Special Issue "CNT based Nanomaterials"

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A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Adelina Ilie

Department of Physics and Centre for Graphene Science, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 1225 386898
Fax: +44 1225 386110
Interests: carbon nanotubes hybrids (with inorganic and molecular systems); graphene; scanning probe microscopy (STM, AFM, atomic resolution, UHV, low-temperature); unconventional nanofabrication techniques for nanomaterials device integration (nanostenciling)

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Polymer Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Electric Microcables
Nanomaterials 2014, 4(4), 879-893; doi:10.3390/nano4040879
Received: 8 August 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 28 October 2014 / Published: 4 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT fibers, threads, yarns and ropes have been reported to this day, and improvement of their electrical and mechanical conductivity continues. Some electrical applications of these CNT conducting fibers require an insulating layer for electrical insulation and protection against mechanical tearing. Ideally, a flexible insulator such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) on the CNT fiber can allow fabrication of CNT coils that can be assembled into lightweight, corrosion resistant electrical motors and transformers. HNBR is a largely used commercial polymer that unlike other cable-coating polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), it provides unique continuous and uniform coating on the CNT fibers. The polymer coated/insulated CNT fibers have a 26.54 μm average diameter—which is approximately four times the diameter of a red blood cell—is produced by a simple dip-coating process. Our results confirm that HNBR in solution creates a few microns uniform insulation and mechanical protection over a CNT fiber that is used as the electrically conducting core. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Desorption of 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene from Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Impact of Solution Chemistry and Surface Chemistry
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(2), 289-302; doi:10.3390/nano3020289
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The strong affinity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to environmental contaminants has raised serious concern that CNTs may function as a carrier of environmental pollutants and lead to contamination in places where the environmental pollutants are not expected. However, this concern will not be
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The strong affinity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to environmental contaminants has raised serious concern that CNTs may function as a carrier of environmental pollutants and lead to contamination in places where the environmental pollutants are not expected. However, this concern will not be realized until the contaminants are desorbed from CNTs. It is well recognized that the desorption of environmental pollutants from pre-laden CNTs varies with the environmental conditions, such as the solution pH and ionic strength. However, comprehensive investigation on the influence of solution chemistry on the desorption process has not been carried out, even though numerous investigations have been conducted to investigate the impact of solution chemistry on the adsorption of environmental pollutants on CNTs. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of solution chemistry (e.g., pH, ionic strength) and surface functionalization on the desorption of preloaded 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-TCB) from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The results suggested that higher pH, ionic strength and natural organic matter in solution generally led to higher desorption of 1,3,5-TCB from MWNTs. However, the extent of change varied at different values of the tested parameters (e.g., pH < 7 vs. pH > 7). In addition, the impact of these parameters varied with MWNTs possessing different surface functional groups, suggesting that surface functionalization could considerably alter the environmental behaviors and impact of MWNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Electrophoretic Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes on 3-Amino-Propyl-Triethoxysilane (APTES) Surface Functionalized Silicon Substrates
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(2), 272-288; doi:10.3390/nano3020272
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 5 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (4303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fabrication of uniform thin coatings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on semiconductor (silicon) substrates with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) surface functionalization has been studied extensively in this report. The gradual deposition and eventual film formation of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is
[...] Read more.
Fabrication of uniform thin coatings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on semiconductor (silicon) substrates with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) surface functionalization has been studied extensively in this report. The gradual deposition and eventual film formation of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is greatly assisted by the Coulombic force of attraction existing between the positively charged –NH2 surface groups of APTES and the acid treated, negatively charged nanotubes migrating towards the deposition surfaces. The remarkable deposition characteristics of the CNT coatings by EPD in comparison to the dip coating method and the influence of isopropyl (IPA)-based CNT suspension in the fabricated film quality has also been revealed in this study. The effect of varying APTES concentration (5%–100%) on the Raman spectroscopy and thickness of the deposited CNT film has been discussed in details, as well. The deposition approach has eliminated the need of metal deposition in the electrophoretic deposition approach and, therefore, establishes a cost-effective, fast and entirely room temperature-based fabrication strategy of CNT thin films for a wide range of next generation electronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle A Thermal Model for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(2), 229-241; doi:10.3390/nano3020229
Received: 11 March 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we have studied Joule heating in carbon nanotube based very large scale integration (VLSI) interconnects and incorporated Joule heating influenced scattering in our previously developed current transport model. The theoretical model explains breakdown in carbon nanotube resistance which limits the
[...] Read more.
