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Special Issue "Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Vassilios Roussis

Department of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, GR 15771, Athens, Greece
E-Mail
Phone: +30210 7274 592
Fax: +30 210 7274 592
Interests: marine natural products; chemotaxonomy; chemical ecology
Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Efstathia Ioannou

Department of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, Athens 15771, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +302107274913
Interests: marine natural products; structure elucidation; bioactivity evaluation; marine-derived microorganisms; biotransformations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Triterpenes, constituting one of the classes of higher terpenes, show a widespread occurrence in nature and can be found in almost all terrestrial and marine organisms. Nevertheless, most of the bioactive triterpenes have been detected in higher plants.

Triterpenes are naturally occurring alkenes included in the broad and structurally diverse group of triterpenoids, which also include natural degradation products, oxidation, and hydrogenation products. Taking into consideration the architecture of the carbon skeleton, triterpenes may be divided into linear and cyclic ones, mainly including tetracyclic and pentacyclic carbocycles.

Due to their relatively complex and diverse structures, triterpenoids frequently exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and would healing activity.

The continuous investigations of natural sources and biotransformation studies on known metabolites are constantly revealing new triterpenoids that might display even more promising properties. Taking together the current knowledge, triterpenes are considered a promising class of molecules for the development of new drugs.

Prof. Dr. Vassilios Roussis
Dr. Efstathia Ioannou
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • isolation and structure elucidation of triterpenes and triterpenoids
  • pharmacological activity
  • medicinal chemistry
  • biotransformation studies

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Published Papers (55 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Six New Triterpene Derivatives from Aralia chinensis Var. dasyphylloides
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1700; doi:10.3390/molecules21121700
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
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Abstract
Aralia chinensis var. dasyphylloides is widely distributed in China and used as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of digestive and immune system diseases. The present study aimed to search for novel oleanolic-type triterpenoids in low-polarity fractions. Six new triterpene derivatives (
[...] Read more.
Aralia chinensis var. dasyphylloides is widely distributed in China and used as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of digestive and immune system diseases. The present study aimed to search for novel oleanolic-type triterpenoids in low-polarity fractions. Six new triterpene derivatives (16), together with two known compounds were isolated from the barks of A. chinensis var. dasyphylloides. Their structures were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. They were identified as 3-oxo-oleana-11,13(18)-dien-28,30-dioic acid (1), 30-hydroxy-3-oxo-oleana-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid (2), 3β-hydroxy-oleana-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 3β,30-dihydroxy-oleana-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), 3β-hydroxy-oleana-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid-3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), 3β,29-dihydroxy-oleana-9(11),12-dien-28-oic acid-28-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), namely, araliachinolic acids I and II and araliachinosides I–IV. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was tested against HepG2, A549, SGC7901, and MCF7 cell lines, but no apparent activity was observed at a concentration of 50 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Screening for Triterpenoid Saponins in Plants Using Hyphenated Analytical Platforms
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1614; doi:10.3390/molecules21121614
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 19 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recently the number of studies investigating triterpenoid saponins has drastically increased due to their diverse and potentially attractive biological activities. Currently the literature contains chemical structures of few hundreds of triterpenoid saponins of plant and animal origin. Triterpenoid saponins consist of a triterpene
[...] Read more.
Recently the number of studies investigating triterpenoid saponins has drastically increased due to their diverse and potentially attractive biological activities. Currently the literature contains chemical structures of few hundreds of triterpenoid saponins of plant and animal origin. Triterpenoid saponins consist of a triterpene aglycone with one or more sugar moieties attached to it. However, due to similar physico-chemical properties, isolation and identification of a large diversity of triterpenoid saponins remain challenging. This study demonstrates a methodology to screen saponins using hyphenated analytical platforms, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and LC-SPE-NMR/MS, in the example of two different phenotypes of the model plant Barbarea vulgaris (winter cress), glabrous (G) and pubescent (P) type that are known to differ by their insect resistance. The proposed methodology allows for detailed comparison of saponin profiles from intact plant extracts as well as saponin aglycone profiles from hydrolysed samples. Continuously measured 1D proton NMR data during LC separation along with mass spectrometry data revealed significant differences, including contents of saponins, types of aglycones and numbers of sugar moieties attached to the aglycone. A total of 49 peaks were tentatively identified as saponins from both plants; they are derived from eight types of aglycones and with 2–5 sugar moieties. Identification of two previously known insect-deterrent saponins, hederagenin cellobioside and oleanolic acid cellobioside, demonstrated the applicability of the methodology for relatively rapid screening of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessCommunication Quantitative Determination of 3-O-Acetyl-11-Keto-βBoswellic Acid (AKBA) and Other Boswellic Acids in Boswellia sacra Flueck (syn. B. carteri Birdw) and Boswellia serrata Roxb
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1329; doi:10.3390/molecules21101329
Received: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 October 2016 / Published: 6 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Boswellia serrata and Boswellia sacra (syn. B. carteri) are important medicinal plants widely used for their content of bioactive lipophilic triterpenes. The qualitative and quantitative determination of boswellic acids (BAs) is important for their use in dietary supplements aimed to provide a support
[...] Read more.
Boswellia serrata and Boswellia sacra (syn. B. carteri) are important medicinal plants widely used for their content of bioactive lipophilic triterpenes. The qualitative and quantitative determination of boswellic acids (BAs) is important for their use in dietary supplements aimed to provide a support for osteoarthritic and inflammatory diseases. We used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-Diode Array Detector (DAD) coupled to ElectroSpray Ionization and tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative determination of BAs extracted from the gum resins of B. sacra and B. serrata. Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and Matrix Effect were assessed in order to validate quantitative data. Here we show that the BAs quantitative determination was 491.20 g·kg−1 d. wt (49%) in B. sacra and 295.25 g·kg−1 d. wt (30%) in B. serrata. Lower percentages of BAs content were obtained when BAs were expressed on the gum resin weight (29% and 16% for B. sacra and B. serrata, respectively). The content of Acetyl-11-Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (AKBA) was higher in B. sacra (70.81 g·kg−1 d. wt; 7%) than in B. serrata (7.35 g·kg−1 d. wt; 0.7%). Our results show that any claim of BAs content in either B. sacra or B. serrata gum resins equal to or higher than 70% or AKBA contents of 30% are simply unrealistic or based on a wrong quantitative determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Tetranortriterpenes and Limonoids from the Roots of Aphanamixis polystachya
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1167; doi:10.3390/molecules21091167
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
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Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the roots of Aphanamixis polystachya resulted in isolation of four new tetranortriterpenes (14) in addition to one protolimonoid (methyl-1ξ,7R-diacetoxy-23R,25-dihydroxy-20S,24R-21,24-epoxy-3,4-seco-apotirucall-4(28),14(15)-diene-3-oate (5)), five known
[...] Read more.
Phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the roots of Aphanamixis polystachya resulted in isolation of four new tetranortriterpenes (14) in addition to one protolimonoid (methyl-1ξ,7R-diacetoxy-23R,25-dihydroxy-20S,24R-21,24-epoxy-3,4-seco-apotirucall-4(28),14(15)-diene-3-oate (5)), five known limonoids (rohituka 3 (6), rohituka 7 (7), nymania 1 (8), rubrin G (9), prieurianin (10)) and a steroid (2,3-dihydroxy-5-pregnan-16-one (11)). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition against superoxide generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to (formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B) (FMLP/CB). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Triterpenes for Well-Balanced Scar Formation in Superficial Wounds
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1129; doi:10.3390/molecules21091129
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1730 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Triterpenes are demonstrably effective for accelerating re-epithelialisation of wounds and known to improve scar formation for superficial lesions. Among the variety of triterpenes, betuline is of particular medical interest. Topical betuline gel (TBG) received drug approval in 2016 from the European Commission as
[...] Read more.
