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Special Issue "Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Lynda M. Williams

Metabolic Health Group, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Greenburn Road, Aberdeen AB21 9SB, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: inflammation and obesity; role of dietary anti-inflammatories in improving metabolic health

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Trends in Body Fat, Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness Among Male and Female College Students
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1075-1085; doi:10.3390/nu2101075
Received: 10 September 2010 / Revised: 14 October 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There have been many publications in recent years reporting on the quantity of physical activity among college students using indirect indicators such as steps walked per day or time spent on physical activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends
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There have been many publications in recent years reporting on the quantity of physical activity among college students using indirect indicators such as steps walked per day or time spent on physical activities. The purpose of this study was to describe the trends of physical fitness related to BMI and body fat among university students between 1996 and 2008. The results showed a significant decline in the average fitness levels measured as an estimation of VO2max for male and female students (p < 0.001 for both sexes). The linear trend for BMI by years was not significant for both sexes (p for males = 0.772, p for females = 0.253). On average, in the last 13 years, % body fat was increasing 0.513%/year for males and 0.654%/year for females. There is a significant indirect correlation between the student’s VO2max levels and % body fat, r = −0.489; p < 0.001 for males; and r = −0.416, p < 0.001 for females. Approximately 23.9% of the variance in the VO2max levels in males and 17.3% in females can be explained by the variance in % body fat. The results support recent findings that physical fitness among college students is declining and body fatness is increasing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)
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Open AccessArticle Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 60-74; doi:10.3390/nu2010060
Received: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 21 January 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES), behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years) was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics
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We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES), behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years) was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 178-196; doi:10.3390/nu1020178
Received: 15 October 2009 / Accepted: 24 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose
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The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice
Nutrients 2009, 1(1), 50-70; doi:10.3390/nu1010050
Received: 9 July 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 14 August 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy
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Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity) and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 197-209; doi:10.3390/nu1020197
Received: 30 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity
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Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Nutrition and Dietetics)

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