E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Functional Dendrimers"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Diversity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ashok Kakkar

Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomaterials; dendrimers; miktoarm polymers; multifunctional scaffolds; metal nanoparticles; targeted drug delivery; imaging; theranostics; antiscalants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hyperbranched and monodisperse macromolecules that are commonly referred to as dendrimers have captivated the imagination of macromolecular chemists, and now occupy center stage in developing nanomaterials for a variety of applications. Our ability to synthetically articulate their architecture and introduce functional groups at the core, within their backbone and at the periphery, have enabled us to design well-defined scaffolds targeted for a specific purpose. Functional dendrimers have opened doors to fine tune their properties based on given event requirements. The elegance of synthetic methodologies has provided strong impetus to envision bringing these fascinating macromolecules to the realm of biomedical, industrial and polymer science applications.

This Special Issue on “Functional Dendrimers” is aimed at bringing inspiring efforts devoted in designing, construction and evaluating the potential of mono- to multivalent dendritic frameworks. It will solidify the notion that once considered an academic curiosity, these macromolecules provide an ideal platform to assemble cost-effective made-to-order synthetic architectures for biology, physics, medicine, etc. It will showcase important achievements in constructing functional dendrimers and highlight their significance in designing complex architectures.

Prof. Dr. Ashok Kakkar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dendrimers
  • hyperbranched
  • functional dendrimers
  • synthesis
  • biofriendly
  • tailored
  • functionalized nanostructures
  • nanotechnology
  • multifunctional dendrimers
  • multivalent dendrimers
  • multi-tasking nanostructures
  • amphiphilic dendrimers
  • surface functionalization
  • internal modification
  • dendritic macromolecules
  • dendronized polymers
  • dendrimer-polymer conjugates
  • arborescent polymers
  • functional materials
  • synthetic methodologies to dendrimers
  • drug delivery
  • theranostics
  • scale inhibition
  • energy storage and conversion
  • supramolecular dendrimers