Triterpenes are demonstrably effective for accelerating re-epithelialisation of wounds and known to improve scar formation for superficial lesions. Among the variety of triterpenes, betuline is of particular medical interest. Topical betuline gel (TBG) received drug approval in 2016 from the European Commission as the first topical therapeutic agent with the proven clinical benefit of accelerating wound healing. Two self-conducted randomized intra-individual comparison clinical studies with a total of 220 patients involved in TBG treatment of skin graft surgical wounds have been screened for data concerning the aesthetic aspect of wound healing. Three months after surgery wound treatment with TBG resulted in about 30% of cases with more discreet scars, and standard of care in about 10%. Patients themselves appreciate the results of TBG after 3 months even more (about 50%) compared to standard of care (about 10%). One year after surgery, the superiority of TBG counts for about 25% in comparison with about 10%, and from the patients’ point of view, for 25% compared to 4% under standard of care. In the majority of wound treatment cases, there is no difference visible between TBG treatment and standard of care after 1 year of scar formation. However, in comparison, TBG still offers a better chance for discreet scars and therefore happens to be superior in good care of wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Three Novel Triterpenoids from Taraxacum officinale Roots
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1121; doi:10.3390/molecules21091121
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 20 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three novel lupane-, bauerane-, and euphane-type triterpenoids (13), in addition to seven known triterpenoids (410)—18β,19β-epoxy-21β-hydroxylupan-3β-yl acetate (4), 21-oxolup-18-en-3β-yl acetate (5), betulin (6), officinatrione (7), 11α-methoxyolean-12-en-3-one (8
[...] Read more.
Three novel lupane-, bauerane-, and euphane-type triterpenoids (13), in addition to seven known triterpenoids (410)—18β,19β-epoxy-21β-hydroxylupan-3β-yl acetate (4), 21-oxolup-18-en-3β-yl acetate (5), betulin (6), officinatrione (7), 11α-methoxyolean-12-en-3-one (8), eupha-7,24-dien-3-one (9), and 24-oxoeupha-7,24-dien-3β-yl acetate (10)—were isolated from the roots of Taraxacum officinale. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D-NMR spectra and electron ionization mass spectrometry (EIMS). The effects of compounds 110 on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages were evaluated. Compounds 4, 6, and 10 exhibited similar NO inhibitory activities to NG-monomethyl-l-arginine acetate (l-NMMA). These compounds did not exhibit cytotoxicity at an effective concentration. The results of present study suggest that compounds 4, 6, and 10 have potential as anti-inflammatory disease agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxicity of Triterpenoid Alkaloids from Buxus microphylla against Human Tumor Cell Lines
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1125; doi:10.3390/molecules21091125
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 15 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
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Abstract
Three new triterpenoid alkaloids, namely buxmicrophyllines P–R (13), were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Buxus microphylla. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. Structurally, compounds 13 belong to
[...] Read more.
Three new triterpenoid alkaloids, namely buxmicrophyllines P–R (13), were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Buxus microphylla. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. Structurally, compounds 13 belong to the 9,10-cycloartane type alkaloids. In addition, compound 3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities in vitro against HL-60, SMMC-7221, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 cell lines (with IC50 values ranging from 4.51 to 15.58 μM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Betulin Phosphonates; Synthesis, Structure, and Cytotoxic Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1123; doi:10.3390/molecules21091123
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 20 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Betulin derivatives are a widely studied group of compounds of natural origin due to their wide spectrum of biological activities. This paper describes new betulin derivatives, containing a phosphonate group. The allyl-vinyl isomerization and synthesis of acetylenic derivatives have been reported. Structural identification
[...] Read more.
Betulin derivatives are a widely studied group of compounds of natural origin due to their wide spectrum of biological activities. This paper describes new betulin derivatives, containing a phosphonate group. The allyl-vinyl isomerization and synthesis of acetylenic derivatives have been reported. Structural identification of products as E and Z isomers has been carried out using 1H-, 13C-, 31P-NMR, and crystallographic analysis. The crystal structure in the orthorhombic space group and analysis of crystal packing contacts for 29-diethoxyphosphoryl-28-cyclopropylpropynoyloxy-lup-20E(29)-en-3β-ol 8a are reported. All new compounds were tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity against human T47D (breast cancer), SNB-19 (glioblastoma), and C32 (melanoma) cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Structures and Biogenesis of Fallaxosides D4, D5, D6 and D7, Trisulfated Non-Holostane Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Cucumaria fallax
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 939; doi:10.3390/molecules21070939
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four new trisulfated triterpene glycosides, fallaxosides D4 (1), D5 (2), D6 (3) and D7 (4) have been isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria fallax (Cucumariidae, Dendrochirotida). The structures of the glycosides
[...] Read more.
Four new trisulfated triterpene glycosides, fallaxosides D4 (1), D5 (2), D6 (3) and D7 (4) have been isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria fallax (Cucumariidae, Dendrochirotida). The structures of the glycosides have been elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRESIMS. All the glycosides have the lanostane aglycones of a rare non-holostane type with 7(8)-, 8(9)- or 9(11)-double bonds, one or two hydroxyl groups occupying unusual positions in the polycyclic nucleus and shortened or normal side chains. The pentasaccharide carbohydrate moieties of 14 have three sulfate groups. The cytotoxic activity of glycosides 14 against the ascite form of mouse Ehrlich carcinoma cells and mouse spleen lymphocytes and hemolytic activity against mouse erythrocytes have been studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Metabolism of 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg2 by Rat Liver Microsomes: Bioactivation to SIRT1-Activating Metabolites
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 757; doi:10.3390/molecules21060757
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 10 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg2 (1) has recently become a hot research topic due to its potent bioactivities and abundance in natural sources such as the roots, rhizomes and stems-leaves of Panax ginseng. However, due to the lack of studies
[...] Read more.
20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg2 (1) has recently become a hot research topic due to its potent bioactivities and abundance in natural sources such as the roots, rhizomes and stems-leaves of Panax ginseng. However, due to the lack of studies on systematic metabolic profiles, the prospects for new drug development of 1 are still difficult to predict, which has become a huge obstacle for its safe clinical use. To solve this problem, investigation of the metabolic profiles of 1 in rat liver microsomes was first carried out. To identify metabolites, a strategy of combined analyses based on prepared metabolites by column chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was performed. As a result, four metabolites M1M4, including a rare new compound named ginsenotransmetin A (M1), were isolated and the structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. A series of metabolites of 1, MAMG, were also tentatively identified by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in rat liver microsomal incubate of 1. Partial metabolic pathways were proposed. Among them, 1 and its metabolites M1, M3 and M4 were discovered for the first time to be activators of SIRT1. The SIRT1 activating effects of the metabolite M1 was comparable to those of 1, while the most interesting SIRT1 activatory effects of M3 and M4 were higher than that of 1 and comparable with that of resveratrol, a positive SIRT1 activator. These results indicate that microsome-dependent metabolism may represent a bioactivation pathway for 1. This study is the first to report the metabolic profiles of 1 in vitro, and the results provide an experimental foundation to better understand the in vivo metabolic fate of 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Oleanolic Triterpenes from Chinese Acorns
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 669; doi:10.3390/molecules21050669
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (941 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acorns play an important role in human history and are a source of food and recipes for many cultures around the world. In this study, eleven oleanolic triterpenes, one of which was novel, were isolated from Chinese acorns (Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata).
[...] Read more.
Acorns play an important role in human history and are a source of food and recipes for many cultures around the world. In this study, eleven oleanolic triterpenes, one of which was novel, were isolated from Chinese acorns (Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata). The chemical structure of the novel triterpene, which was identified as 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-24-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), was established based on the interpretation of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR experiments (1H, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). All isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compared with the positive control drug indomethacin (IC50 = 47.4 μM), compounds 1, 3, 6 and 8 exhibited remarkable anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 values of 5.4, 7.8, 4.0 and 8.9 μM, respectively. Besides, compounds 2, 4, 7 and 9 also showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 values of 10.1, 13.0, 20.1 and 17.2 μM, respectively. Furthermore, Compound 1 could inhibit TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in MH7A cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
Open AccessArticle High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 603; doi:10.3390/molecules21050603
Received: 27 February 2016 / Revised: 30 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry
[...] Read more.
Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-IT-TOF-MSn) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1–60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15–20, 35, 39, 45–47, 49, 55–57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography–diode array detection (LC–DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC–ESI-IT-TOF-MSn method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC–DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production in BV2 Microglial Cells by Triterpenes from Tetrapanax papyriferus
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 459; doi:10.3390/molecules21040459
Received: 9 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
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Abstract
It is well known that activated microglia produce nitric oxide (NO), which has an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In the course of searching for novel therapeutic agents from medicinal plants against neuroinflammatory diseases, the
[...] Read more.
