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Special Issue "Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Neal N. Xiong

School of Computer Science, Colorado Technical University, Colorado Springs, CO 80907, USA
E-Mail
Interests: sensor networks; communication protocols; optimization theory
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Athanasios V. Vasilakos

Kuwait University Faculty of Computing Science ad Engineering Computer Science Department, P.O. Box 5969 Safat -13060, Kuwait
E-Mail
Interests: communication protocols; network architecture and design; sensor networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent developments in wireless communication have enabled the large-scale deployment of low-cost, energy efficient, and multi-service wireless sensor networks. Lots of actual applications are based on the related technology of sensor networks. The emergence and appearance of various applications of wireless sensor networks have brought about lot of changes as well as opportunities. However, many new challenges confront researchers.

First, it is still an open issue how one connects these heterogeneous networks while ubiquitous services can be accessed by anyone anywhere in the world. Second, data size grows exponentially when a sensor’s applications increase; it is difficult to capture, store, search, transfer, analyze, and visualize such a big data environment. Third, security is one of the most serious issues because of the open nature of sensor networks and the limited capabilities of sensor nodes, including processing power, storage, and bandwidth.

This Special Issue aims to foster the latest development in sensor computing for mobile security and big data analytics. Original contributions that provide novel theories, frameworks, and solutions to the challenging problems of service computing, data analysis, trust, security, and privacy are solicited for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Neal N. Xiong
Prof. Dr. Athanasios V. Vasilakos
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • ubiquitous sensing
  • mobile sensing
  • service-oriented sensing
  • new architecture for the sensor networks
  • security, privacy, and cryptographic algorithms
  • authentication protocols
  • data store, search, transformation, analysis and visualization
  • intelligent and smart sensor networks

