Special Issue "Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity"

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A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Moriya Tsuji (Website)

HIV and Malaria Vaccine Program, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Affiliate of The Rockefeller University, 455 First Ave, Room 747, New York, NY 10016, USA
Fax: +1 212 725 1126
Interests: malaria; protozoa; HIV; vaccine; cell-mediated immunity; adjuvant

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent efforts to study immunity against viruses using suitable animal models have greatly contributed to advancements in the field of viral immunity. These efforts have endeavored to identify or generate animal models with an immune system which resembles that of humans. In this special issue dedicated to “Animal models to study viral immunity”, we are extending an open invitation for submission of primary research papers and review manuscripts relating to the use of animal models that provide insight into the nature of immunity to viruses in humans. We hope that your critical contributions to this special issue will ultimately lead to an improved understanding of viral immunity in humans.

Prof. Dr. Moriya Tsuji
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 600 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • virus
  • immunity
  • animal model
  • human immune system
  • viral vaccine
  • protection

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse
Pathogens 2014, 3(3), 633-655; doi:10.3390/pathogens3030633
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 June 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small [...] Read more.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Immune Response to Human Metapneumovirus Infection: What We Have Learned from the Mouse Model
Pathogens 2015, 4(3), 682-696; doi:10.3390/pathogens4030682
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading respiratory viral pathogen associated with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma exacerbation in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The development of a potential vaccine against hMPV requires detailed understanding of the host immune system, which plays [...] Read more.
Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a leading respiratory viral pathogen associated with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma exacerbation in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The development of a potential vaccine against hMPV requires detailed understanding of the host immune system, which plays a significant role in hMPV pathogenesis, susceptibility and vaccine efficacy. As a result, animal models have been developed to better understand the mechanisms by which hMPV causes disease. Several animal models have been evaluated and established so far to study the host immune responses and pathophysiology of hMPV infection. However, inbred laboratory mouse strains have been one of the most used animal species for experimental modeling and therefore used for the studies of immunity and immunopathogenesis to hMPV. This review summarizes the contributions of the mouse model to our understanding of the immune response against hMPV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity)
Open AccessReview Animal Models of Chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection Host–Virus Immunologic Interactions
Pathogens 2015, 4(1), 46-65; doi:10.3390/pathogens4010046
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that has an absolute requirement for a virus belonging to the hepadnaviridae family like hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication and formation of new virions. HDV infection is usually associated with a [...] Read more.
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that has an absolute requirement for a virus belonging to the hepadnaviridae family like hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication and formation of new virions. HDV infection is usually associated with a worsening of HBV-induced liver pathogenesis, which leads to more frequent cirrhosis, increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and fulminant hepatitis. Importantly, no selective therapies are available for HDV infection. The mainstay of treatment for HDV infection is pegylated interferon alpha; however, response rates to this therapy are poor. A better knowledge of HDV–host cell interaction will help with the identification of novel therapeutic targets, which are urgently needed. Animal models like hepadnavirus-infected chimpanzees or the eastern woodchuck have been of great value for the characterization of HDV chronic infection. Recently, more practical animal models in which to perform a deeper study of host virus interactions and to evaluate new therapeutic strategies have been developed. Therefore, the main focus of this review is to discuss the current knowledge about HDV host interactions obtained from cell culture and animal models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity)
Open AccessReview Animal Models for Influenza Viruses: Implications for Universal Vaccine Development
Pathogens 2014, 3(4), 845-874; doi:10.3390/pathogens3040845
Received: 7 August 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Influenza virus infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Depending on the virulence of the influenza virus strain, as well as the immunological status of the infected individual, the severity of the respiratory disease may range [...] Read more.
Influenza virus infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Depending on the virulence of the influenza virus strain, as well as the immunological status of the infected individual, the severity of the respiratory disease may range from sub-clinical or mild symptoms to severe pneumonia that can sometimes lead to death. Vaccines remain the primary public health measure in reducing the influenza burden. Though the first influenza vaccine preparation was licensed more than 60 years ago, current research efforts seek to develop novel vaccination strategies with improved immunogenicity, effectiveness, and breadth of protection. Animal models of influenza have been essential in facilitating studies aimed at understanding viral factors that affect pathogenesis and contribute to disease or transmission. Among others, mice, ferrets, pigs, and nonhuman primates have been used to study influenza virus infection in vivo, as well as to do pre-clinical testing of novel vaccine approaches. Here we discuss and compare the unique advantages and limitations of each model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity)
Open AccessReview Exploring the Therapeutic Potentials of iNKT Cells for Anti-HBV Treatment
Pathogens 2014, 3(3), 563-576; doi:10.3390/pathogens3030563
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 3 July 2014
PDF Full-text (342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a group of innate-like regulatory T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Both mouse modeling experiments and human clinical studies have suggested a key role for iNKT cells in anti-HBV immunity and these potent T cells can [...] Read more.
CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a group of innate-like regulatory T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Both mouse modeling experiments and human clinical studies have suggested a key role for iNKT cells in anti-HBV immunity and these potent T cells can be explored as a novel therapeutic target for anti-HBV treatment. We aim to humanize mice in the CD1d/iNKT cell lipid presentation system and provide new research tools for identifying novel anti-HBV agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity)
Open AccessReview Host Pathogen Relations: Exploring Animal Models for Fungal Pathogens
Pathogens 2014, 3(3), 549-562; doi:10.3390/pathogens3030549
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 30 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pathogenic fungi cause superficial infections but pose a significant public health risk when infections spread to deeper tissues, such as the lung. Within the last three decades, fungi have been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial infections making them the focus [...] Read more.
Pathogenic fungi cause superficial infections but pose a significant public health risk when infections spread to deeper tissues, such as the lung. Within the last three decades, fungi have been identified as the leading cause of nosocomial infections making them the focus of research. This review outlines the model systems such as the mouse, zebrafish larvae, flies, and nematodes, as well as ex vivo and in vitro systems available to study common fungal pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity)
Open AccessReview Mouse Models of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Comprising Host-Virus Immunologic Interactions
Pathogens 2014, 3(2), 377-389; doi:10.3390/pathogens3020377
Received: 6 March 2014 / Revised: 9 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases associated with various human liver diseases, including acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis; liver cirrhosis; and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the availability of an HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral [...] Read more.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases associated with various human liver diseases, including acute, fulminant and chronic hepatitis; liver cirrhosis; and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the availability of an HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies, there are still more than 350 million chronically infected people worldwide, approximately 5% of the world population. To understand the virus biology and pathogenesis in HBV-infected patients, several animal models have been developed to mimic hepatic HBV infection and the immune response against HBV, but the narrow host range of HBV infection and lack of a full immune response spectrum in animal models remain significant limitations. Accumulating evidence obtained from studies using a variety of mouse models that recapitulate hepatic HBV infection provides several clues for understanding host-virus immunologic interactions during HBV infection, whereas the determinants of the immune response required for HBV clearance are poorly defined. Therefore, adequate mouse models are urgently needed to elucidate the mechanism of HBV elimination and identify novel targets for antiviral therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity)

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