It is well known that activated microglia produce nitric oxide (NO), which has an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In the course of searching for novel therapeutic agents from medicinal plants against neuroinflammatory diseases, the methanolic extract of Tetrapanax papyriferus was found to have significant NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. Nine oleanane-type triterpenes, including two new compounds, epipapyriogenin C-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) and 11-O-butylpapyrioside LIIc (9), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Tetrapanax papyriferus. The structures of these compounds were elucidated with 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS data. Among these Δ11,13 oleanane-type triterpenes, compound 3 showed significant NO inhibitory activity in BV-2 cells, reducing the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Compounds 7 and 9 also showed NO inhibitory activities among the Δ12 oleanane-type triterpene saponins. These results show that oleanane-type triterpenes isolated from T. papyriferus could be a potential natural resource of NO inhibitors used in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Betulinic Acid Extraction from Tecomella undulata Bark Using a Box-Behnken Design and Its Densitometric Validation
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 393; doi:10.3390/molecules21040393
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 4 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
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Abstract
Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid obtained from the stem bark of Tecomella undulata Seem. (Bignoniaceae). Development of an efficient extraction method for the isolation of BA is important as it has a wide range of pharmacological activity. A Box-Behnken design
[...] Read more.
Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid obtained from the stem bark of Tecomella undulata Seem. (Bignoniaceae). Development of an efficient extraction method for the isolation of BA is important as it has a wide range of pharmacological activity. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to investigate the effect of extraction variables such as temperature (30–60 °C), time (4–8 h) and solvent to drug ratio (300–500 mL/100 g) on the maximization of BA yield and its quantification using validated densitometric high performance thin layer chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-VIS). A quadratic polynomial model was found to best fit the model with R2 = 0.99. The optimized Soxhlet extraction yielded 2.449% w/w of BA at a temperature 53.86 °C, time 6.38 h and solvent to drug ratio 371 mL/100 g. BA in Tecomella undulata bark was detected at Rf value of 0.65 at 510 nm using the solvent system toluene–ethyl acetate–glacial acetic acid (8.5:1.5:0.02 v/v/v). The analytical method was validated and the linear regression analysis reflects good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9902). Lower %RSD and SEM suggested that the developed HPTLC-VIS method was precise, accurate and robust. Therefore, these economical techniques are very efficient and promising for the extraction and quantification of pharmaceutically important BA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
Open AccessArticle Bryonolic Acid, a Triterpenoid, Protect Against N-methyl-d-Aspartate-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 418; doi:10.3390/molecules21040418
Received: 9 January 2016 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 28 March 2016
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Abstract
Calcium overload is considered to be one of the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia. Ca2+ influx and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation are considered to be involved in N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced apoptosis
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Calcium overload is considered to be one of the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia. Ca2+ influx and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation are considered to be involved in N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced apoptosis process. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of bryonolic acid (BA) in an NMDA-induced rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) cells and the potential mechanism. PC12 was treated by NMDA to establish an excitotoxicity model. BA (110,100 and 1000 μM final concentration) was added to the medium 24 h prior to the addition of NMDA. Subsequently, a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were performed. Ca2+ concentration was demonstrated using a scanning-dual wavelength fluorimetric method. In addition, protein and mRNA levels were determined via Western blot and real-time PCR. In the presence of BA, MTT assay and LDH assay showed that more cells were viable in comparison with the NMDA group. Moreover, the concentration of Ca2+ decreased with the addition of BA in culture. Furthermore, BA could upregulate protein expressions of Bcl-2, p-CREB, and p-CaMKII and downregulate protein expression of Bax. The mRNA results showed that the pattern of mRNA expression were similar to their respective protein levels. All these results indicate that BA protected PC12 cells against NMDA-induced apoptosis by inhibiting Ca2+ influx and regulating gene expression in the Ca2+-CaMKII-CREB signal pathway. Therefore, the present study supports the notion that BA may be a promising neuroprotective agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
Open AccessArticle Two New Oleanane-Type Saponins with Anti-Proliferative Activity from Camellia oleifera Abel. Seed Cake
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 188; doi:10.3390/molecules21020188
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins C4 (1) and C5 (2), were isolated from Camellia oleifera Abel. seed cake residue. Their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-
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Two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins C4 (1) and C5 (2), were isolated from Camellia oleifera Abel. seed cake residue. Their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosy-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic acid methyl ester (1) and 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxy-methylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2) through 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The two compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement of Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 Biomass and Chitosan with Amino Acid Supply
Molecules 2013, 18(9), 10095-10107; doi:10.3390/molecules180910095
Received: 29 May 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 22 August 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies were carried out with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 to evaluate the effects of an abundant supply of amino acids, asparagine and corn steep liquor associated with sucrose on the production of biomass and chitosan by submerged fermentation. The concentrations of the components
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Studies were carried out with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 to evaluate the effects of an abundant supply of amino acids, asparagine and corn steep liquor associated with sucrose on the production of biomass and chitosan by submerged fermentation. The concentrations of the components of the culture medium which were determined by a 23 full factorial design evaluated the interactions and effects of the independent variables of the sucrose, asparagine and corn steep liquor in relation to carbon and nitrogen sources, on the production of chitosan regarding biomass. The best results were observed at the central point [asparagine 0.025%, sucrose 0.15% and 0.45% of corn steep liquor, ratio C:N=2:6], and produced maximum yields of 16.95 g/L biomass and 2.14 g/L chitosan, after 96 h of submerged fermentation. However, the lowest level of sucrose, asparagine and corn steep liquor produced a low amount of biomass (10.83 g/L) and chitosan (0.60g/L). The infrared spectrum absorption of the chitosan produced by C. elegans showed bands regarding OH-axial stretching between 3406 and 3432 cm−1, superimposed on the NH stretching band with axial deformation of the amide C=O group at about 1639 cm−1, NH angular deformation at approximately 1560 cm−1; axial deformation of amide-CN at around 1421 cm−1, symmetrical angular deformation in CH3 at 1379 cm−1, -CN axial deformation of amino groups from 1125 to 1250 cm−1 and polysaccharide structure bands in the range of between 890–1150 cm−1. The crystallinity index of chitosan was 60.92%, and its degree of deacetylation was 75.25%. A low percentage of a supply of sucrose and asparagine with corn steep liquor offered higher yields of biomass and chitosan production at low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Intravenous and Subcutaneous Toxicity and Absorption Kinetics in Mice and Dogs of the Antileishmanial Triterpene Saponin PX-6518
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4803-4815; doi:10.3390/molecules18044803
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (939 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) toxicity and absorption kinetics of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518 and its active constituents maesabalide-III and -IV were studied in mice and dogs. A high-dose wash-out study of PX-6518 at 20 mg/kg SC for 5 days and
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The intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) toxicity and absorption kinetics of the antileishmanial triterpene saponin PX-6518 and its active constituents maesabalide-III and -IV were studied in mice and dogs. A high-dose wash-out study of PX-6518 at 20 mg/kg SC for 5 days and a single low-dose wash-out study at 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg SC and IV with follow-up until day 35 after treatment were performed in mice. Beagle dogs received three escalating doses of maesabalide-III and -IV at weekly intervals (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg IV and maesabalide-III was also dosed SC at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg). Endpoint measurements included clinical, hematological and serum biochemical parameters. Pathology and toxicokinetic studies were performed on the dogs. Whereas the neutrophils and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were increased in the high-dose wash-out mouse study, these parameters did not change in the low-dose wash-out study. The dogs were far more susceptible than mice to liver toxicity (hepatocellular necrosis and elevated liver enzymes) and developed a painful inflammatory reaction at the SC injection site. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a non dose-linear systemic availability with plasma concentrations above the antileishmanial IC50 after only a single dose at 0.01 mg/kg IV or 0.1 mg/kg SC. Related to the long half-life (T1/2 71–91 h after SC dosing), repeated dosing at weekly intervals may result in drug accumulation and enhanced toxicity. It was decided not to pursue further drug development for PX-6518 because of the hepatotoxic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Preparation, Purification and Regioselective Functionalization of Protoescigenin—The Main Aglycone of Escin Complex
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4389-4402; doi:10.3390/molecules18044389
Received: 8 February 2013 / Revised: 1 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A two-step chemical process for controlled degradation of escin, affording a mixture of olean-12-ene sapogenins, was elaborated and scaled up. The main component of the mixture—protoescigenin—was isolated and purified, in the form of its corresponding monohydrate, without resource to chromatographic methods. This material
