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Special Issue "Shape-Memory Polymers"

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A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Wei Min Huang (Website)

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore
Interests: shape-memory polymers; shape memory hybrids; shape-memory composites; conductive polymers; polymer nanocomposites
Guest Editor
Dr. H Jerry Qi (Website)

School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
Interests: polymer physics and mechanics; shape memory polymers; light activated polymers; 3D printing
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Haibao Lu (Website)

Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments Laboratory, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China
Phone: +86 451 8641 2259
Fax: +86 451 8640 2322
Interests: shape-memory polymers; polymer nanocomposites; applied polymer physics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past decades, the shape-memory effect (SME) has inspired unlimited imagination to achieve what conventional design/fabrication approaches may have difficulties in fulfilling. Recent developments in shape-memory polymers (SMPs) have not only unveiled a range of new shape-memory phenomena, but also resulted in a number of technologies to design polymeric materials with tailored performance for activation and/or sensing. The emerging of 4D printing is a timely example in which various SMEs may be utilized to serve as the underlying mechanism driving shape switching in a pre-programmed manner. Recently invented polymers with the reversible SME are expected to realize the hope of “the material being an integrated sensing/actuation system” and thus to have a profound impact.

This special issue aims to report the progress of recent cutting edge research in this rapidly expanding field. Manuscripts (including critical review) about fundamentals and novel applications in both actuators and sensors are welcome.

Dr. Wei Min Huang
Dr. H. Jerry Qi
Prof. Dr. Haibao Lu
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • Stimulus-responsive
  • Shape-memory effect
  • Polymeric materials
  • Shape-memory polymers
  • Actuators
  • Sensors
  • 4D printing