In this work, we have studied Joule heating in carbon nanotube based very large scale integration (VLSI) interconnects and incorporated Joule heating influenced scattering in our previously developed current transport model. The theoretical model explains breakdown in carbon nanotube resistance which limits the current density. We have also studied scattering parameters of carbon nanotube (CNT) interconnects and compared with the earlier work. For 1 µm length single-wall carbon nanotube, 3 dB frequency in S12 parameter reduces to ~120 GHz from 1 THz considering Joule heating. It has been found that bias voltage has little effect on scattering parameters, while length has very strong effect on scattering parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Liquid-State and Solid-State Properties of Nanotube/Polypropylene Nanocomposites Elaborated via a Simple Procedure
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(1), 173-191; doi:10.3390/nano3010173
Received: 25 January 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and polypropylene (PP) in absence of compatibilizer have been chosen to elaborate MWCNT/PP nanocomposites using a simple melt-mixing dispersing method. Calorimetry results indicate little effect of MWCNTs on crystallinity of PP, revealing not much interaction between nanotubes and
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Non-modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and polypropylene (PP) in absence of compatibilizer have been chosen to elaborate MWCNT/PP nanocomposites using a simple melt-mixing dispersing method. Calorimetry results indicate little effect of MWCNTs on crystallinity of PP, revealing not much interaction between nanotubes and PP chains, which is compatible with the employed manufacturing procedure. In any case, a hindering of polymer chains motion by MWCNTs is observed in the molten state, using oscillatory flow experiments, and a rheological percolation threshold is determined. The percolation limit is not noticed by Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements in the melt, because this technique rather detects local motions. Keeping the nanocomposites in the molten state provokes an electrical conductivity increase of several orders of magnitude, but on ulterior crystallization, the conductivity decreases, probably due to a reduction of the ionic conductivity. For a concentration of 2% MWCNTs, in the limit of percolation, the conductivity decreases considerably more, because percolation network constituted in the molten state is unstable and is destroyed during crystallization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Influence of the Sonication Temperature on the Debundling Kinetics of Carbon Nanotubes in Propan-2-ol
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(1), 70-85; doi:10.3390/nano3010070
Received: 6 December 2012 / Revised: 7 January 2013 / Accepted: 24 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of sonication temperature on the debundling of carbon nanotube (CNT) macro-bundles is reported and demonstrated by analysis with different particle sizing methods. The change of bundle size over time and after several comparatively gentle sonication cycles of suspensions at various temperatures
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The effect of sonication temperature on the debundling of carbon nanotube (CNT) macro-bundles is reported and demonstrated by analysis with different particle sizing methods. The change of bundle size over time and after several comparatively gentle sonication cycles of suspensions at various temperatures is reported. A novel technique is presented that produces a more homogeneous nanotube dispersion by lowering the temperature during sonication. We produce evidence that temperature influences the suspension stability, and that low temperatures are preferable to obtain better dispersion without increasing damage to the CNT walls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Empirical Equation Based Chirality (n, m) Assignment of Semiconducting Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes from Resonant Raman Scattering Data
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(1), 1-21; doi:10.3390/nano3010001
Received: 2 November 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 24 December 2012
PDF Full-text (4214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a technique for the chirality (n, m) assignment of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes by solving a set of empirical equations of the tight binding model parameters. The empirical equations of the nearest neighbor hopping parameters, relating
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This work presents a technique for the chirality (n, m) assignment of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes by solving a set of empirical equations of the tight binding model parameters. The empirical equations of the nearest neighbor hopping parameters, relating the term (2n, m) with the first and second optical transition energies of the semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes, are also proposed. They provide almost the same level of accuracy for lower and higher diameter nanotubes. An algorithm is presented to determine the chiral index (n, m) of any unknown semiconducting tube by solving these empirical equations using values of radial breathing mode frequency and the first or second optical transition energy from resonant Raman spectroscopy. In this paper, the chirality of 55 semiconducting nanotubes is assigned using the first and second optical transition energies. Unlike the existing methods of chirality assignment, this technique does not require graphical comparison or pattern recognition between existing experimental and theoretical Kataura plot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Spontaneous Deposition of Prussian Blue on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and the Application in an Amperometric Biosensor
Nanomaterials 2012, 2(4), 428-444; doi:10.3390/nano2040428
Received: 16 October 2012 / Revised: 16 November 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple method has been developed for the spontaneous deposition of Prussian blue (PB) particles from a solution containing only ferricyanide ions onto conducting substrates such as indium tin oxide glass, glassy carbon disk and carbon nanotube (CNT) materials. Formation of PB deposits
[...] Read more.