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A two-step chemical process for controlled degradation of escin, affording a mixture of olean-12-ene sapogenins, was elaborated and scaled up. The main component of the mixture—protoescigenin—was isolated and purified, in the form of its corresponding monohydrate, without resource to chromatographic methods. This material was further converted into the high purity 3,24;16,22-di-O,O-isopropylidene derivative in a validated large scale laboratory process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Metabolomic Analysis of Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Triterpenoid Production in the Medicinal Herb Centella asiatica (L.) Urban
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4267-4281; doi:10.3390/molecules18044267
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 April 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Centella asiatica is an important source of biologically active pentacyclic triterpenoids. The enhancement of the biosynthesis of the centellosides by manipulation of associated metabolic pathways is receiving much attention. Jasmonates play critical roles in plant metabolism by up-regulating the expression of genes related
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Centella asiatica is an important source of biologically active pentacyclic triterpenoids. The enhancement of the biosynthesis of the centellosides by manipulation of associated metabolic pathways is receiving much attention. Jasmonates play critical roles in plant metabolism by up-regulating the expression of genes related to secondary metabolites. Here, we investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) in C. asiatica through targeted metabolomic profiling of asiaticoside and madecassoside as well as their aglycones, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. Cell suspensions were treated with 0.2 mM MeJa for 2, 4 and 6 days. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to explore induced changes in metabolite profiles, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Principal component analysis (PCA)-derived scores plots revealed clusters of sample replicates for control and treated samples at 2, 4 and 6 days while loading plots aided in identifying signatory biomarkers (asiatic acid and madecassic acid, as well as asiaticoside and madecassoside) that clearly demonstrate the variability between samples. In addition to increased biosynthesis of the targeted centelloids, other differential changes in the intracellular metabolite profiles reflected the response of the C. asiatica cells to the MeJa-treatment as a reprogramming of the metabolome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Triterpene Esters: Natural Products from Dorstenia arifolia (Moraceae)
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4247-4256; doi:10.3390/molecules18044247
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 April 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The phytochemical study of Dorstenia arifolia Lam. (Moraceae) has led to the identification of 18 triterpenes esterified by fatty acids, five triterpenes without esterification, 12 triterpenes esterified by acetic acid, together with a known furanocoumarin: α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2)
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The phytochemical study of Dorstenia arifolia Lam. (Moraceae) has led to the identification of 18 triterpenes esterified by fatty acids, five triterpenes without esterification, 12 triterpenes esterified by acetic acid, together with a known furanocoumarin: α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2) α-amyrin acetate (3) β-amyrin acetate (4), α-amyrin octanoate (5), β-amyrin octanoate (6), α-amyrin decanoate (7), β-amyrin decanoate (8), α-amyrin dodecanoate (9), β-amyrin dodecanoate (10), α-amyrin tetradecanoate (11), β-amyrin tetradecanoate (12), α-amyrin hexadecanoate (13), β-amyrin hexadecanoate (14), glutinol (15), glutinyl acetate (16), 11-oxo-α-amyrin (17), 11-oxo-β-amyrin (18), 11-oxo-α-amyrin acetate (19), 11-oxo-β-amyrin acetate (20) 11-oxo-α-amyrin octanoate (21) 11-oxo-β-amyrin octanoate (22), 11-oxo-α-amyrin decanoate (23), 11-oxo-β-amyrin decanoate (24) 11-oxo-α-amyrin dodecanoate (25) 11-oxo-β-amyrin dodecanoate (26), ursa-9(11),12-dien-3-yl acetate (27), oleana-9(11),12-dien-3-yl acetate (28), ursa-9(11),12-dien-3-yl decanoate (29), oleana-9(11),12-dien-3-yl decanoate (30), 12,13-epoxyolean-3-yl acetate (31), 12,13-epoxyolean-9(11)en-3-yl acetate (32), taraxeryl acetate (33), lupenyl acetate (34), lanosta-8,24-dien-3-yl acetate (35) and psoralen (36). The identification of the triterpene compounds isolated as isomeric mixtures obtained from the hexane extract was based mainly in mass spectra and 13C-NMR data. The long-chain alkanoic acid esters of the triterpenes α- and β-amyrin; 11-oxo-α- and 11-oxo-β-amyrin; ursa- and olean-9(11),12-dien-3-yl; have not been reported before in the literature as constituents of the Dorstenia genus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessCommunication Anti-Inflammatory Cycloartane-Type Saponins of Astragalus membranaceus
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 3725-3732; doi:10.3390/molecules18043725
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 25 March 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new cycloartane-type triterpene glycoside, agroastragaloside V (1) was isolated from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus. The structure was identified as 3-O-β-(2'-O-acetyl)-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(24S)-3β,6α,24α,25-tetrahydroxy-
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A new cycloartane-type triterpene glycoside, agroastragaloside V (1) was isolated from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus. The structure was identified as 3-O-β-(2'-O-acetyl)-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(24S)-3β,6α,24α,25-tetrahydroxy- 9,19-cyclolanostane, by means of spectroscopic methods, including HR-FAB/MS, 1D NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT), 2D NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC, NOESY), and IR spectroscopy. Four known cycloartane glycosides, namely, agroastragaloside I (2), agroastragaloside II (3), isoastragaloside II (4) and astragaloside IV (5) were also isolated. All isolated compounds were tested for the ability to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Efficient Synthesis and Anti-Fungal Activity of Oleanolic Acid Oxime Esters
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3615-3629; doi:10.3390/molecules18033615
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to develop potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase inhibitors and anti-fungal agents, twenty five oleanolic acid oxime esters were synthesized in an efficient way. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by MS, HRMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Preliminary studies based on
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In order to develop potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase inhibitors and anti-fungal agents, twenty five oleanolic acid oxime esters were synthesized in an efficient way. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by MS, HRMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Preliminary studies based on means of the Elson-Morgan method indicated that many compounds exhibited some inhibitory activity of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS), and the original fungicidal activities results showed that some of the compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities towards Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Botrytis cinerea Pers at the concentration of 50 µg/mL. These compounds would thus merit further study and development as antifungal agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in Pancreatic Cancer Cells is ROS-Dependent
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3250-3265; doi:10.3390/molecules18033250
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a synthetic derivative of oleanolic acid, a triterpene, with apoptosis-inducing activity in a wide range of cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of telomerase activity. In the
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Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a synthetic derivative of oleanolic acid, a triterpene, with apoptosis-inducing activity in a wide range of cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of telomerase activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS in inhibition of telomerase by CDDO-me. Treatment of MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines with CDDO-Me induced the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions and inhibited the telomerase activity. Pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcycsteine, a general purpose antioxidant or overexpression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) or superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) blocked the telomerase inhibitory activity of CDDO-Me. Furthermore, blocking ROS generation also prevented the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT protein production and expression of a number of hTERT–regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me (e.g., c-Myc, Sp1, NF-κB and p-Akt). Data also showed that Akt plays an important role in the activation of telomerase activity. Together, these data suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity by CDDO-Me is mediated through a ROS-dependent mechanism; however, more work is needed to fully understand the role of ROS in down-regulation of hTERT gene and hTERT-regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Repeated Oral Administration of Oleanolic Acid Produces Cholestatic Liver Injury in Mice
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3060-3071; doi:10.3390/molecules18033060
Received: 27 December 2012 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoid and a fantastic molecule with many beneficial effects. However, high-doses and long-term use can produce adverse effects. This study aimed to characterize the hepatotoxic potential of OA. Mice were given OA at doses of 100–3,000 µmol/kg (45–1,350
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Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoid and a fantastic molecule with many beneficial effects. However, high-doses and long-term use can produce adverse effects. This study aimed to characterize the hepatotoxic potential of OA. Mice were given OA at doses of 100–3,000 µmol/kg (45–1,350 mg/kg), po for 10 days, and the hepatotoxicity was determined by serum biochemistry, histopathology, and toxicity-related gene expression via real-time RT-PCR. Animal body weight loss was evident at OA doses of 1,000 µmol/kg and above. Serum alanine aminotransferase activities were increased in a dose-dependent manner, indicative of hepatotoxicity. Serum total bilirubin concentrations were increased, indicative of cholestasis. OA administration produced dose-dependent pathological lesions to the liver, including inflammation, hepatocellular apoptosis, necrosis, and feathery degeneration indicative of cholestasis. These lesions were evident at OA doses of 500 µmol/kg and above. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that OA produced dose-dependent increases in acute phase proteins (MT-1, Ho-1, Nrf2 and Nqo1), decreases in bile acid synthesis genes (Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1), and decreases in liver bile acid transporters (Ntcp, Bsep, Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2, and Ostβ). Thus, the clinical use of OA and OA-type triterpenoids should balance the beneficial effects and toxicity potentials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids, Isochlorogenic Acids and Triterpenoids in Ilex hainanensis Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Diode Array and Evaporative Light Scattering Detection
