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Special Issue "Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gregory Chatel

Savoie Mont Blanc University (USMB), Laboratory of Molecular Chemistry and Environment (LCME), Faculty of Sciences and Montain (SceM) 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: green chemistry; sonochemistry; ultrasound; biomass conversion; ionic liquids; catalysis; organic chemistry; microwaves; oxidation reactions; cellulose processing; lignin valorization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The application of ultrasound waves to chemistry, called sonochemistry, has huge potential for innovation in eco-friendly and eco-efficient chemistry. The proposed Special Issue aims at highlighting new opportunities provided by physical and/or chemical effects of power ultrasound in different areas of chemistry, such as organic chemistry and catalysis, preparation of materials, polymer chemistry, biomass valorization, extraction, etc. Green chemistry is mainly based on basic concepts such as: (i) prevention, (ii) better use of the raw material, (iii) better waste management, (iv) energy savings, and (v) use of solvent compatible with the environment. When the experimental conditions are optimized, the use of power ultrasound is, in many cases, in favor of the twelve principles of green chemistry.

This Special Issue welcomes the submission of papers based on original researches that describe sonochemical applications with a green chemistry approach. A particular attention to demonstrate this aspect in the submitted manuscript will be asked, related to specific points or to the overall process. The submission taking account the 12 principles of green engineering, with notion of scale-up, energy consumption and design of equipment will also be appreciated. New combinations of power ultrasound with ionic liquids, microwave irradiation, enzyme, electrochemistry, or other technologies will be also considered.

As a conclusion, this Special Issue aims at showing that ultrasound is not just a simple mixing tool, but has a real role to play in the development of sustainable, green, and eco-efficient processes, to go ahead in innovations and the wildest results

Dr. Gregory Chatel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sonochemistry
  • power ultrasound
  • ultrasonic application
  • green chemistry
  • eco-efficiency
  • clean processes
  • synthesis
  • catalysis
  • material preparation
  • polymers
  • biomass conversion
  • extraction
  • mechanisms