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Intraoral Temperature Triggered Shape-Memory Effect and Sealing Capability of A Transpolyisoprene-Based Polymer
Polymers 2015, 7(11), 2259-2275; doi:10.3390/polym7111512
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 9 November 2015
PDF Full-text (8482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In dentistry, pure gutta-percha (trans-1,4-polyisoprene (TPI)) is widely used as a main component of root canal filling materials. TPI has an interesting shape memory formed through cross-linking, and this characteristic is expected to be very effective for development of novel dental treatments; [...] Read more.
In dentistry, pure gutta-percha (trans-1,4-polyisoprene (TPI)) is widely used as a main component of root canal filling materials. TPI has an interesting shape memory formed through cross-linking, and this characteristic is expected to be very effective for development of novel dental treatments; in particular, modification of the shape recovery temperature to the intraoral temperature (37 °C) will enhance the applicability of the shape-memory effect of TPI in root canal filling. In this study, trial test specimens consisting of varying proportions of TPI, cis-polyisoprene, zinc oxide, stearic acid, sulfur and dicumyl peroxide were prepared and the temperature dependence of their shape recovery, recovery stress and relaxation modulus were measured. Additionally, their sealing abilities were tested using glass tubing and a bovine incisor. As the ratio of cross-linking agent in the specimens increased, a decrease in recovery temperature and an increase in recovery stress and recovery speed were observed. In addition, the test specimen containing the highest concentration of cross-linking agent showed superior sealing ability under a thermal stimulus of 37 °C in both sealing ability tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Biodegradable Shape Memory Polymeric Material from Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Polycaprolactone
Polymers 2015, 7(10), 2165-2174; doi:10.3390/polym7101506
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 21 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This article deals with the synthesis of plant oil-based shape memory materials from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and polycaprolactone (PCL). PolyESO/PCLs were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed curing in the presence of PCL. During the reaction, PCL scarcely reacted with ESO and the [...] Read more.
This article deals with the synthesis of plant oil-based shape memory materials from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) and polycaprolactone (PCL). PolyESO/PCLs were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed curing in the presence of PCL. During the reaction, PCL scarcely reacted with ESO and the crystallinity of the PCL component decreased to form a semi-interpenetrating network structure. The incorporation of the PCL components improved the maximum stress and strain at break of ESO-based network polymer. The polyESO/PCL was gradually degraded by Pseudomonas cepasia lipase. Furthermore, the polyESO/PCLs exhibited excellent shape memory properties, and the strain fixity depended on the feed ratio of ESO and PCL. The shape memory-recovery behaviors were repeatedly practicable. The resulting materials are expected to contribute to the development of biodegradable intelligent materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Network Structure and Programming Temperature on the Shape-Memory Response of Thiol-Epoxy “Click” Systems
Polymers 2015, 7(10), 2146-2164; doi:10.3390/polym7101505
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 29 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a new methodology to develop “thiol-epoxy” shape-memory polymers (SMPs) with enhanced mechanical properties in a simple and efficient manner via “click” chemistry by using thermal latent initiators. The shape-memory response (SMR), defined by the mechanical capabilities of the SMP [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new methodology to develop “thiol-epoxy” shape-memory polymers (SMPs) with enhanced mechanical properties in a simple and efficient manner via “click” chemistry by using thermal latent initiators. The shape-memory response (SMR), defined by the mechanical capabilities of the SMP (high ultimate strength and strain), the shape-fixation and the recovery of the original shape (shape-recovery), was analyzed on thiol-epoxy systems by varying the network structure and programming temperature. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and crosslinking density were modified using 3- or 4- functional thiol curing agents and different amounts of a rigid triglycidyl isocyanurate compound. The relationship between the thermo-mechanical properties, network structure and the SMR was evidenced by means of qualitative and quantitative analysis. The influence of the programming temperature (Tprog) on the SMR was also analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring SMPs with enhanced mechanical capabilities and excellent SMR, and intend to provide a better insight into the relationship between the network structure properties, programming temperature and the SMR of unconstrained (stress-free) systems; thus, making it easier to decide between different SMP and to define the operative parameters in the useful life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Polymeric Shape-Memory Micro-Patterned Surface for Switching Wettability with Temperature
Polymers 2015, 7(9), 1674-1688; doi:10.3390/polym7091477
Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 15 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
PDF Full-text (5539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An innovative method to switch the wettability of a micropatterned polymeric surface by thermally induced shape memory effect is presented. For this purpose, first polycyclooctene (PCO) is crosslinked with dycumil peroxide (DCP) and its melting temperature, which corresponds with the switching transition [...] Read more.
An innovative method to switch the wettability of a micropatterned polymeric surface by thermally induced shape memory effect is presented. For this purpose, first polycyclooctene (PCO) is crosslinked with dycumil peroxide (DCP) and its melting temperature, which corresponds with the switching transition temperature (Ttrans), is measured by Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) in tension mode. Later, the shape memory behavior of the bulk material is analyzed under different experimental conditions employing a cyclic thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Finally, after creating shape memory micropillars by laser ablation of crosslinked thermo-active polycyclooctene (PCO), shape memory response and associated effect on water contact angle is analyzed. Thus, deformed micropillars cause lower contact angle on the surface from reduced roughness, but the original hydrophobicity is restored by thermally induced recovery of the original surface structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
Open AccessArticle An Internally Heated Shape Memory Polymer Dry Adhesive
Polymers 2014, 6(8), 2274-2286; doi:10.3390/polym6082274
Received: 2 July 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A conductive epoxy-based shape memory polymer (SMP) is demonstrated using carbon black (CB) as a dopant for the purpose of creating an SMP dry adhesive system which can internally generate the heat required for activation. The electrical and mechanical properties of the [...] Read more.