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 2934-2941; doi:10.3390/molecules18032934
Received: 14 January 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method for simultaneous determination of eight major bioactive compounds including two flavonoids (rutin and eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside), two isochlorogenic acids (isochlorogenic acid A and isochlorogenic acid C) and
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A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-DAD-ELSD) method for simultaneous determination of eight major bioactive compounds including two flavonoids (rutin and eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside), two isochlorogenic acids (isochlorogenic acid A and isochlorogenic acid C) and four triterpenoids (ilexhainanoside D, ilexsaponin A1, ilexgenin A and ursolic acid) in Ilex hainanensis has been developed for the first time. The 283 nm wavelength was chosen for determination of two flavonoids and two isochlorogenic acids. ELSD was applied to determine four triterpenoids. The analysis was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) with gradient elution of 0.2% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The proposed method has been successfully applied for simultaneous quantification of the analytes in four samples of Ilex hainanensis, which is helpful for quality control of this plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Cell Suspension Culture of Eriobotrya japonica Regulates the Diabetic and Hyperlipidemic Signs of High-Fat-Fed Mice
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 2726-2753; doi:10.3390/molecules18032726
Received: 28 November 2012 / Revised: 16 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism in high-fat (HF)-fed mice of cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica (TA), which contains a great number of pentacyclic terpenoids. Firstly, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON)
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The present study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism in high-fat (HF)-fed mice of cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica (TA), which contains a great number of pentacyclic terpenoids. Firstly, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet (n = 9), whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was orally given TA or rosiglitazone or not for 4 weeks. Blood and visceral adipose tissue, liver tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Treatment with TA reduced body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT) (including epididymal, perirenal, mesenteric WAT and visceral fat), and hepatic triacylglycerol content significantly without affecting food intake in diet-induced diabetic mice. TA effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR index (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively) and attenuated insulin resistance. Treatment with TA, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TA effectively significantly increased the protein contents of phosphorylation of AMPK-α (Thr172) both in liver and adipose tissue. It is shown that TA exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by decreasing gene expressions of fatty acid synthesis, including acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of triglycerides, and antidiabetic properties occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) down- regulation, improved insulin sensitization and TA (at 1.0 g/kg dose) decreased expression of hepatic and adipose 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11β-HSD1) gene, which contributed in attenuating diabetic state. Futhermore, TA at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg had serum lipid-lowering action characterized by the inhibition of DGAT 1 expression. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by TA in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of PEPCK, DGAT2 and AMPK phosphorylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Ulososides and Urabosides — Triterpenoid Saponins from the Caribbean Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 2598-2610; doi:10.3390/molecules18032598
Received: 21 January 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 27 February 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new triterpene glycosides, named ulososide F (1), urabosides A (2) and B (3), together with the previously reported ulososide A (4), were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox. Their structures were
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Three new triterpene glycosides, named ulososide F (1), urabosides A (2) and B (3), together with the previously reported ulososide A (4), were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox. Their structures were elucidated using extensive interpretation of 1D and 2D-NMR data, as well as HRESIMS. The aglycon of all compounds is a rare 30-norlonastane and the sugar residues were identified after acid hydrolysis and GC analyses. Cytotoxicities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against Jurkat and CHO cell lines by a MTT in vitro assay as well as a hemolysis assay. Unexpectedly, all these saponin derivatives showed very low activity in our bioassays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Hirtinone, a Novel Cycloartane-Type Triterpene and Other Compounds from Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae)
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 2589-2597; doi:10.3390/molecules18032589
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 26 February 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One novel triterpene cycloartane-type, named hirtinone (1), six protolimonoids – nilocitin (2), dihydronilocitin B (3), melianone epimers (4) and (5), piscidinol A (6) and melianone lactone (7), one tertranortriterpenoid,
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One novel triterpene cycloartane-type, named hirtinone (1), six protolimonoids – nilocitin (2), dihydronilocitin B (3), melianone epimers (4) and (5), piscidinol A (6) and melianone lactone (7), one tertranortriterpenoid, hirtin (8), and one sesquiterpene, spathulenol (9), were identified in the fruits of Trichilia hirta. The structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR (1H and 13C-NMR, DEPTQ, 1H-1H-COSY, 1H-1H-NOESY, HSQC and HMBC), high resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS) and infrared (IR) spectral data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Methyl Antcinate A Suppresses the Population of Cancer Stem-Like Cells in MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 2539-2548; doi:10.3390/molecules18032539
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 22 January 2013 / Accepted: 19 February 2013 / Published: 26 February 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methyl antcinate A (MAA) is an ergostane-type triterpenoid extracted from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorate that has been reported to be a cytotoxic agent towards some types of cancer cells, such as oral cancer and liver cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are
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Methyl antcinate A (MAA) is an ergostane-type triterpenoid extracted from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorate that has been reported to be a cytotoxic agent towards some types of cancer cells, such as oral cancer and liver cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a particular population within cancer cells which are responsible for tumor initiation, drug resistance and metastasis and targeting CSCs is an emerging area in cancer therapy. In this study, we examine the effect of MAA on cancer stem-like cells in the MCF7 human breast cancer cell line. Although MAA displayed very low cytotoxic effect towards MCF7 under normal culture conditions, it did show good inhibitory effects on the self-renewal capability which was examined by mammosphere culture including primary and secondary sphere. MAA also inhibited cell migration ability of MCF7 sphere cells. By western blot analysis, MAA was shown to suppress the expression of heat shock protein 27 and increase the expression of IkBα and p53. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that MAA has anti-CSC activity and is worthy of future development of potent anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic and Radical Scavenging Nor-Dammarane Triterpenoids from Viburnum mongolicum
Molecules 2013, 18(2), 1405-1417; doi:10.3390/molecules18021405
Received: 11 December 2012 / Revised: 28 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 24 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (271 KB)
Abstract
The ethanol extract of the whole plants of Viburnum mongolicum afforded six new nor-dammarane triterpenoids: 3β,12β-dihydroxy-25,26,27-trinordammara-22-en -24,20-olide (1), 3β,12β-dihydroxy-24α-methoxy-25,26,27-trinordammara-20,24-epoxy (2), 3β-O-acetyl-12β-hydroxy-23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammarane-20-one (3
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The ethanol extract of the whole plants of Viburnum mongolicum afforded six new nor-dammarane triterpenoids: 3β,12β-dihydroxy-25,26,27-trinordammara-22-en -24,20-olide (1), 3β,12β-dihydroxy-24α-methoxy-25,26,27-trinordammara-20,24-epoxy (2), 3β-O-acetyl-12β-hydroxy-23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammarane-20-one (3), 12β-O- acetyl-15α-hydroxy-17β-methoxy-3-oxo-20,21,22-23,24,25,26,27-octanordammanrane (4), 12β-O-acetyl-15α,17β-dihydroxy-3-oxo-20,21,22-23,24,25,26,27-octanordammanrane (5), and 12β,15α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-17-en-20,21,22-23,24,25,26,27-octanordammanrane (6), together with two known nor-dammarane triterpenoids, 12β-hydroxy-3-oxo-24α-methoxy- 25,26,27-trinordammara-20,24-epoxy (7) and 3β,12β-dihydroxy-23,24,25,26,27- hexanordammarane-20-one (8). The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on 1D and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for cytotoxic potential against seven tumor cell lines and radical scavenging activities. Compounds 46 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against all tested tumor cell lines and radical scavenging activities against ABTS·+ radicals comparable with the standard drug Trolox. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle A New Triterpenoid from Teucrium viscidum
Molecules 2013, 18(1), 1262-1269; doi:10.3390/molecules18011262
Received: 3 December 2012 / Revised: 1 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new ursane-type triterpenoid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-30-p-Z-hydroxycinnamoyloxy-12-en-28-oic-acid (1), together with three known triterpenoids, 3β-hydroxy-urs-30-p-E-hydroxycinnamoyloxy-12-en-28-oic-acid (2), 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid (3), and ursolic acid (
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A new ursane-type triterpenoid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-30-p-Z-hydroxycinnamoyloxy-12-en-28-oic-acid (1), together with three known triterpenoids, 3β-hydroxy-urs-30-p-E-hydroxycinnamoyloxy-12-en-28-oic-acid (2), 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid (3), and ursolic acid (4), four known lignans, pinoresinol (5), 9α-hydroxypinoresinol (6), (+)-medioresinol (7), and (+)-kobusin (8), and two steroids, β-sitosterol (9), and daucosterol (10), were isolated from the whole parts of Teucrium viscidum. Their structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic data analysis, besides comparison with literature data. Compounds 14 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Antiprotozoal Activity of Quinonemethide Triterpenes from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae)
Molecules 2013, 18(1), 1053-1062; doi:10.3390/molecules18011053
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 18 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 December 2012 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (229 KB)