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Extracting Association Patterns in Network Communications
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 4052-4071; doi:10.3390/s150204052
Received: 12 November 2014 / Revised: 7 January 2015 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 11 February 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In network communications, mixes provide protection against observers hiding the appearance of messages, patterns, length and links between senders and receivers. Statistical disclosure attacks aim to reveal the identity of senders and receivers in a communication network setting when it is protected by
[...] Read more.
In network communications, mixes provide protection against observers hiding the appearance of messages, patterns, length and links between senders and receivers. Statistical disclosure attacks aim to reveal the identity of senders and receivers in a communication network setting when it is protected by standard techniques based on mixes. This work aims to develop a global statistical disclosure attack to detect relationships between users. The only information used by the attacker is the number of messages sent and received by each user for each round, the batch of messages grouped by the anonymity system. A new modeling framework based on contingency tables is used. The assumptions are more flexible than those used in the literature, allowing to apply the method to multiple situations automatically, such as email data or social networks data. A classification scheme based on combinatoric solutions of the space of rounds retrieved is developed. Solutions about relationships between users are provided for all pairs of users simultaneously, since the dependence of the data retrieved needs to be addressed in a global sense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
Open AccessArticle Energy Efficient Strategy for Throughput Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 2473-2495; doi:10.3390/s150202473
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Network lifetime and throughput are one of the prime concerns while designing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, most of the existing schemes are either geared towards prolonging network lifetime or improving throughput. This paper presents an energy efficient routing scheme
[...] Read more.
Network lifetime and throughput are one of the prime concerns while designing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, most of the existing schemes are either geared towards prolonging network lifetime or improving throughput. This paper presents an energy efficient routing scheme for throughput improvement in WSN. The proposed scheme exploits multilayer cluster design for energy efficient forwarding node selection, cluster heads rotation and both inter- and intra-cluster routing. To improve throughput, we rotate the role of cluster head among various nodes based on two threshold levels which reduces the number of dropped packets. We conducted simulations in the NS2 simulator to validate the performance of the proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the performance efficiency of the proposed scheme in terms of various metrics compared to similar approaches published in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
Open AccessArticle A Structure Fidelity Approach for Big Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2015, 15(1), 248-273; doi:10.3390/s150100248
Received: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 25 December 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the most widespread and important applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the continuous data collection, such as monitoring the variety of ambient temperature and humidity. Due to the sensor nodes with a limited energy supply, the reduction of energy consumed
[...] Read more.
One of the most widespread and important applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the continuous data collection, such as monitoring the variety of ambient temperature and humidity. Due to the sensor nodes with a limited energy supply, the reduction of energy consumed in the continuous observation of physical phenomenon plays a significant role in extending the lifetime of WSNs. However, the high redundancy of sensing data leads to great waste of energy as a result of over-deployed sensor nodes. In this paper, we develop a structure fidelity data collection (SFDC) framework leveraging the spatial correlations between nodes to reduce the number of the active sensor nodes while maintaining the low structural distortion of the collected data. A structural distortion based on the image quality assessment approach is used to perform the nodes work/sleep scheduling, such that the number of the working nodes is reduced while the remainder of nodes can be put into the low-power sleep mode during the sampling period. The main contribution of SFDC is to provide a unique perspective on how to maintain the data fidelity in term of structural similarity in the continuous sensing applications for WSNs. The simulation results based on synthetic and real world datasets verify the effectiveness of SFDC framework both on energy saving and data fidelity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
Open AccessArticle Freshness-Preserving Non-Interactive Hierarchical Key Agreement Protocol over WHMS
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23742-23757; doi:10.3390/s141223742
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The digitization of patient health information (PHI) for wireless health monitoring systems (WHMSs) has brought many benefits and challenges for both patients and physicians. However, security, privacy and robustness have remained important challenges for WHMSs. Since the patient’s PHI is sensitive and the
[...] Read more.
The digitization of patient health information (PHI) for wireless health monitoring systems (WHMSs) has brought many benefits and challenges for both patients and physicians. However, security, privacy and robustness have remained important challenges for WHMSs. Since the patient’s PHI is sensitive and the communication channel, i.e., the Internet, is insecure, it is important to protect them against unauthorized entities, i.e., attackers. Otherwise, failure to do so will not only lead to the compromise of a patient’s privacy, but will also put his/her life at risk. This paper proposes a freshness-preserving non-interactive hierarchical key agreement protocol (FNKAP) for WHMSs. The FNKAP is based on the concept of the non-interactive identity-based key agreement for communication efficiency. It achieves patient anonymity between a patient and physician, session key secrecy and resistance against various security attacks, especially including replay attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Generic Learning-Based Ensemble Framework for Small Sample Size Face Recognition in Multi-Camera Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23509-23538; doi:10.3390/s141223509
Received: 27 September 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multi-camera networks have gained great interest in video-based surveillance systems for security monitoring, access control, etc. Person re-identification is an essential and challenging task in multi-camera networks, which aims to determine if a given individual has already appeared over the camera network. Individual
[...] Read more.
Multi-camera networks have gained great interest in video-based surveillance systems for security monitoring, access control, etc. Person re-identification is an essential and challenging task in multi-camera networks, which aims to determine if a given individual has already appeared over the camera network. Individual recognition often uses faces as a trial and requires a large number of samples during the training phrase. This is difficult to fulfill due to the limitation of the camera hardware system and the unconstrained image capturing conditions. Conventional face recognition algorithms often encounter the “small sample size” (SSS) problem arising from the small number of training samples compared to the high dimensionality of the sample space. To overcome this problem, interest in the combination of multiple base classifiers has sparked research efforts in ensemble methods. However, existing ensemble methods still open two questions: (1) how to define diverse base classifiers from the small data; (2) how to avoid the diversity/accuracy dilemma occurring during ensemble. To address these problems, this paper proposes a novel generic learning-based ensemble framework, which augments the small data by generating new samples based on a generic distribution and introduces a tailored 0–1 knapsack algorithm to alleviate the diversity/accuracy dilemma. More diverse base classifiers can be generated from the expanded face space, and more appropriate base classifiers are selected for ensemble. Extensive experimental results on four benchmarks demonstrate the higher ability of our system to cope with the SSS problem compared to the state-of-the-art system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