Published Papers (11 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-11
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: “Functional Dendrimers”
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1035; doi:10.3390/molecules21081035
Received: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This special issue entitled “Functional Dendrimers” focuses on the manipulation of at least six “critical nanoscale design parameters” (CNDPs) of dendrimers including: size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture and elemental composition. These CNDPs collectively define properties of all “functional dendrimers”. This special issue
[...] Read more.
This special issue entitled “Functional Dendrimers” focuses on the manipulation of at least six “critical nanoscale design parameters” (CNDPs) of dendrimers including: size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture and elemental composition. These CNDPs collectively define properties of all “functional dendrimers”. This special issue contains many interesting examples describing the manipulation of certain dendrimer CNDPs to create new emerging properties and, in some cases, predictive nanoperiodic property patterns (i.e., dendritic effects). The systematic engineering of CNDPs provides a valuable strategy for optimizing functional dendrimer properties for use in specific applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle On Topological Indices of Certain Families of Nanostar Dendrimers
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 821; doi:10.3390/molecules21070821
Received: 6 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 24 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A topological index of graph G is a numerical parameter related to G which characterizes its molecular topology and is usually graph invariant. In the field of quantitative structure-activity (QSAR)/quantitative structure-activity structure-property (QSPR) research, theoretical properties of the chemical compounds and their molecular
[...] Read more.
A topological index of graph G is a numerical parameter related to G which characterizes its molecular topology and is usually graph invariant. In the field of quantitative structure-activity (QSAR)/quantitative structure-activity structure-property (QSPR) research, theoretical properties of the chemical compounds and their molecular topological indices such as the Randić connectivity index, atom-bond connectivity (ABC) index and geometric-arithmetic (GA) index are used to predict the bioactivity of different chemical compounds. A dendrimer is an artificially manufactured or synthesized molecule built up from the branched units called monomers. In this paper, the fourth version of ABC index and the fifth version of GA index of certain families of nanostar dendrimers are investigated. We derive the analytical closed formulas for these families of nanostar dendrimers. The obtained results can be of use in molecular data mining, particularly in researching the uniqueness of tested (hyper-branched) molecular graphs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Thermoregulated Coacervation, Metal-Encapsulation and Nanoparticle Synthesis in Novel Triazine Dendrimers
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 599; doi:10.3390/molecules21050599
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 19 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The synthesis and solubility behaviors of four generation five (G5) triazine dendrimers are studied. While the underivatized cationic dendrimer is soluble in water, the acetylated and propanoylated derivatives undergo coacervation in water upon increasing temperature. Occurring around room temperature, this behavior is related
[...] Read more.
The synthesis and solubility behaviors of four generation five (G5) triazine dendrimers are studied. While the underivatized cationic dendrimer is soluble in water, the acetylated and propanoylated derivatives undergo coacervation in water upon increasing temperature. Occurring around room temperature, this behavior is related to a liquid-liquid phase transition with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and is explained by differences in composition, notably, the hydrophobic nature of the terminal groups. Interestingly, the water solubility of the acetylated dendrimer is affected by the addition of selected metal ions. Titrating solutions of acetylated dendrimer at temperatures below the LCST with gold or palladium ions promoted precipitation, but platinum, iridium, and copper did not. Gold nanoparticles having diameters of 2.5 ± 0.8 nm can be obtained from solutions of the acetylated dendrimer at concentrations of gold less than that required to induce precipitation by treating the solution with sodium borohydride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Dense and Chiral Dendritic Polyols Using Glyconanosynthon Scaffolds
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 448; doi:10.3390/molecules21040448
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 4 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Most classical dendrimers are frequently built-up from identical repeating units of low valency (usually AB2 monomers). This strategy necessitates several generations to achieve a large number of surface functionalities. In addition, these typical monomers are achiral. We propose herein the use of sugar
[...] Read more.
Most classical dendrimers are frequently built-up from identical repeating units of low valency (usually AB2 monomers). This strategy necessitates several generations to achieve a large number of surface functionalities. In addition, these typical monomers are achiral. We propose herein the use of sugar derivatives consisting of several and varied functionalities with their own individual intrinsic chirality as both scaffolds/core as well as repeating units. This approach allows the construction of chiral, dense dendrimers with a large number of surface groups at low dendrimer generations. Perpropargylated β-D-glucopyranoside, serving as an A5 core, together with various derivatives, such as 2-azidoethyl tetra-O-allyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, serving as an AB4 repeating moiety, were utilized to construct chiral dendrimers using “click chemistry” (CuAAC reaction). These were further modified by thiol-ene and thiol-yne click reactions with alcohols to provide dendritic polyols. Molecular dynamic simulation supported the assumption that the resulting polyols have a dense structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Nanoparticle Effects on Human Platelets in Vitro: A Comparison between PAMAM and Triazine Dendrimers
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 428; doi:10.3390/molecules21040428
Received: 3 February 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (848 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Triazine and PAMAM dendrimers of similar size and number of cationic surface groups were compared for their ability to promote platelet aggregation. Triazine dendrimers (G3, G5 and G7) varied in molecular weight from 8 kDa–130 kDa and in surface groups 16–256. PAMAM dendrimers
[...] Read more.
Triazine and PAMAM dendrimers of similar size and number of cationic surface groups were compared for their ability to promote platelet aggregation. Triazine dendrimers (G3, G5 and G7) varied in molecular weight from 8 kDa–130 kDa and in surface groups 16–256. PAMAM dendrimers selected for comparison included G3 (7 kDa, 32 surface groups) and G6 (58 kDa, 256 surface groups). The treatment of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with low generation triazine dendrimers (0.01–1 µM) did not show any significant effect in human platelet aggregation in vitro; however, the treatment of PRP with larger generations promotes an effective aggregation. These results are in agreement with studies performed with PAMAM dendrimers, where large generations promote aggregation. Triazine dendrimers promote aggregation less aggressively than PAMAM dendrimers, a factor attributed to differences in cationic charge or the formation of supramolecular assemblies of dendrimers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Open AccessArticle Fluoride-Promoted Esterification (FPE) Chemistry: A Robust Route to Bis-MPA Dendrons and Their Postfunctionalization
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 366; doi:10.3390/molecules21030366
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bifunctional dendrons based on 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid (bis-MPA) are highly desirable scaffolds for biomedical applications. This is due to their flawless nature and large and exact number of functional groups as well as being biodegradable and biocompatible. Herein, we describe a facile divergent growth
[...] Read more.
Bifunctional dendrons based on 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid (bis-MPA) are highly desirable scaffolds for biomedical applications. This is due to their flawless nature and large and exact number of functional groups as well as being biodegradable and biocompatible. Herein, we describe a facile divergent growth approach to their synthesis from monobenzylated tetraethylene glycol and post functionalization utilizing fluoride-promoted esterification (FPE) chemistry protocols. The scaffolds, presenting selectively deprotectable hydroxyls in the periphery and at the focal point, were isolated on a multigram scale with excellent purity up to the fourth generation dendron with a molecular weight of 2346 Da in seven reactions with a total yield of 50%. The third generation dendron was used as a model compound to demonstrate its functionalizability. Selective deprotection of the dendron’s focal point was achieved with an outstanding yield of 94%, and biotin as well as azido functionalities were introduced to its focal point and periphery, respectively, through FPE chemistry. Bulky disperse red dyes were clicked through CuAAC to the dendron’s azido groups, giving a biotinylated dendron with multivalent dyes with a molecular weight of 6252 Da in a total yield of 37% in five reactions with an average yield of 82% starting from the third generation focally and peripherally protected dendron. FPE chemistry proved to be a superb improvement over previous protocols towards bis-MPA dendrons as high purity and yields were obtained with less toxic solvents and greatly improved monomer utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Functionalization of a Triazine Dendrimer Presenting Four Maleimides on the Periphery and a DOTA Group at the Core
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 335; doi:10.3390/molecules21030335
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A readily and rapidly accessible triazine dendrimer was manipulated in four steps with 23% overall yield to give a construct displaying four maleimide groups and DOTA. The maleimide groups of the dendrimer are sensitive to hydrolysis under basic conditions. The addition of up
[...] Read more.
A readily and rapidly accessible triazine dendrimer was manipulated in four steps with 23% overall yield to give a construct displaying four maleimide groups and DOTA. The maleimide groups of the dendrimer are sensitive to hydrolysis under basic conditions. The addition of up to four molecules of water can be observed via mass spectrometry and HPLC. The evolution in the alkene region of the 1H-NMR—the transformation of the maleimide singlet to the appearance of two doublets—is consistent with imide hydrolysis and not the Michael addition. The hydrolysis events that proceeded over hours are sufficiently slower than the desired thiol addition reactions that occur in minutes. The addition of thiols to maleimides can be accomplished in a variety of solvents. The thiols examined derived from cysteine and include the protected amino acid, a protected dipeptide, and native oligopeptides containing either 9 or 18 amino acids. The addition reactions were monitored with HPLC and mass spectrometry in most cases. Complete substitution was observed for small molecule reactants. The model peptides containing nine or eighteen amino acids provided a mixture of products averaging between 3 and 4 substitutions/dendrimer. The functionalization of the chelate group with gadolinium was also accomplished easily. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Properties among Dendritic and Hyperbranched Poly(ether ether ketone)s and Linear Poly(ether ketone)s
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 219; doi:10.3390/molecules21020219
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 16 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly(ether ether ketone) dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy)-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketone)s having the same hydroxyl
[...] Read more.
Poly(ether ether ketone) dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy)-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketone)s having the same hydroxyl groups in the side chains as the chain ends of the dendrimer and hyperbranched polymers. Their properties, such as solubilities, reduced viscosities, and thermal properties, were compared with one another. Similar comparisons were also carried out among the corresponding methoxy group polymers, and the size of the molecules was shown to affect the properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Dendrimer Prodrugs
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 686; doi:10.3390/molecules21060686
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this review is to describe the importance of dendrimer prodrugs in the design of new drugs, presenting numerous applications of these nanocomposites in the pharmaceutical field. Therefore, the use of dendrimer prodrugs as carrier for drug delivery, to improve
[...] Read more.
The main objective of this review is to describe the importance of dendrimer prodrugs in the design of new drugs, presenting numerous applications of these nanocomposites in the pharmaceutical field. Therefore, the use of dendrimer prodrugs as carrier for drug delivery, to improve pharmacokinetic properties of prototype, to promote drug sustained-release, to increase selectivity and, consequently, to decrease toxicity, are just some examples of topics that have been extensively reported in the literature, especially in the last decade. The examples discussed here give a panel of the growing interest dendrimer prodrugs have been evoking in the scientific community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Open AccessReview Bifunctional Phosphorus Dendrimers and Their Properties
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 538; doi:10.3390/molecules21040538
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 23 April 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dendrimers are hyperbranched and monodisperse macromolecules, generally considered as a special class of polymers, but synthesized step-by-step. Most dendrimers have a uniform structure, with a single type of terminal function. However, it is often desirable to have at least two different functional groups.
[...] Read more.
Dendrimers are hyperbranched and monodisperse macromolecules, generally considered as a special class of polymers, but synthesized step-by-step. Most dendrimers have a uniform structure, with a single type of terminal function. However, it is often desirable to have at least two different functional groups. This review will discuss the case of bifunctional phosphorus-containing dendrimers, and the consequences for their properties. Besides the terminal functions, dendritic structures may have also a function at the core, or linked off-center to the core, or at the core of dendrons (dendritic wedges). Association of two dendrons having different terminal functions leads to Janus dendrimers (two faces). The internal structure can also possess functional groups on one layer, or linked to one layer, or on several layers. Finally, there are several ways to have two types of terminal functions, besides the case of Janus dendrimers: either each terminal function bears two functions sequentially, or two different functions are linked to each terminal branching point. Examples of each type of structure will be given in this review, as well as practical uses of such sophisticated structures in the fields of fluorescence, catalysis, nanomaterials and biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Figures