Abstract
The present study describes the leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities of two quinonemethide triterpenes, maytenin (1) and pristimerin (2), isolated from Maytenus ilicifolia root barks (Celastraceae). The compounds were effective against the Trypanosomatidae Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma
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The present study describes the leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities of two quinonemethide triterpenes, maytenin (1) and pristimerin (2), isolated from Maytenus ilicifolia root barks (Celastraceae). The compounds were effective against the Trypanosomatidae Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agents of leishmaniasis and Chagas’ disease, respectively. The quinonemethide triterpenes 1 and 2 exhibited a marked in vitro leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes and amastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of less than 0.88 nM. Both compounds showed IC50 lower than 0.3 nM against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. The selectivity indexes (SI) based on BALB/c macrophages for L. amazonensis and L. chagasi were 243.65 and 46.61 for (1) and 193.63 and 23.85 for (2) indicating that both compounds presented high selectivity for Leishmania sp. The data here presented suggests that these compounds should be considered in the development of new and more potent drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis and Chagas’ disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) is a Therapeutic Target of Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in Prostate Cancer
Molecules 2012, 17(12), 14795-14809; doi:10.3390/molecules171214795
Received: 9 November 2012 / Revised: 20 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (822 KB)
Abstract
Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is an synthetic oleanane triterpenoid with strong antiprolifertive and proapoptotic activities in cancer cells. However, the effect of CDDO-Me on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and its telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells has not been studied. We investigated the role
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Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is an synthetic oleanane triterpenoid with strong antiprolifertive and proapoptotic activities in cancer cells. However, the effect of CDDO-Me on human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and its telomerase activity in prostate cancer cells has not been studied. We investigated the role of hTERT in mediating the anticancer activity of CDDO-Me in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines was associated with the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT telomerase activity and a number of proteins that regulate hTERT transcriptionally and post-translationally. Furthermore, ablation of hTERT protein increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to CDDO-Me, whereas its overexpression rendered them resistant to CDDO-Me. In addition, inhibition of progression of preneoplastic lesions (i.e., low and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasms, PINs) to adenocarcinoma of the prostate by CDDO-Me in TRAMP mice was associated with significant decrease in TERT and its regulatory proteins in the prostate gland. These data provide evidence that telomerase is a potential target of CDDO-Me for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle New Triterpenes from Maytenus robusta: Structural Elucidation Based on NMR Experimental Data and Theoretical Calculations
Molecules 2012, 17(11), 13439-13456; doi:10.3390/molecules171113439
Received: 12 September 2012 / Revised: 5 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Leaves of Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae) were subjected to phytochemical investigation mainly directed at the isolation of pentacyclic triterpenes. The compounds friedelin (1), β-friedelinol (2), 3-oxo-21β-H-hop-22(29)-ene (7), 3,4-seco-friedelan-3,11β-olide (
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Leaves of Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae) were subjected to phytochemical investigation mainly directed at the isolation of pentacyclic triterpenes. The compounds friedelin (1), β-friedelinol (2), 3-oxo-21β-H-hop-22(29)-ene (7), 3,4-seco-friedelan-3,11β-olide (8), 3β-hydroxy-21β-H-hop-22(29)-ene (9), 3,4-seco-21β-H-hop-22(29)-en-3-oic acid (10), 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid (11), and sitosterol were identified in the hexane extract of M. robusta leaves. Compounds 8 and 9 are described herein for the first time. The structure and stereochemistry of both compounds were experimentally established by IR, HRLC-MS, and 1D (1H, 13C, and DEPT 135) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC and COSY) NMR data and supported by correlations with carbon chemical shifts calculated using the DFT method (BLYP/6-31G* level). Compounds 7 and 10 are also described for the first time, and their chemical structures were established by comparison with NMR data of similar structures described in the literature and correlations with BLYP/6-31G* calculated carbon chemical shifts. Compound 9, a mixture of 11 and sitosterol, and 3β,11β-dihydroxyfriedelane (4) were evaluated by the Ellman’s method and all these compounds showed acethylcholinesterase inhibitory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessCommunication Bioactive Oleanane, Lupane and Ursane Triterpene Acid Derivatives
Molecules 2012, 17(10), 12197-12205; doi:10.3390/molecules171012197
Received: 14 September 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 17 October 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Betulinic, ursolic and oleanolic acids isolated from the aerial parts of Eriope blanchetii (Lamiaceae) were subjected to different esterification reactions, yielding 12 C-3 position ester derivatives. All compounds were identified using spectroscopic techniques, such as IR, 1H-NMR and MS. The derivatives were
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Betulinic, ursolic and oleanolic acids isolated from the aerial parts of Eriope blanchetii (Lamiaceae) were subjected to different esterification reactions, yielding 12 C-3 position ester derivatives. All compounds were identified using spectroscopic techniques, such as IR, 1H-NMR and MS. The derivatives were further investigated for their antioxidant level, Artemia salina lethality and antimicrobial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle A New Saponin from Tea Seed Pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel) and Its Protective Effect on PC12 Cells
Molecules 2012, 17(10), 11721-11728; doi:10.3390/molecules171011721
Received: 31 August 2012 / Revised: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (217 KB)
Abstract
A new triterpenoid saponin, oleiferasaponin A1, was isolated from tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel). The structure of oleiferasaponin A1 was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence and was found to be 22-O-cis
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A new triterpenoid saponin, oleiferasaponin A1, was isolated from tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel). The structure of oleiferasaponin A1 was elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence and was found to be 22-O-cis-2-hexenoyl-A1-barrigenol 3-O-[β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)] [β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid. PC12 cells injured with H2O2 were used as the model to test the protective effects of oleiferasaponin A1. The results indicated that oleiferasaponin A1 can potentially prevent the H2O2-induced cell death of PC12 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Phorbol Esters from Jatropha Meal Triggered Apoptosis, Activated PKC-δ, Caspase-3 Proteins and Down-Regulated the Proto-Oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10816-10830; doi:10.3390/molecules170910816
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 10 September 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1032 KB)
Abstract
Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic
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Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC50 of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC50 concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun). These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessArticle Pentacyclic Triterpene Distribution in Various Plants – Rich Sources for a New Group of Multi-Potent Plant Extracts
Molecules 2009, 14(6), 2016-2031; doi:10.3390/molecules14062016
Received: 22 April 2009 / Revised: 26 May 2009 / Accepted: 3 June 2009 / Published: 4 June 2009
Cited by 207 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of
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Pentacyclic triterpenes are secondary plant metabolites widespread in fruit peel, leaves and stem bark. In particular the lupane-, oleanane-, and ursane triterpenes display various pharmacological effects while being devoid of prominent toxicity. Therefore, these triterpenes are promising leading compounds for the development of new multi-targeting bioactive agents. Screening of 39 plant materials identified triterpene rich (> 0.1% dry matter) plant parts. Plant materials with high triterpene concentrations were then used to obtain dry extracts by accelerated solvent extraction resulting in a triterpene content of 50 - 90%. Depending on the plant material, betulin (birch bark), betulinic acid (plane bark), oleanolic acid (olive leaves, olive pomace, mistletoe sprouts, clove flowers), ursolic acid (apple pomace) or an equal mixture of the three triterpene acids (rosemary leaves) are the main components of these dry extracts. They are quantitatively characterised plant extracts supplying a high concentration of actives and therefore can be used for development of phytopharmaceutical formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Comparision of the Cytotoxic Effects of Birch Bark Extract, Betulin and Betulinic Acid Towards Human Gastric Carcinoma and Pancreatic Carcinoma Drug-sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cell Lines
Molecules 2009, 14(4), 1639-1651; doi:10.3390/molecules14041639
Received: 17 March 2009 / Revised: 15 April 2009 / Accepted: 22 April 2009 / Published: 24 April 2009
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Betulin and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes showing cytotoxicity towards a number of cancer cell lines. These compounds can be found in the bark of the many plants. In this report we have compared the cytotoxic activity of crude birch bark
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Betulin and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes showing cytotoxicity towards a number of cancer cell lines. These compounds can be found in the bark of the many plants. In this report we have compared the cytotoxic activity of crude birch bark extract and purified betulin and betulinic acid towards human gastric carcinoma (EPG85-257) and human pancreatic carcinoma (EPP85-181) drug-sensitive and drug-resistant (daunorubicin and mitoxantrone) cell lines. Our results show significant differences in sensitivity between cell lines depending on the compound used, and suggest that both betulin and betulinic acid can be considered as a promising leads in the treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessCommunication Stereochemistry of 16a-Hydroxyfriedelin and 3-Oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene Established by 2D NMR Spectroscopy
Molecules 2009, 14(2), 598-607; doi:10.3390/molecules14020598
