectrophotometric bulk optode for the flow-injectiondetermination of thiocyanate is described. As active constituents, the optode incorporatesthe lipophilized pH indicator 5-octadecanoyloxy-2-(4-nitrophenylazo)phenol andmethyltridodecyl ammonium chloride, dissolved in a plasticized poly(vinyl)chloridemembrane entrapped in a cellulose support. The optode is applied, in conjunction with theflow injection technique, to the determination of thiocyanate at pH 7.5 (TRIS/H2SO4). Thesensor is readily regenerated with a 10-2 M NaOH carrier solution. The analyticalcharacteristics of this optode with respect to thiocyanate response time, dynamicmeasurement range, reproducibility and selectivity are discussed. The proposed FI methodis applied to the determination of thiocyanate in waters from different sources and in humansaliva samples in order to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Shielding Arrangement on ECT Sensors
Sensors 2006, 6(9), 1118-1127; doi:10.3390/s6091118
Received: 15 May 2006 / Accepted: 21 September 2006 / Published: 22 September 2006
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a full 3D study of a shielded ECT sensor. The spatialresolution and effective sensing field are obtained by means of Finite Element Methodbased simulations and are the compared to a conventional sensor's characteristics. Aneffective improvement was found in the sensitivity
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a full 3D study of a shielded ECT sensor. The spatialresolution and effective sensing field are obtained by means of Finite Element Methodbased simulations and are the compared to a conventional sensor's characteristics. Aneffective improvement was found in the sensitivity in the pipe cross-section, resulting inenhanced quality of the reconstructed image. The sensing field along the axis of the sensoralso presents better behaviour for a shielded sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessArticle Pulsed Amperometry for Anti-fouling of Boron-doped Diamond in Electroanalysis of β-Agonists: Application to Flow Injection for Pharmaceutical Analysis
Sensors 2006, 6(12), 1837-1850; doi:10.3390/s6121837
Received: 1 January 2006 / Accepted: 14 January 2006 / Published: 26 January 2006
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents the construction and application of boron-doped diamond(BDD) thin film electrode as sensor for the determination of three β-agonists, viz.salbutamol, terbutaline and clenbuterol. Although well-known as a chemically inertmaterial, BDD film however shows fouling in detection of these compounds using fixedpotentialmode
[...] Read more.
This work presents the construction and application of boron-doped diamond(BDD) thin film electrode as sensor for the determination of three β-agonists, viz.salbutamol, terbutaline and clenbuterol. Although well-known as a chemically inertmaterial, BDD film however shows fouling in detection of these compounds using fixedpotentialmode amperometry. A suitable waveform for pulsed amperometric detection(PAD) was developed and used to determine the agonist compounds. It was seen that thedeveloped PAD significantly refreshed the BDD surface for long-term detection in flowinjection analysis. Linear working ranges were 0.5-100 μM, 1.0-100 μM and 0.5-50 μM forsalbutamol, terbutaline and clenbuterol, respectively. The developed PAD-BDD system wasapplied to successfully determine salbutamol and terbutaline in commercial pharmaceuticalproducts. The methods were validated with a capillary electrophoresis method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Recent Electrochemical and Optical Sensors in Flow-Based Analysis
Sensors 2006, 6(10), 1383-1410; doi:10.3390/s6101383
Received: 8 August 2006 / Accepted: 9 October 2006 / Published: 24 October 2006
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some recent analytical sensors based on electrochemical and optical detectioncoupled with different flow techniques have been chosen in this overview. A briefdescription of fundamental concepts and applications of each flow technique, such as flowinjection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA), all injection analysis
[...] Read more.
Some recent analytical sensors based on electrochemical and optical detectioncoupled with different flow techniques have been chosen in this overview. A briefdescription of fundamental concepts and applications of each flow technique, such as flowinjection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA), all injection analysis (AIA),batch injection analysis (BIA), multicommutated FIA (MCFIA), multisyringe FIA(MSFIA), and multipumped FIA (MPFIA) were reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessReview Gas/Liquid and Liquid/Liquid Solvent Extraction in Flow Analysis with the Chromatomembrane Cell
Sensors 2006, 6(10), 1321-1332; doi:10.3390/s6101321
Received: 15 July 2006 / Accepted: 15 October 2006 / Published: 17 October 2006
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (92 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since twelve years the Chromatomembrane Cell has been proposed as a new andversatile device for extraxtion procedures in the flow based analysis. In the meantime aremarkable number of papers was submitted dealing with applications of the novel methodto all the conceivable varieties of
[...] Read more.
Since twelve years the Chromatomembrane Cell has been proposed as a new andversatile device for extraxtion procedures in the flow based analysis. In the meantime aremarkable number of papers was submitted dealing with applications of the novel methodto all the conceivable varieties of flow injection and sequential injection analysis. Thedevice supports important analytical procedures such as sampling, sample preparation, andpreconcentration each being combined with a phase transfer of the analyte. TheChromatomembrane Cell can be coupled to most of the modern detectors which workcomputer aided in the laboratories of today. Centrepiece of the cell is a block made frombiporous hydrophobic PTFE, inside which polar (in the macropores) and nonpolar (in themicropores) solvents come into a close contact with each other and might flowindependently with different flow rates. Microporous PTFE membranes prevent polarphases from their flowthrough into directions which are reserved for nonpolar fluids only.Thus, a strict control over the fluxes can be established at the analysts request. Especially,that PTFE block offers outstanding possibilities as a sampling unit for air monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessReview Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis
Sensors 2006, 6(10), 1245-1307; doi:10.3390/s6101245
Received: 4 May 2006 / Accepted: 5 October 2006 / Published: 10 October 2006
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for
[...] Read more.
Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
Open AccessReview Trends in Flow-based Biosensing Systems for Pesticide Assessment
Sensors 2006, 6(10), 1161-1186; doi:10.3390/s6101161
Received: 29 July 2006 / Accepted: 29 September 2006 / Published: 1 October 2006
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This review gives a survey on the state of the art of pesticide detection usingflow-based biosensing systems for sample screening. Although immunosensor systems havebeen proposed as powerful pesticide monitoring tools, this review is mainly focused onenzyme-based biosensors, as they are the most commonly
[...] Read more.
This review gives a survey on the state of the art of pesticide detection usingflow-based biosensing systems for sample screening. Although immunosensor systems havebeen proposed as powerful pesticide monitoring tools, this review is mainly focused onenzyme-based biosensors, as they are the most commonly employed when using a flowsystem. Among the different detection methods able to be integrated into flow-injectionanalysis (FIA) systems, the electrochemical ones will be treated in more detail, due to theirhigh sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment, easy operational procedures and real-timedetection. During the last decade, new trends have been emerging in order to increase theenzyme stability, the sensitivity and selectivity of the measurements, and to lower thedetection limits. These approaches are based on (i) the design of novel matrices for enzymeimmobilisation, (ii) new manifold configurations of the FIA system, sometimes includingminiaturisation or lab-on-chip protocols thanks to micromachining technology, (iii) the useof cholinesterase enzymes either from various commercial sources or genetically modifiedwith the aim of being more sensitive, (iv) the incorporation of other highly specificenzymes, such as organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) or parathion hydrolase (PH) and (v) thecombination of different electrochemical methods of detection. This article discusses thesenovel strategies and their advantages and limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)

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