Open AccessArticle Analyzing Comprehensive QoS with Security Constraints for Services Composition Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 22706-22736; doi:10.3390/s141222706
Received: 27 July 2014 / Revised: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
PDF Full-text (6720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Services composition is fundamental to software development in multi-service wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The quality of service (QoS) of services composition applications (SCAs) are confronted with severe challenges due to the open, dynamic, and complex natures of WSNs. Most previous research separated various
[...] Read more.
Services composition is fundamental to software development in multi-service wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The quality of service (QoS) of services composition applications (SCAs) are confronted with severe challenges due to the open, dynamic, and complex natures of WSNs. Most previous research separated various QoS indices into different fields and studied them individually due to the computational complexity. This approach ignores the mutual influence between these QoS indices, and leads to a non-comprehensive and inaccurate analysis result. The universal generating function (UGF) shows the speediness and precision in QoS analysis. However, only one QoS index at a time can be analyzed by the classic UGF. In order to efficiently analyze the comprehensive QoS of SCAs, this paper proposes an improved UGF technique—vector universal generating function (VUGF)—which considers the relationship between multiple QoS indices, including security, and can simultaneously analyze multiple QoS indices. The numerical examples demonstrate that it can be used for the evaluation of the comprehensive QoS of SCAs subjected to the security constraint in WSNs. Therefore, it can be effectively applied to the optimal design of multi-service WSNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
Open AccessArticle A Layered Trust Information Security Architecture
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 22754-22772; doi:10.3390/s141222754
Received: 5 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information can be considered the most important asset of any modern organization. Securing this information involves preserving confidentially, integrity and availability, the well-known CIA triad. In addition, information security is a risk management job; the task is to manage the inherent risks of
[...] Read more.
Information can be considered the most important asset of any modern organization. Securing this information involves preserving confidentially, integrity and availability, the well-known CIA triad. In addition, information security is a risk management job; the task is to manage the inherent risks of information disclosure. Current information security platforms do not deal with the different facets of information technology. This paper presents a layered trust information security architecture (TISA) and its creation was motivated by the need to consider information and security from different points of view in order to protect it. This paper also extends and discusses security information extensions as a way of helping the CIA triad. Furthermore, this paper suggests information representation and treatment elements, operations and support components that can be integrated to show the various risk sources when dealing with both information and security. An overview of how information is represented and treated nowadays in the technological environment is shown, and the reason why it is so difficult to guarantee security in all aspects of the information pathway is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
Open AccessArticle BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 22564-22594; doi:10.3390/s141222564
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 21 November 2014 / Published: 27 November 2014
PDF Full-text (915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There
[...] Read more.
In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
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Open AccessArticle Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform and Image Block Residual-Based Multi-Focus Image Fusion in Visual Sensor Networks
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 22408-22430; doi:10.3390/s141222408
Received: 30 September 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel framework for the fusion of multi-focus images explicitly designed for visual sensor network (VSN) environments. Multi-scale based fusion methods can often obtain fused images with good visual effect. However, because of the defects of the fusion rules, it
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel framework for the fusion of multi-focus images explicitly designed for visual sensor network (VSN) environments. Multi-scale based fusion methods can often obtain fused images with good visual effect. However, because of the defects of the fusion rules, it is almost impossible to completely avoid the loss of useful information in the thus obtained fused images. The proposed fusion scheme can be divided into two processes: initial fusion and final fusion. The initial fusion is based on a dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT). The Sum-Modified-Laplacian (SML)-based visual contrast and SML are employed to fuse the low- and high-frequency coefficients, respectively, and an initial composited image is obtained. In the final fusion process, the image block residuals technique and consistency verification are used to detect the focusing areas and then a decision map is obtained. The map is used to guide how to achieve the final fused image. The performance of the proposed method was extensively tested on a number of multi-focus images, including no-referenced images, referenced images, and images with different noise levels. The experimental results clearly indicate that the proposed method outperformed various state-of-the-art fusion methods, in terms of both subjective and objective evaluations, and is more suitable for VSNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
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Open AccessArticle Reliable Adaptive Data Aggregation Route Strategy for a Trade-off between Energy and Lifetime in WSNs
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 16972-16993; doi:10.3390/s140916972
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network
[...] Read more.
Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Service Distribution in WSN Service System Subject to Data Security Constraints
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 14180-14209; doi:10.3390/s140814180
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (12653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this
[...] Read more.
Services composition technology provides a flexible approach to building Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Service Applications (WSA) in a service oriented tasking system for WSN. Maintaining the data security of WSA is one of the most important goals in sensor network research. In this paper, we consider a WSN service oriented tasking system in which the WSN Services Broker (WSB), as the resource management center, can map the service request from user into a set of atom-services (AS) and send them to some independent sensor nodes (SN) for parallel execution. The distribution of ASs among these SNs affects the data security as well as the reliability and performance of WSA because these SNs can be of different and independent specifications. By the optimal service partition into the ASs and their distribution among SNs, the WSB can provide the maximum possible service reliability and/or expected performance subject to data security constraints. This paper proposes an algorithm of optimal service partition and distribution based on the universal generating function (UGF) and the genetic algorithm (GA) approach. The experimental analysis is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the suggested algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)
Open AccessArticle Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System
Sensors 2014, 14(7), 13114-13133; doi:10.3390/s140713114
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 12 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 21 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection
[...] Read more.
In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Computing for Mobile Security and Big Data Analytics)

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