A conductive epoxy-based shape memory polymer (SMP) is demonstrated using carbon black (CB) as a dopant for the purpose of creating an SMP dry adhesive system which can internally generate the heat required for activation. The electrical and mechanical properties of the CB/SMP blends for varying dopant concentrations are characterized. A composite adhesive is created to minimize surface contact resistance to conductive tape acting as electrodes, while maintaining bulk resistivity required for heat generation due to current flow. The final adhesive can function on flat or curved surfaces. As a demonstration, a 25 mm wide by 45 mm long dry adhesive strip is shown to heat evenly from an applied voltage, and can easily hold a mass in excess of 6 kg when bonded to a spherical concave glass surface using light pressure at 75 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Some New Concepts of Shape Memory Effect of Polymers
Polymers 2014, 6(4), 1144-1163; doi:10.3390/polym6041144
Received: 8 February 2014 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 11 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study some new concepts regarding certain aspects related to shape memory polymers are presented. A blend of polylactic acid (PLA) (80%) and polybutylene succinate (PBS) (20%) was prepared first by extrusion, then by injection molding to obtain the samples. Tensile, [...] Read more.
In this study some new concepts regarding certain aspects related to shape memory polymers are presented. A blend of polylactic acid (PLA) (80%) and polybutylene succinate (PBS) (20%) was prepared first by extrusion, then by injection molding to obtain the samples. Tensile, stress-relaxation and recovery tests were performed on these samples at 70 °C. The results indicated that the blend can only regain 24% of its initial shape. It was shown that, this partial shape memory effect could be improved by successive cycles of shape memory tests. After a fourth cycle, the blend is able to regain 82% of its shape. These original results indicated that a polymer without (or with partial) shape memory effect may be transformed into a shape memory polymer without any chemical modification. In this work, we have also shown the relationship between shape memory and property memory effect. Mono and multi-frequency DMA (dynamic mechanical analyzer) tests on virgin and 100% recovered samples of polyurethane (PU) revealed that the polymer at the end of the shape memory tests regains 100% of its initial form without regaining some of its physical properties like glass transition temperature, tensile modulus, heat expansion coefficient and free volume fraction. Shape memory (with and without stress-relaxation) tests were performed on the samples in order to show the role of residual stresses during recovery tests. On the basis of the results we have tried to show the origin of the driving force responsible for shape memory effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Polybenzoxazine on Shape Memory Properties of Polyurethanes with Amorphous and Crystalline Soft Segments
Polymers 2014, 6(4), 1008-1025; doi:10.3390/polym6041008
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper evaluates the role of minor component polybenzoxazine (PB) on shape-memory properties of polyurethanes (PU) with glassy and crystalline soft segments. The polymer compounds were prepared in two steps. In the first step, benzoxazine, polyurethane pre-polymer, and chain extender butanediol (BD) [...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the role of minor component polybenzoxazine (PB) on shape-memory properties of polyurethanes (PU) with glassy and crystalline soft segments. The polymer compounds were prepared in two steps. In the first step, benzoxazine, polyurethane pre-polymer, and chain extender butanediol (BD) were mixed into a solution followed by chain-extension of the pre-polymer with BD. In the second step, benzoxazine was polymerized at 180 °C for 3 h to obtain shape memory polymer compounds. The atomic force microscopy images revealed that the PB-phase formed uniform dispersions in PU. The presence of PB-phase induced shape-memory behavior in non-shape memory PU with amorphous soft segment and significantly improved the values of shape fixity, recovery ratio, and recovery stress in shape memory polyurethane with crystalline soft segment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Survey of Surface Modification Techniques for Next-Generation Shape Memory Polymer Stent Devices
Polymers 2014, 6(9), 2309-2331; doi:10.3390/polym6092309
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The search for a single material with ideal surface properties and necessary mechanical properties is on-going, especially with regard to cardiovascular stent materials. Since the majority of stent problems arise from surface issues rather than bulk material deficiencies, surface optimization of a [...] Read more.
The search for a single material with ideal surface properties and necessary mechanical properties is on-going, especially with regard to cardiovascular stent materials. Since the majority of stent problems arise from surface issues rather than bulk material deficiencies, surface optimization of a material that already contains the necessary bulk properties is an active area of research. Polymers can be surface-modified using a variety of methods to increase hemocompatibilty by reducing either late-stage restenosis or acute thrombogenicity, or both. These modification methods can be extended to shape memory polymers (SMPs), in an effort to make these materials more surface compatible, based on the application. This review focuses on the role of surface modification of materials, mainly polymers, to improve the hemocompatibility of stent materials; additional discussion of other materials commonly used in stents is also provided. Although shape memory polymers are not yet extensively used for stents, they offer numerous benefits that may make them good candidates for next-generation stents. Surface modification techniques discussed here include roughening, patterning, chemical modification, and surface modification for biomolecule and drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
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Open AccessReview Advanced Shape Memory Technology to Reshape Product Design, Manufacturing and Recycling
Polymers 2014, 6(8), 2287-2308; doi:10.3390/polym6082287
Received: 31 May 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (10686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides a brief review on the advanced shape memory technology (ASMT) with a focus on polymeric materials. In addition to introducing the concept and fundamentals of the ASMT, the potential applications of the ASMT either alone or integrated with an [...] Read more.
This paper provides a brief review on the advanced shape memory technology (ASMT) with a focus on polymeric materials. In addition to introducing the concept and fundamentals of the ASMT, the potential applications of the ASMT either alone or integrated with an existing mature technique (such as, 3D printing, quick response (QR) code, lenticular lens) and phenomena (e.g., wrinkling and stress-enhanced swelling effect) in product design, manufacturing, and recycling are demonstrated. It is concluded that the ASMT is indeed able to provide a range of powerful approaches to reshape part of the life cycle or the whole life cycle of products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape-Memory Polymers)
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