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Special Issue "Recent Advances in Sensor Technologies and Applications in the Web of Things (WoT)"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Massimo Poncino

Dipartimento di Automatica e Informatica Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: electronic design automation (EDA); low-power design; temperature-aware design; multiprocessor systems-on-chip; energy-efficient embedded systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Ka Lok Man

Dept. Computer Science and Software Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Photovoltaic System Design, Battery Management System, Big Data and Sensing Systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent times have witnessed an exploration of the development of sensors. They are used to measure the environment, brain activities, people’s emotions, their movements, their interactions with others, and their biometric changes under different conditions, and so on. Although there have been many advances, there is still much to be achieved. On the other hand, connecting embedded devices with sensors coupled with software and middleware that conform to existing web standards is the central idea for the Web of Things (WoT). The WoT is indeed a natural evolution, and IoT/IoE is used to connect physical devices (Things) to the real world through the World Wide Web.

This Special Issue invites original contributions on new methods and approaches to develop the next general of sensors, from both a hardware and software perspective. In addition, we also seek contributions in the novel uses of new sensing technologies, such as body-worn devices (those attached to people’s clothing), smart tracking devices,the latest trends/work of sensors for WoT, and to highlight the enormous intellectual and commercial potentials for this space to general audiences and the scientific community at large.

Prof. Dr. Massimo Poncino
Prof. Dr. Ka Lok Man
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Low Power Design, Simulation and Test of Digital, Analog, Mixed Mode and RF Circuits and Systems
  • Low Power Processor Design and Embedded Systems
  • VLSI, ASIC, FPGA, SoC and MPSoC
  • Computer Aided Design and Electronic Design Automation for Low Power Design
  • Circuits and Systems for Low Power Communications
  • Nonlinear Circuits and Systems for Low Power Applications
  • Control Theory Topics in Circuits and Systems
  • Signal Processing
  • Low Power Circuits and Systems for Biomedical Applications
  • Energy Harvesting for Energy Constrained Applications
  • Circuits and Systems for Cryptography
  • Circuit/Device Modeling and Simulation
  • Battery Management Systems
  • Photovoltaic System Design
  • Intelligent systems
  • Real-Time, Hybrid, Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems
  • Self-Correcting/Self-Healing Circuits and Systems
  • Information Visualization Systems
  • Big Data and Sensing Systems
  • Ubiquitous and Pervasive Systems
  • IoE/IoT and WoT
  • New sensing technologies (e.g., body-worn devices and smart tracking devices)

