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Special Issue "Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Organic Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Mario Leclerc

Department of Chemistry, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: organic electronics; solar cells; transistors; direct (hetero)arylation polymerization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Direct (hetero)arylation is a novel and powerful tool for the synthesis of cheap and efficient polymeric and oligomeric semiconductors. Indeed, this innovative method allows the formation of carbon-carbon bonds between arenes and aryl halides, which do not require organometallic intermediates thereby significantly reducing both synthetic steps and cost. Highly-promising studies have been reported in the last five years, but it is the purpose of this Special Issue to show how conjugated polymers and small molecules prepared from direct (hetero)arylation can be utilized in different devices (light-emitting diodes, transistors, solar cells, electrochemical cells, sensors, etc.). This Special Issue will contain different formats of contributions (original research, reviews, communications and letters), discussing aspects broadly indicated by the keywords.

Prof. Mario Leclerc
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Conjugated polymers
  • Conjugated oligomers
  • Aromatic molecules
  • Mechanistic studies
  • Organic Transistors
  • Organic Photovoltaics
  • Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
  • Electrochemical Cells
  • Sensors

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle An Electron-Transporting Thiazole-Based Polymer Synthesized Through Direct (Hetero)Arylation Polymerization
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061270
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
In this work, a new n-type polymer based on a thiazole-diketopyrrolopyrrole unit has been synthesized through direct (hetero)arylation polycondensation. The molar mass has been optimized by systematic variation of the the monomer concentration. Optical and electrochemical properties have been studied. They clearly
[...] Read more.
In this work, a new n-type polymer based on a thiazole-diketopyrrolopyrrole unit has been synthesized through direct (hetero)arylation polycondensation. The molar mass has been optimized by systematic variation of the the monomer concentration. Optical and electrochemical properties have been studied. They clearly suggested that this polymer possess a high electron affinity together with a very interesting absorption band, making it a good non-fullerene acceptor candidate. As a consequence, its charge transport and photovoltaic properties in a blend with the usual P3HT electron-donating polymer have been investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of a 1,2-Dithienylethene-Containing Donor-Acceptor Polymer via Palladium-Catalyzed Direct Arylation Polymerization (DArP)
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040981
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper reports the synthesis of D-A polymers containing 1,2-dithienylethene (DTE) units via palladium-catalyzed direct arylation polymerization (DArP). The reaction of dibromoisoindigo (1-Br) and DTE (2-H), in the presence of Pd2(dba)3·CHCl
[...] Read more.
This paper reports the synthesis of D-A polymers containing 1,2-dithienylethene (DTE) units via palladium-catalyzed direct arylation polymerization (DArP). The reaction of dibromoisoindigo (1-Br) and DTE (2-H), in the presence of Pd2(dba)3·CHCl3 (0.5 mol%), P(2-MeOC6H4)3 (L1) (2 mol%), pivalic acid (1 equiv) as catalyst precursors, and Cs2CO3 (3 equiv) as a base affords poly(1-alt-2) with a high molecular weight (Mn up to 44,900). Although, it has been known that monomers, with plural C–H bonds, tend to form insoluble materials via direct arylation at undesirable C–H positions; the reaction of 1-Br and 2-H cleanly proceeds without insolubilization. The resulting polymer has a well-controlled structure and exhibits good charge transfer characteristics in an organic field-effect transistor (OFET), compared to the polymer produced by Migita–Kosugi–Stille cross-coupling polymerization. The DArP product displays an ideal linear relationship in the current–voltage curve, whereas the Migita–Kosugi–Stille product shows a VG-dependent change in the charge mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Direct (Hetero)Arylation Polymerization of a Spirobifluorene and a Dithienyl-Diketopyrrolopyrrole Derivative: New Donor Polymers for Organic Solar Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040962
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The synthesis and preliminary evaluation as donor material for organic photovoltaics of the poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-spirobifluorene) (PDPPSBF) is reported herein. Prepared via homogeneous and heterogeneous direct (hetero)arylation polymerization (DHAP), through the use of different catalytic systems, conjugated polymers with comparable molecular weights were
[...] Read more.
The synthesis and preliminary evaluation as donor material for organic photovoltaics of the poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-spirobifluorene) (PDPPSBF) is reported herein. Prepared via homogeneous and heterogeneous direct (hetero)arylation polymerization (DHAP), through the use of different catalytic systems, conjugated polymers with comparable molecular weights were obtained. The polymers exhibited strong optical absorption out to 700 nm as thin-films and had appropriate electronic energy levels for use as a donor with PC70BM. Bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated giving power conversion efficiencies above 4%. These results reveal the potential of such polymers prepared in only three steps from affordable and commercially available starting materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Direct (Hetero)Arylation for the Synthesis of Molecular Materials: Coupling Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione with Perylene Diimide to Yield Novel Non-Fullerene Acceptors for Organic Solar Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 931; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040931
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 15 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
PDF Full-text (14063 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Herein we report on the synthesis of an N-annulated perylene diimide (PDI) disubstituted thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) molecular acceptor (PDI–TPD–PDI) by direct heteroarylation (DHA) methods. Three sets of DHA conditions that explore the effects of solvent, temperature, and catalyst were employed to find the
[...] Read more.