Received: 20 November 2008 / Revised: 10 January 2009 / Accepted: 21 January 2009 / Published: 4 February 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (90 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Friedelin (1), 3b-friedelinol (2), 28-hydroxyfriedelin (3), 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4), 30-hydroxyfriedelin (5) and 16a,28-dihydroxyfriedelin (6) were isolated through fractionation of the hexane extract obtained from branches of Salacia elliptica. After a week in CDCl3 solution, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4) reacted turning into 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (7). This is
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Friedelin (1), 3b-friedelinol (2), 28-hydroxyfriedelin (3), 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4), 30-hydroxyfriedelin (5) and 16a,28-dihydroxyfriedelin (6) were isolated through fractionation of the hexane extract obtained from branches of Salacia elliptica. After a week in CDCl3 solution, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4) reacted turning into 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (7). This is the first report of a dehydration followed by a Nametkin rearrangement of a pentacyclic triterpene in CDCl3 solution occurring in the NMR tube. These seven pentacyclic triterpenes was identified through NMR spectroscopy and the stereochemistry of compound 4 and 7 was established by 2D NMR (NOESY) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is also the first time that all the 13C-NMR and 2D NMR spectral data are reported for compounds 4 and 7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Betulin, the Main Pentacyclic Triterpene from Extract of Outer Bark of Birch (Betulae alba cortex)
Molecules 2008, 13(12), 3224-3235; doi:10.3390/molecules13123224
Received: 31 October 2008 / Revised: 10 December 2008 / Accepted: 17 December 2008 / Published: 18 December 2008
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE) from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some
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During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE) from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 μg/mL respectively), for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p.) and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.). I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 μg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 μg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p.) and dogs (s.c.). In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Pentacyclic Triterpenes from the Stems of Combretum laxum
Molecules 2008, 13(11), 2717-2728; doi:10.3390/molecules13112717
Received: 22 September 2008 / Revised: 16 October 2008 / Accepted: 20 October 2008 / Published: 1 November 2008
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new triterpene glucosides, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyolean- 12-en-28-oate and β-D-glucopyranosyl 2α,3β,23,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oate, in addition to nine known compounds belonging to three different triterpene classes (oleanane-, ursane- and lupane-type) have been isolated from the stems of a specimen of Combretum laxum growing in the “Pantanal” of
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Two new triterpene glucosides, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyolean- 12-en-28-oate and β-D-glucopyranosyl 2α,3β,23,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oate, in addition to nine known compounds belonging to three different triterpene classes (oleanane-, ursane- and lupane-type) have been isolated from the stems of a specimen of Combretum laxum growing in the “Pantanal” of the central-western region of Brazil. Among the known triterpenes, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2α,3β,6β-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate is reported for the first time in the Combretaceae, while bellericoside and asiatic acid are described for the first time in the genus Combretum. The structures of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral techniques (1D-, 2D-NMR and MS). Their in vitro antifungal activities against standard strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans were also evaluated in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Chemical Components and Pharmacological Activities of Terpene Natural Products from the Genus Paeonia
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1362; doi:10.3390/molecules21101362
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paeonia is the single genus of ca. 33 known species in the family Paeoniaceae, found in Asia, Europe and Western North America. Up to now, more than 180 compounds have been isolated from nine species of the genus Paeonia, including terpenes,
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Paeonia is the single genus of ca. 33 known species in the family Paeoniaceae, found in Asia, Europe and Western North America. Up to now, more than 180 compounds have been isolated from nine species of the genus Paeonia, including terpenes, phenols, flavonoids, essential oil and tannins. Terpenes, the most abundant naturally occurring compounds, which accounted for about 57% and occurred in almost every species, are responsible for the observed in vivo and in vitro biological activities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive overview of the recent phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge of the terpenes from Paeonia plants, and enlighten further drug discovery research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessReview Methodology for the Construction of the Bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane Core
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1358; doi:10.3390/molecules21101358
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
PDF Full-text (4312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane scaffold, commonly known as a hydrindane, is a common structural motif found in many terpenoid structures and one that remains a challenge for synthetic chemists to elaborate with appropriate regio- and stereo-selectivity. Over the course of the study of terpene natural
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The bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane scaffold, commonly known as a hydrindane, is a common structural motif found in many terpenoid structures and one that remains a challenge for synthetic chemists to elaborate with appropriate regio- and stereo-selectivity. Over the course of the study of terpene natural products, the elaboration of the hydrindane structure has seen progress on the utilization of both old and newer methods to achieve the desired outcomes. This review seeks to serve as a general overview of these methods, and detail specific examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessReview Plant Resources, 13C-NMR Spectral Characteristic and Pharmacological Activities of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoids
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1047; doi:10.3390/molecules21081047
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT) widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P.
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Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT) widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P. japonicas, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium. Aside from Araliaceae, DTT also distribute in other families, including Betulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Until now, about 136 species belonging to 46 families have been reported to contain DTT. In this article, the genus classifications of plant sources of the botanicals that contain DTT are reviewed, with particular focus on the NMR spectral features and pharmacological activities based on literature reports, which may be benefit for the development of new drugs or food additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2016)
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Open AccessReview Triterpenoids of Marine Origin as Anti-Cancer Agents
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 7886-7909; doi:10.3390/molecules18077886
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 27 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Triterpenoids are the most abundant secondary metabolites present in marine organisms, such as marine sponges, sea cucumbers, marine algae and marine-derived fungi. A large number of triterpenoids are known to exhibit cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor cells, as well as anticancer efficacy
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Triterpenoids are the most abundant secondary metabolites present in marine organisms, such as marine sponges, sea cucumbers, marine algae and marine-derived fungi. A large number of triterpenoids are known to exhibit cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor cells, as well as anticancer efficacy in preclinical animal models. In this review efforts have been taken to review the structural features and the potential use of triterpenoids of marine origin to be used in the pharmaceutical industry as potential anti-cancer drug leads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessReview Protostane and Fusidane Triterpenes: A Mini-Review
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4054-4080; doi:10.3390/molecules18044054
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 29 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 5 April 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protostane triterpenes belong to a group of tetracyclic triterpene that exhibit unique structural characteristics. Their natural distribution is primarily limited to the genus Alisma of the Alismataceae family, but they have also been occasionally found in other plant genera such as Lobelia,
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Protostane triterpenes belong to a group of tetracyclic triterpene that exhibit unique structural characteristics. Their natural distribution is primarily limited to the genus Alisma of the Alismataceae family, but they have also been occasionally found in other plant genera such as Lobelia, Garcinia, and Leucas. To date, there are 59 known protostane structures. Many of them have been reported to possess biological properties such as improving lipotropism, hepatoprotection, anti-viral activity against hepatitis B and HIV-I virus, anti-cancer activity, as well as reversal of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. On the other hand, fusidanes are fungal products characterized by 29-nor protostane structures. They possess antibiotic properties against staphylococci, including the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Fusidic acid is a representative member which has found clinical applications. This review covers plant sources of the protostanes, their structure elucidation, characteristic structural and spectral properties, as well as biological activities. The fungal sources, structural features, biological activities of fusidanes are also covered in this review. Additionally, the biogenesis of these two types of triterpenes is discussed and a refined pathway is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessReview Steroidal Triterpenes of Cholesterol Synthesis
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4002-4017; doi:10.3390/molecules18044002
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 March 2013 / Published: 4 April 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cholesterol synthesis is a ubiquitous and housekeeping metabolic pathway that leads to cholesterol, an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, required for proper membrane permeability and fluidity. The last part of the pathway involves steroidal triterpenes with cholestane ring structures. It starts
