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Special Issue "Image Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 December 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lucio Pancheri

DII, University of Trento, Via Sommarive, 9, 38123 Trento, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Modeling and characterization of electron devices; CMOS integrated photodetectors and image sensors; Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes; 3D Imaging; Radiation detectors
Guest Editor
Dr. Matteo Perenzoni

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Image Sensors; Analog Integrated Circuits; Terahertz and Infrared Detectors; Microelectronics; Single Photon imaging
Guest Editor
Dr. Nicola Massari

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Image Sensors; Analog and Mixed-Signal integrated circuit design; Smart image sensors and AER imagers; Ultra-low power vision systems; X-ray imaging; Single photon

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although the quality of mainstream CMOS image sensors has reached outstanding levels in the last few years, new challenges are continuously pushing the image sensor research community. An increasing number of applications calls for dedicated image sensors with custom specifications in terms of space and time resolution, efficiency, power consumption and on-chip processing capabilities. These new requirements can often be met only with a combined effort of process, circuit, and system design. An interdisciplinary approach, involving research in material science, electronics and optics, is thus needed to push image sensors beyond the current state-of-the-art.

This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of current leading-edge research in image sensor technology, focusing on the following topics:

  • Image sensor process technology and packaging
  • Analog and digital circuits for image sensors
  • Image sensor characterization and modelling
  • Photon-counting image sensors
  • Ultra-high frame rate
  • Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging
  • Vision sensors: on-chip processing and computational imaging
  • Ultra-low power imaging
  • CMOS hybridization with organic and inorganic materials
  • Infrared and THz focal plane arrays
  • X-ray and charged particle image sensors

Prof. Lucio Pancheri
Dr. Matteo Perenzoni
Dr. Nicola Massari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Pixel design
  • CMOS Image Sensors
  • CIS process technology
  • 3D stacking
  • Image sensor circuits and architectures
  • Quanta Image Sensors
  • 3D imaging
  • SPAD
  • Large-area image sensors
  • Hybrid image sensors
  • Vision sensors
  • Computational image sensors
  • Low-power image sensors
  • Frame-free vision sensors
  • Image sensor characterization
  • Infrared focal plane arrays
  • THz imaging
  • Above-CMOS detectors
  • Radiation imaging detectors

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Proton Radiation Effects on Dark Signal Distribution of PPD CMOS Image Sensors: Both TID and DDD Effects
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2781; doi:10.3390/s17122781
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
Four-transistor (T) pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) with four-megapixel resolution using 11µm pitch high dynamic range pixel were radiated with 3 MeV and 10MeV protons. The dark signal was measured pre- and post-radiation, with the dark signal post irradiation showing a
[...] Read more.
Four-transistor (T) pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) with four-megapixel resolution using 11µm pitch high dynamic range pixel were radiated with 3 MeV and 10MeV protons. The dark signal was measured pre- and post-radiation, with the dark signal post irradiation showing a remarkable increase. A theoretical method of dark signal distribution pre- and post-radiation is used to analyze the degradation mechanisms of the dark signal distribution. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental results. This research would provide a good understanding of the proton radiation effects on the CIS and make it possible to predict the dark signal distribution of the CIS under the complex proton radiation environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Calibration of a Novel Bio-Inspired Pixelated Polarized Light Compass
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2623; doi:10.3390/s17112623
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
PDF Full-text (1787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Animals, such as Savannah sparrows and North American monarch butterflies, are able to obtain compass information from skylight polarization patterns to help them navigate effectively and robustly. Inspired by excellent navigation ability of animals, this paper proposes a novel image-based polarized light compass,
[...] Read more.
Animals, such as Savannah sparrows and North American monarch butterflies, are able to obtain compass information from skylight polarization patterns to help them navigate effectively and robustly. Inspired by excellent navigation ability of animals, this paper proposes a novel image-based polarized light compass, which has the advantages of having a small size and being light weight. Firstly, the polarized light compass, which is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, a pixelated polarizer array and a wide-angle lens, is introduced. Secondly, the measurement method of a skylight polarization pattern and the orientation method based on a single scattering Rayleigh model are presented. Thirdly, the error model of the sensor, mainly including the response error of CCD pixels and the installation error of the pixelated polarizer, is established. A calibration method based on iterative least squares estimation is proposed. In the outdoor environment, the skylight polarization pattern can be measured in real time by our sensor. The orientation accuracy of the sensor increases with the decrease of the solar elevation angle, and the standard deviation of orientation error is 0 . 15 at sunset. Results of outdoor experiments show that the proposed polarization navigation sensor can be used for outdoor autonomous navigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Resolution Mode CMOS Image Sensor with a Novel Two-Step Single-Slope ADC for Intelligent Surveillance Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1497; doi:10.3390/s17071497
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 25 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present a multi-resolution mode CMOS image sensor (CIS) for intelligent surveillance system (ISS) applications. A low column fixed-pattern noise (CFPN) comparator is proposed in 8-bit two-step single-slope analog-to-digital converter (TSSS ADC) for the CIS that supports normal, 1/2, 1/4,
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a multi-resolution mode CMOS image sensor (CIS) for intelligent surveillance system (ISS) applications. A low column fixed-pattern noise (CFPN) comparator is proposed in 8-bit two-step single-slope analog-to-digital converter (TSSS ADC) for the CIS that supports normal, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, and 1/64 mode of pixel resolution. We show that the scaled-resolution images enable CIS to reduce total power consumption while images hold steady without events. A prototype sensor of 176 × 144 pixels has been fabricated with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS process. The area of 4-shared 4T-active pixel sensor (APS) is 4.4 μm × 4.4 μm and the total chip size is 2.35 mm × 2.35 mm. The maximum power consumption is 10 mW (with full resolution) with supply voltages of 3.3 V (analog) and 1.8 V (digital) and 14 frame/s of frame rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
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