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2038; doi:10.3390/s16122038
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number
[...] Read more.
No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle One-Time URL: A Proximity Security Mechanism between Internet of Things and Mobile Devices
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1694; doi:10.3390/s16101694
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to determine the physical proximity of connected things when they are accessed from a smartphone. Links between connected things and mobile communication devices are temporarily created by means of dynamic URLs (uniform resource locators) which may be
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to determine the physical proximity of connected things when they are accessed from a smartphone. Links between connected things and mobile communication devices are temporarily created by means of dynamic URLs (uniform resource locators) which may be easily discovered with pervasive short-range radio frequency technologies available on smartphones. In addition, a multi cross domain silent logging mechanism to allow people to interact with their surrounding connected things from their mobile communication devices is presented. The proposed mechanisms are based in web standards technologies, evolving our social network of Internet of Things towards the so-called Web of Things. Full article
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Open AccessArticle From WSN towards WoT: Open API Scheme Based on oneM2M Platforms
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1645; doi:10.3390/s16101645
Received: 3 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 6 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional computing systems have been able to be integrated into daily objects and connected to each other due to advances in computing and network technologies, such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), forming a global network infrastructure, called the Internet of Things (IoT). To
[...] Read more.
Conventional computing systems have been able to be integrated into daily objects and connected to each other due to advances in computing and network technologies, such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs), forming a global network infrastructure, called the Internet of Things (IoT). To support the interconnection and interoperability between heterogeneous IoT systems, the availability of standardized, open application programming interfaces (APIs) is one of the key features of common software platforms for IoT devices, gateways, and servers. In this paper, we present a standardized way of extending previously-existing WSNs towards IoT systems, building the world of the Web of Things (WoT). Based on the oneM2M software platforms developed in the previous project, we introduce a well-designed open API scheme and device-specific thing adaptation software (TAS) enabling WSN elements, such as a wireless sensor node, to be accessed in a standardized way on a global scale. Three pilot services are implemented (i.e., a WiFi-enabled smart flowerpot, voice-based control for ZigBee-connected home appliances, and WiFi-connected AR.Drone control) to demonstrate the practical usability of the open API scheme and TAS modules. Full details on the method of integrating WSN elements into three example systems are described at the programming code level, which is expected to help future researchers in integrating their WSN systems in IoT platforms, such as oneM2M. We hope that the flexibly-deployable, easily-reusable common open API scheme and TAS-based integration method working with the oneM2M platforms will help the conventional WSNs in diverse industries evolve into the emerging WoT solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Temporal Data-Driven Sleep Scheduling and Spatial Data-Driven Anomaly Detection for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1601; doi:10.3390/s16101601
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 18 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The spatial–temporal correlation is an important feature of sensor data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most of the existing works based on the spatial–temporal correlation can be divided into two parts: redundancy reduction and anomaly detection. These two parts are pursued separately in
[...] Read more.
The spatial–temporal correlation is an important feature of sensor data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most of the existing works based on the spatial–temporal correlation can be divided into two parts: redundancy reduction and anomaly detection. These two parts are pursued separately in existing works. In this work, the combination of temporal data-driven sleep scheduling (TDSS) and spatial data-driven anomaly detection is proposed, where TDSS can reduce data redundancy. The TDSS model is inspired by transmission control protocol (TCP) congestion control. Based on long and linear cluster structure in the tunnel monitoring system, cooperative TDSS and spatial data-driven anomaly detection are then proposed. To realize synchronous acquisition in the same ring for analyzing the situation of every ring, TDSS is implemented in a cooperative way in the cluster. To keep the precision of sensor data, spatial data-driven anomaly detection based on the spatial correlation and Kriging method is realized to generate an anomaly indicator. The experiment results show that cooperative TDSS can realize non-uniform sensing effectively to reduce the energy consumption. In addition, spatial data-driven anomaly detection is quite significant for maintaining and improving the precision of sensor data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Real-Time Web of Things Framework with Customizable Openness Considering Legacy Devices
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1596; doi:10.3390/s16101596
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 17 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), resources and applications based on it have emerged on a large scale. However, most efforts are “silo” solutions where devices and applications are tightly coupled. Infrastructures are needed to connect sensors to the Internet,
[...] Read more.
With the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), resources and applications based on it have emerged on a large scale. However, most efforts are “silo” solutions where devices and applications are tightly coupled. Infrastructures are needed to connect sensors to the Internet, open up and break the current application silos and move to a horizontal application mode. Based on the concept of Web of Things (WoT), many infrastructures have been proposed to integrate the physical world with the Web. However, issues such as no real-time guarantee, lack of fine-grained control of data, and the absence of explicit solutions for integrating heterogeneous legacy devices, hinder their widespread and practical use. To address these issues, this paper proposes a WoT resource framework that provides the infrastructures for the customizable openness and sharing of users’ data and resources under the premise of ensuring the real-time behavior of their own applications. The proposed framework is validated by actual systems and experimental evaluations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gateway-Assisted Retransmission for Lightweight and Reliable IoT Communications
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1560; doi:10.3390/s16101560
Received: 28 May 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