A simple method has been developed for the spontaneous deposition of Prussian blue (PB) particles from a solution containing only ferricyanide ions onto conducting substrates such as indium tin oxide glass, glassy carbon disk and carbon nanotube (CNT) materials. Formation of PB deposits was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. The surface morphology of the PB particles deposited on the substrates was examined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. CNT/PB composite modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibited an electrocatalytic property for hydrogen peroxide reduction. These modified electrodes exhibited a high sensitivity for electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide at −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl), probably due to the synergistic effect of CNT with PB. Then, CNT/PB modified electrodes were further developed as amperometric glucose biosensors. These biosensors offered a linear response to glucose concentration from 0.1 to 0.9 mM with good selectivity, high sensitivity of 0.102 A M1 cm−2 and short response time (within 2 s) at a negative operation potential of −0.05 V (vs. Ag|AgCl). The detection limit was estimated to be 0.01 mM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Inkjet Printing of Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(3), 453-468; doi:10.3390/nano3030453
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 25 July 2013 / Published: 29 July 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In an attempt to give a brief introduction to carbon nanotube inkjet printing, this review paper discusses the issues that come along with preparing and printing carbon nanotube ink. Carbon nanotube inkjet printing is relatively new, but it has great potential for broad
[...] Read more.
In an attempt to give a brief introduction to carbon nanotube inkjet printing, this review paper discusses the issues that come along with preparing and printing carbon nanotube ink. Carbon nanotube inkjet printing is relatively new, but it has great potential for broad applications in flexible and printable electronics, transparent electrodes, electronic sensors, and so on due to its low cost and the extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes. In addition to the formulation of carbon nanotube ink and its printing technologies, recent progress and achievements of carbon nanotube inkjet printing are reviewed in detail with brief discussion on the future outlook of the technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview Theory of Carbon Nanotube (CNT)-Based Electron Field Emitters
Nanomaterials 2013, 3(3), 393-442; doi:10.3390/nano3030393
Received: 7 May 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Theoretical problems arising in connection with development and operation of electron field emitters on the basis of carbon nanotubes are reviewed. The physical aspects of electron field emission that underlie the unique emission properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered. Physical effects and
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Theoretical problems arising in connection with development and operation of electron field emitters on the basis of carbon nanotubes are reviewed. The physical aspects of electron field emission that underlie the unique emission properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered. Physical effects and phenomena affecting the emission characteristics of CNT cathodes are analyzed. Effects given particular attention include: the electric field amplification near a CNT tip with taking into account the shape of the tip, the deviation from the vertical orientation of nanotubes and electrical field-induced alignment of those; electric field screening by neighboring nanotubes; statistical spread of the parameters of the individual CNTs comprising the cathode; the thermal effects resulting in degradation of nanotubes during emission. Simultaneous consideration of the above-listed effects permitted the development of the optimization procedure for CNT array in terms of the maximum reachable emission current density. In accordance with this procedure, the optimum inter-tube distance in the array depends on the region of the external voltage applied. The phenomenon of self-misalignment of nanotubes in an array has been predicted and analyzed in terms of the recent experiments performed. A mechanism of degradation of CNT-based electron field emitters has been analyzed consisting of the bombardment of the emitters by ions formed as a result of electron impact ionization of the residual gas molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CNT based Nanomaterials)
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