Open AccessReview Dendrimers and Dendrons as Versatile Building Blocks for the Fabrication of Functional Hydrogels
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 497; doi:10.3390/molecules21040497
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 9 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (10912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrogels have emerged as a versatile class of polymeric materials with a wide range of applications in biomedical sciences. The judicious choice of hydrogel precursors allows one to introduce the necessary attributes to these materials that dictate their performance towards intended applications. Traditionally,
[...] Read more.
Hydrogels have emerged as a versatile class of polymeric materials with a wide range of applications in biomedical sciences. The judicious choice of hydrogel precursors allows one to introduce the necessary attributes to these materials that dictate their performance towards intended applications. Traditionally, hydrogels were fabricated using either polymerization of monomers or through crosslinking of polymers. In recent years, dendrimers and dendrons have been employed as well-defined building blocks in these materials. The multivalent and multifunctional nature of dendritic constructs offers advantages in either formulation or the physical and chemical properties of the obtained hydrogels. This review highlights various approaches utilized for the fabrication of hydrogels using well-defined dendrimers, dendrons and their polymeric conjugates. Examples from recent literature are chosen to illustrate the wide variety of hydrogels that have been designed using dendrimer- and dendron-based building blocks for applications, such as sensing, drug delivery and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Dendrimers)
Figures

Back to Top