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Abstract
Message Queuing Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN) and Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) are two protocols supporting publish/subscribe models for IoT devices to publish messages to interested subscribers. Retransmission mechanisms are introduced to compensate for the lack of data reliability. If the device
[...] Read more.
Message Queuing Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN) and Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) are two protocols supporting publish/subscribe models for IoT devices to publish messages to interested subscribers. Retransmission mechanisms are introduced to compensate for the lack of data reliability. If the device does not receive the acknowledgement (ACK) before retransmission timeout (RTO) expires, the device will retransmit data. Setting an appropriate RTO is important because the delay may be large or retransmission may be too frequent when the RTO is inappropriate. We propose a Gateway-assisted CoAP (GaCoAP) to dynamically compute RTO for devices. Simulation models are proposed to investigate the performance of GaCoAP compared with four other methods. The experiment results show that GaCoAP is more suitable for IoT devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Channel-Based Key Generation for Encrypted Body-Worn Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1453; doi:10.3390/s16091453
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
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Abstract
Body-worn sensor networks are important for rescue-workers, medical and many other applications. Sensitive data are often transmitted over such a network, motivating the need for encryption. Body-worn sensor networks are deployed in conditions where the wireless communication channel varies dramatically due to fading
[...] Read more.
Body-worn sensor networks are important for rescue-workers, medical and many other applications. Sensitive data are often transmitted over such a network, motivating the need for encryption. Body-worn sensor networks are deployed in conditions where the wireless communication channel varies dramatically due to fading and shadowing, which is considered a disadvantage for communication. Interestingly, these channel variations can be employed to extract a common encryption key at both sides of the link. Legitimate users share a unique physical channel and the variations thereof provide data series on both sides of the link, with highly correlated values. An eavesdropper, however, does not share this physical channel and cannot extract the same information when intercepting the signals. This paper documents a practical wearable communication system implementing channel-based key generation, including an implementation and a measurement campaign comprising indoor as well as outdoor measurements. The results provide insight into the performance of channel-based key generation in realistic practical conditions. Employing a process known as key reconciliation, error free keys are generated in all tested scenarios. The key-generation system is computationally simple and therefore compatible with the low-power micro controllers and low-data rate transmissions commonly used in wireless sensor networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Sensors on the Reliability and Control Performance of Power Circuits in the Web of Things (WoT)
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1430; doi:10.3390/s16091430
Received: 25 June 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
PDF Full-text (3270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to realize a true WoT environment, a reliable power circuit is required to ensure interconnections among a range of WoT devices. This paper presents research on sensors and their effects on the reliability and response characteristics of power circuits in WoT
[...] Read more.
In order to realize a true WoT environment, a reliable power circuit is required to ensure interconnections among a range of WoT devices. This paper presents research on sensors and their effects on the reliability and response characteristics of power circuits in WoT devices. The presented research can be used in various power circuit applications, such as energy harvesting interfaces, photovoltaic systems, and battery management systems for the WoT devices. As power circuits rely on the feedback from voltage/current sensors, the system performance is likely to be affected by the sensor failure rates, sensor dynamic characteristics, and their interface circuits. This study investigated how the operational availability of the power circuits is affected by the sensor failure rates by performing a quantitative reliability analysis. In the analysis process, this paper also includes the effects of various reconstruction and estimation techniques used in power processing circuits (e.g., energy harvesting circuits and photovoltaic systems). This paper also reports how the transient control performance of power circuits is affected by sensor interface circuits. With the frequency domain stability analysis and circuit simulation, it was verified that the interface circuit dynamics may affect the transient response characteristics of power circuits. The verification results in this paper showed that the reliability and control performance of the power circuits can be affected by the sensor types, fault tolerant approaches against sensor failures, and the response characteristics of the sensor interfaces. The analysis results were also verified by experiments using a power circuit prototype. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Self-Organizing Interaction and Synchronization Method between a Wearable Device and Mobile Robot
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 842; doi:10.3390/s16060842
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the near future, we can expect to see robots naturally following or going ahead of humans, similar to pet behavior. We call this type of robots “Pet-Bot”. To implement this function in a robot, in this paper we introduce a self-organizing interaction
[...] Read more.
In the near future, we can expect to see robots naturally following or going ahead of humans, similar to pet behavior. We call this type of robots “Pet-Bot”. To implement this function in a robot, in this paper we introduce a self-organizing interaction and synchronization method between wearable devices and Pet-Bots. First, the Pet-Bot opportunistically identifies its owner without any human intervention, which means that the robot self-identifies the owner’s approach on its own. Second, Pet-Bot’s activity is synchronized with the owner’s behavior. Lastly, the robot frequently encounters uncertain situations (e.g., when the robot goes ahead of the owner but meets a situation where it cannot make a decision, or the owner wants to stop the Pet-Bot synchronization mode to relax). In this case, we have adopted a gesture recognition function that uses a 3-D accelerometer in the wearable device. In order to achieve the interaction and synchronization in real-time, we use two wireless communication protocols: 125 kHz low-frequency (LF) and 2.4 GHz Bluetooth low energy (BLE). We conducted experiments using a prototype Pet-Bot and wearable devices to verify their motion recognition of and synchronization with humans in real-time. The results showed a guaranteed level of accuracy of at least 94%. A trajectory test was also performed to demonstrate the robot’s control performance when following or leading a human in real-time. Full article
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