Herein we report on the synthesis of an N-annulated perylene diimide (PDI) disubstituted thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) molecular acceptor (PDI–TPD–PDI) by direct heteroarylation (DHA) methods. Three sets of DHA conditions that explore the effects of solvent, temperature, and catalyst were employed to find the optimal conditions for the synthesis of two PDI–TPD–PDI derivatives. We then selected one PDI–TPD–PDI for use as a non-fullerene acceptor in organic solar cell devices with the donor polymer PBDB-T. Active layer bulk-heterojunction blends were modified using several post-deposition treatments, including thermal annealing, solvent vapour annealing, and high boiling solvent additives. It was found that active layers cast from o-dichlorobenzene with a 3% v/v diphenylether additive yielded films with adequate phase separation, and subsequently gave the best organic solar cell performance, with power conversion efficiencies greater than 3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Conjugated Polymers Prepared by Direct (Hetero) arylation: An Eco-Friendly Tool for Organic Electronics
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020408
Received: 20 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The phthalimide (PhI) moiety has been attracting more attention as an excellent acceptor building block in donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers. In this paper; three D-A conjugated polymers with or without thiocarbonyl moieties are successfully prepared by the direct (hetero)-arylation polymerization (DHAP), which is
[...] Read more.
The phthalimide (PhI) moiety has been attracting more attention as an excellent acceptor building block in donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers. In this paper; three D-A conjugated polymers with or without thiocarbonyl moieties are successfully prepared by the direct (hetero)-arylation polymerization (DHAP), which is an atom efficient and facile synthetic strategy to obtain polymer materials. Compared with the traditional carbon-carbon coupling reactions, this method possesses more advantages, including: fewer synthetic steps, avoidance of the preparation of the organometallic reagents, higher atom economy and fewer toxic byproducts, better compatibility with chemically sensitive functional groups and so on. All three of these designed PhI-based polymers exhibited favourable optoelectronic and thermal performance. The optical, thermodynamic and electrochemical properties of the synthesized polymers were systematically investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results of these three polymers indicated that thionation of the carbonyl was a highly effective methods to improve the properties of PhI-based polymers; and provided impetus for the development of thionated PhI derivatives for organic electronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Small Molecules Derived from Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) and Their Use in Solution Processed Organic Solar Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101607
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, microwave synthesis, chemical, optical and electrochemical characterization of three small organic molecules, TPA-TPD, TPA-PT-TPD and TPA-TT-TPD with donor-acceptor structure and their use in organic photovoltaic cells are reported. For the synthesis, 5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6(5H)-dione was
[...] Read more.
In this work, microwave synthesis, chemical, optical and electrochemical characterization of three small organic molecules, TPA-TPD, TPA-PT-TPD and TPA-TT-TPD with donor-acceptor structure and their use in organic photovoltaic cells are reported. For the synthesis, 5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6(5H)-dione was used as electron withdrawing fragment while the triphenylamine was used as electron donating fragment. Molecular electronic geometry and electronic distribution density were established by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and confirmed by optical and chemical characterization. These molecules were employed as electron-donors in the active layer for manufacturing bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, where [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) was used as electron-acceptor. As cathode, Field′s metal (FM), an eutectic alloy (Bi/In/Sn: 32.5%, 51%, and 16.5%, respectively) with a melting point above 62 °C, was easily deposited by drop casting under vacuum-free process and at air atmosphere. Prepared devices based on TPA-TPD:PC71BM (1:4 w/w ratio) presented a large VOC = 0.97 V, with JSC = 7.9 mA/cm2, a FF = 0.34, then, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.6%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Performance Comparisons of Polymer Semiconductors Synthesized by Direct (Hetero)Arylation Polymerization (DHAP) and Conventional Methods for Organic Thin Film Transistors and Organic Photovoltaics
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061255
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
C-C bond forming reactions are central to the construction of π-conjugated polymers. Classical C-C bond forming reactions such as the Stille and Suzuki coupling reactions have been widely used in the past for this purpose. More recently, direct (hetero)arylation polymerization (DHAP) has earned
[...] Read more.
C-C bond forming reactions are central to the construction of π-conjugated polymers. Classical C-C bond forming reactions such as the Stille and Suzuki coupling reactions have been widely used in the past for this purpose. More recently, direct (hetero)arylation polymerization (DHAP) has earned a place in the spotlight with an increasing number of π-conjugated polymers being produced using this atom-economic and more sustainable chemistry. As semiconductors in organic electronics, the device performances of the polymers made by DHAP are of great interest and importance. This review compares the device performances of some representative π-conjugated polymers made using the DHAP method with those made using the conventional C-C bond forming reactions when they are used as semiconductors in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recent Developments in C–H Activation for Materials Science in the Center for Selective C–H Activation
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040922
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
PDF Full-text (4235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic electronics is a rapidly growing field driven in large part by the synthesis of π-conjugated molecules and polymers. Traditional aryl cross-coupling reactions such as the Stille and Suzuki have been used extensively in the synthesis of π-conjugated molecules and polymers, but the
[...] Read more.
Organic electronics is a rapidly growing field driven in large part by the synthesis of π-conjugated molecules and polymers. Traditional aryl cross-coupling reactions such as the Stille and Suzuki have been used extensively in the synthesis of π-conjugated molecules and polymers, but the synthesis of intermediates necessary for traditional cross-couplings can include multiple steps with toxic and hazardous reagents. Direct arylation through C–H bond activation has the potential to reduce the number of steps and hazards while being more atom-economical. Within the Center for Selective C–H Functionalization (CCHF), we have been developing C–H activation methodology for the synthesis of π-conjugated materials of interest, including direct arylation of difficult-to-functionalize electron acceptor intermediates and living polymerization of π-conjugated polymers through C–H activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct (Hetero)Arylation: A New Tool for Organic Electronics)
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