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Cholesterol synthesis is a ubiquitous and housekeeping metabolic pathway that leads to cholesterol, an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, required for proper membrane permeability and fluidity. The last part of the pathway involves steroidal triterpenes with cholestane ring structures. It starts by conversion of acyclic squalene into lanosterol, the first sterol intermediate of the pathway, followed by production of 20 structurally very similar steroidal triterpene molecules in over 11 complex enzyme reactions. Due to the structural similarities of sterol intermediates and the broad substrate specificity of the enzymes involved (especially sterol-Δ24-reductase; DHCR24) the exact sequence of the reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol remains undefined. This article reviews all hitherto known structures of post-squalene steroidal triterpenes of cholesterol synthesis, their biological roles and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Furthermore, it summarises kinetic parameters of enzymes (Vmax and Km) and sterol intermediate concentrations from various tissues. Due to the complexity of the post-squalene cholesterol synthesis pathway, future studies will require a comprehensive meta-analysis of the pathway to elucidate the exact reaction sequence in different tissues, physiological or disease conditions. A major reason for the standstill of detailed late cholesterol synthesis research was the lack of several steroidal triterpene standards. We aid to this efforts by summarizing commercial and laboratory standards, referring also to chemical syntheses of meiosis-activating sterols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessReview Steroidal Triterpenes: Design of Substrate-Based Inhibitors of Ergosterol and Sitosterol Synthesis
Molecules 2009, 14(11), 4690-4706; doi:10.3390/molecules14114690
Received: 22 September 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 10 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1064 KB)
Abstract
This article reviews the design and study, in our own laboratory and others, of new steroidal triterpenes with a modified lanosterol or cycloartenol frame. These compounds, along with a number of known analogs with the cholestane skeleton, have been evaluated as reversible or
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This article reviews the design and study, in our own laboratory and others, of new steroidal triterpenes with a modified lanosterol or cycloartenol frame. These compounds, along with a number of known analogs with the cholestane skeleton, have been evaluated as reversible or irreversible inhibitors of sterol C24-methyltransferase (SMT) from plants, fungi and protozoa. The SMT catalyzes the C24-methylation reaction involved with the introduction of the C24-methyl group of ergosterol and the C24-ethyl group of sitosterol, cholesterol surrogates that function as essential membrane inserts in many photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. Sterol side chains constructed with a nitrogen, sulfur, bromine or fluorine atom, altered to possess a methylene cyclopropane group, or elongated to include terminal double or triple bonds are shown to exhibit different in vitro activities toward the SMT which are mirrored in the inhibition potencies detected in the growth response of treated cultured human and plant cells or microbes. Several of the substrate-based analogs surveyed here appear to be taxaspecific compounds acting as mechanism-based inactivators of the SMT, a crucial enzyme not synthesized by animals. Possible mechanisms for the inactivation process and generation of novel products catalyzed by the variant SMTs are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessReview Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from the Medicinal Herb, Centella asiatica (L.) Urban
Molecules 2009, 14(10), 3922-3941; doi:10.3390/molecules14103922
Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised: 15 September 2009 / Accepted: 17 September 2009 / Published: 9 October 2009
Cited by 111 | PDF Full-text (220 KB)
Abstract
Centella asiatica accumulates large quantities of pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, collectively known as centelloids. These terpenoids include asiaticoside, centelloside, madecassoside, brahmoside, brahminoside, thankuniside, sceffoleoside, centellose, asiatic-, brahmic-, centellic- and madecassic acids. The triterpene saponins are common secondary plant metabolites and are synthesized via the
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Centella asiatica accumulates large quantities of pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, collectively known as centelloids. These terpenoids include asiaticoside, centelloside, madecassoside, brahmoside, brahminoside, thankuniside, sceffoleoside, centellose, asiatic-, brahmic-, centellic- and madecassic acids. The triterpene saponins are common secondary plant metabolites and are synthesized via the isoprenoid pathway to produce a hydrophobic triterpenoid structure (aglycone) containing a hydrophilic sugar chain (glycone). The biological activity of saponins has been attributed to these characteristics. In planta, the Centella triterpenoids can be regarded as phytoanticipins due to their antimicrobial activities and protective role against attempted pathogen infections. Preparations of C. asiatica are used in traditional and alternative medicine due to the wide spectrum of pharmacological activities associated with these secondary metabolites. Here, the biosynthesis of the centelloid triterpenoids is reviewed; the range of metabolites found in C. asiatica, together with their known biological activities and the chemotype variation in the production of these metabolites due to growth conditions are summarized. These plant-derived pharmacologically active compounds have complex structures, making chemical synthesis an economically uncompetitive option. Production of secondary metabolites by cultured cells provides a particularly important benefit to manipulate and improve the production of desired compounds; thus biotechnological approaches to increase the concentrations of the metabolites are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
Open AccessReview Squalene Emulsions for Parenteral Vaccine and Drug Delivery
Molecules 2009, 14(9), 3286-3312; doi:10.3390/molecules14093286
Received: 13 August 2009 / Revised: 25 August 2009 / Accepted: 31 August 2009 / Published: 1 September 2009
Cited by 81 | PDF Full-text (389 KB)
Abstract
Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented. Moreover, the physicochemical and biological properties of squalene-containing emulsions are
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Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented. Moreover, the physicochemical and biological properties of squalene-containing emulsions are evaluated in the context of parenteral formulations. Historical and current parenteral emulsion products containing squalene or squalane are discussed. The safety of squalene-based products is also addressed. Finally, analytica techniques for characterization of squalene emulsions are examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessReview Chemical and Biological Characterization of Oleanane Triterpenoids from Soy
Molecules 2009, 14(8), 2959-2975; doi:10.3390/molecules14082959
Received: 24 June 2009 / Revised: 21 July 2009 / Accepted: 6 August 2009 / Published: 10 August 2009
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soyasaponins are a group of complex and structural diverse oleanane triterpenoids found in soy (Glycine max) and other legumes. They are primarily classified into two main groups − group A and B − based on the attachment of sugar moieties at
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Soyasaponins are a group of complex and structural diverse oleanane triterpenoids found in soy (Glycine max) and other legumes. They are primarily classified into two main groups − group A and B − based on the attachment of sugar moieties at positions C-3 and C-22 of the ring structures. Group A soyasaponins are bidesmosidic, while group B soyasaponins are monodesmosidic. Group B soyasaponins are further classified into two subcategories known as 2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6 -methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) and non-DDMP conjugated molecules. The preparation and purification of soyasaponin molecules is complicated by the presence of bioactive soy isoflavones, which often overlap with soyasaponin in polarity and must removed from extracts before biological assessment. Soyasaponin extracts, aglycones of group A and B and individual group B soyasaponins such as soyasaponin I have been reported to posses specific bioactive properties, such as in vitro anti-cancer properties by modulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. The isolation, chemical characterization and detection strategies by HPLC and HPLC-MS are reviewed, along with the reported bioactive effects of soyasaponin extracts and individual molecules in cultured cancer cell experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessReview Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera, an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine
Molecules 2009, 14(7), 2373-2393; doi:10.3390/molecules14072373
Received: 27 May 2009 / Revised: 23 June 2009 / Accepted: 2 July 2009 / Published: 3 July 2009
Cited by 164 | PDF Full-text (342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. In view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. The
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Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. In view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. The major chemical constituents of the Withania genus, the withanolides, are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids built on an intact or rearranged ergostane framework, in which C-22 and C-26 are appropriately oxidized to form a six-membered lactone ring. In recent years, numerous pharmacological investigations have been carried out into the components of W. somnifera extracts. We present here an overview of the chemical structures of triterpenoid components and their biological activity, focusing on two novel activities, tumor inhibition and antiangiogenic properties of withaferin A and the effects of withanolide A on Alzheimer's disease. The most recent attempts in biotechnological production of withanolides are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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Open AccessReview Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology
Molecules 2009, 14(1), 540-554; doi:10.3390/molecules14010540
Received: 8 January 2009 / Revised: 19 January 2009 / Accepted: 21 January 2009 / Published: 23 January 2009
Cited by 106 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Squalene is a triterpene that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. It was so named because of its occurrence in shark liver oil, which contains large quantities and is considered its richest source. However, it is widely distributed in nature, with
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Squalene is a triterpene that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. It was so named because of its occurrence in shark liver oil, which contains large quantities and is considered its richest source. However, it is widely distributed in nature, with reasonable amounts found in olive oil, palm oil, wheat-germ oil, amaranth oil, and rice bran oil. Squalene, the main component of skin surface polyunsaturated lipids, shows some advantages for the skin as an emollient and antioxidant, and for hydration and its antitumor activities. It is also used as a material in topically applied vehicles such as lipid emulsions and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). Substances related to squalene, including β-carotene, coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) and vitamins A, E, and K, are also included in this review article to introduce their benefits to skin physiology. We summarize investigations performed in previous reports from both in vitro and in vivo models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids)
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