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from the Fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 306; doi:10.3390/molecules22020306
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims is an edible and sweet wild fruit. In our previous study, the fruit was found to have a strong antioxidant property. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed to extract natural antioxidants from the
[...] Read more.
The fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims is an edible and sweet wild fruit. In our previous study, the fruit was found to have a strong antioxidant property. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed to extract natural antioxidants from the fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims, and a response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions of UAE to maximize the extraction efficiency. The influence of five independent extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extracting time, temperature, and ultrasound power) on the extraction efficiency were investigated using a single factor experiment, and then a central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the interaction of three key parameters. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 42.98% ethanol, 28.29 mL/g solvent/material ratio, 34.29 min extracting time, 60 °C temperature, and 600 W ultrasound power. Under these conditions, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of the extracts was 1074.61 ± 32.56 μmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW). Compared with conventional maceration (723.27 ± 11.61 μmol Trolox/g DW) and Soxhlet extraction methods (518.37 ± 23.23 μmol Trolox/g DW), the UAE method improved the extraction efficiency, in a shorter period of time. In addition, epicatechin gallate, epicatechin, rutin, epigallocatechin, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin, were identified and quantified in the fruit extracts of Melastoma sanguineum Sims by UPLC-MS/MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Acer Truncatum Leaves for Maximal Phenolic Yield and Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 232; doi:10.3390/molecules22020232
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 30 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by
[...] Read more.
This study is the first to report the use of response surface methodology to improve phenolic yield and antioxidant activity of Acer truncatum leaves extracts (ATLs) obtained by ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The phenolic composition in ATLs extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Solvent and extraction time were selected based on preliminary experiments, and a four-factors-three-levels central composite design was conducted to optimize solvent concentration (X1), material-to-liquid ratio (X2), ultrasonic temperature (X3) and power (X4) for an optimal total phenol yield (Y1) and DPPH• antioxidant activity (Y2). The results showed that the optimal combination was ethanol:water (v:v) 66.21%, material-to-liquid ratio 1:15.31 g/mL, ultrasonic bath temperature 60 °C, power 267.30 W, and time 30 min with three extractions, giving a maximal total phenol yield of 7593.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g d.w. and a maximal DPPH• antioxidant activity of 74,241.61 μmol Trolox equivalent/100 g d.w. Furthermore, 22 phenolics were first identified in ATL extract obtained under the optimized conditions, indicating that gallates, gallotannins, quercetin, myricetin and chlorogenic acid derivatives were the main phenolic components in ATL. What’s more, a gallotannins pathway existing in ATL from gallic acid to penta-O-galloylglucoside was proposed. All these results provide practical information aiming at full utilization of phenolics in ATL, together with fundamental knowledge for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Green Sonoextraction of Protein from Oleaginous Press Rapeseed Cake
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 80; doi:10.3390/molecules22010080
Received: 30 October 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
PDF Full-text (4501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, extraction of soluble proteins from rapeseed cake using different conventional and innovative extraction processes in order to maximize the extraction yield has been investigated. Firstly, various extraction techniques including ultrasound, microwave, and percolation were tested to increase the protein recovery
[...] Read more.
In this study, extraction of soluble proteins from rapeseed cake using different conventional and innovative extraction processes in order to maximize the extraction yield has been investigated. Firstly, various extraction techniques including ultrasound, microwave, and percolation were tested to increase the protein recovery efficiency. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) approach was applied to investigate the influence of process variables on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions providing a protein yield of 4.24 g/100 g DM were an ultrasound power of 5.6 W·cm−2 and temperature of 45 °C. Quantitatively UAE followed by two stages of conventional extraction gave the best total protein yield of 9.81 g/100 g DM. Qualitatively, the protein efficiency ratio (PER) used as measure of the nutritive value (12S/2S ratio) which indicates protein quality in terms of S-containing essential amino acids, was similar to that of the conventional extraction method. Small amounts of protein aggregate were observed in the HPLC profile of the extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication Effect of Thermoultrasound on the Antioxidant Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) Juice
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1624; doi:10.3390/molecules21121624
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 19 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
PDF Full-text (641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of
[...] Read more.
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice subjected to thermoultrasound treatment in comparison to pasteurized juice. Blackberry juice and n-hexane extracts from a control (untreated juice), pasteurized, and thermoultrasonicated samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant content. The juice treated with thermoultrasound exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of total phenols (1011 mg GAE/L), anthocyanins (118 mg Cy-3-GlE/L); antioxidant activity by ABTS (44 mg VCEAC/L) and DPPH (2665 µmol TE/L) in comparison to the control and pasteurized samples. Oil extract from thermoultrasound juice also had the highest antioxidant activity (177.5 mg VCEAC/L and 1802.6 µmol TE/L). The fatty acid profile of the n-hexane extracts showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and was not affected by the treatments except for stearic acid, whose amount was particularly higher in the control. Our results demonstrated that thermoultrasound can be an alternative technology to pasteurization that maintains and releases antioxidant compounds and preserves the fatty acids of fruit juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 950; doi:10.3390/molecules21070950
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology.
[...] Read more.
Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X1: 80%–90%) and extraction time (X2: 10–15 min), and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry weight basis (dw); 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol), ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 784; doi:10.3390/molecules21060784
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 8 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction
[...] Read more.
An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview In Situ Coupling of Ultrasound to Electro- and Photo-Deposition Methods for Materials Synthesis
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 216; doi:10.3390/molecules22020216
Received: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This short review provides the current state-of-the-art of in situ coupling of ultrasound to chemical deposition methods. A synergetic action of the ultrasound and light radiation or electrical fields may result in new powerful methodologies, and these include sonophotodeposition and sonoelectrodeposition processes. The
[...] Read more.
This short review provides the current state-of-the-art of in situ coupling of ultrasound to chemical deposition methods. A synergetic action of the ultrasound and light radiation or electrical fields may result in new powerful methodologies, and these include sonophotodeposition and sonoelectrodeposition processes. The effect of ultrasound is explained on the base of different physical mechanisms emerging from cavitation phenomenon. Some possible mechanisms of the interactions between ultrasound and photochemical and electrochemical processes are discussed here. The application of sonophotodeposition and sonoelectrodeposition as green energy sources in the syntheses of different nanomaterials is also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sonochemistry and Green Chemistry Applications)
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