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Special Issue "Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alessandra Durazzo

Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria – Centro di ricerca CREA-Alimenti e Nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178, Rome, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: antioxidants; bioactive compounds; food quality; nutrition; food composition databases; biodiversity
Guest Editor
Dr. Massimo Lucarini

Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria – Centro di ricerca CREA-Alimenti e Nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178, Rome, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: natural compounds; nutraceuticals; food chain; food science and nutrition; food composition databases; sustainability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The delineation and exploitation of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants in the main food groups, as well as by-products and biomass waste, are required. The focus should be addressed towards the description and updating of the methodological approach of antioxidant compounds in a multidisciplinary and innovative design. Conventional procedures and advanced extraction technologies, as well as analytical techniques, with particular attention to green procedures, will be considered. The combination of emerging analytical techniques and the application of statistical methods, i.e., infrared spectroscopy, multi-elemental analysis, isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, and nanotechnologies coupled with chemometrics are welcome.

The application of studies of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants on food waste, in line with concepts of circular economy and biorefineries, will be considered.

The utilization of extractable and non-extractable antioxidants in the nutraceuticals field is another focal point of this Special Issue: extracts, fractions, purified and semi-purified substances, used alone or in combination with other ingredients as dietary supplements or functional foods. This field needs to be explored using rigorous science approaches, considering a combination of studies from different fields (nutrition, food chemistry, medicine, etc.) is increasing.

Dr. Alessandra Durazzo
Dr. Massimo Lucarini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • extractable and non-extractable antioxidants
  • antioxidant properties
  • integrated food research
  • food matrices
  • by-products
  • food waste
  • biomass
  • methodological approach
  • advanced technologies
  • green procedures
  • chemometrics
  • biorefinery
  • nutraceuticals
  • dietary supplements
  • functional foods

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Black Tea Samples Origin Discrimination Using Analytical Investigations of Secondary Metabolites, Antiradical Scavenging Activity and Chemometric Approach
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030513
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
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Abstract
A comprehensive study on the composition and antioxidant properties of black tea samples with a chemometric approach was performed via LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin–Ciocalteu assay (TPC). Marked differences between the teas from seven different countries (China, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya,
[...] Read more.
A comprehensive study on the composition and antioxidant properties of black tea samples with a chemometric approach was performed via LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS, DPPH radical scavenging assay, and Folin–Ciocalteu assay (TPC). Marked differences between the teas from seven different countries (China, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Nepal, Sri Lanka) were shown. The Indian samples demonstrated the highest total catechin content (184.8 mg/100 mL), the largest TPC and DPPH scavenging potential (58.2 mg/100 mL and 84.5%, respectively). The applied principal component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA revealed several correlations between the level of catechins in tea infusions. EC (epicatechin), ECG (epicatechin gallate), EGC (epigallocatechin), and EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) content was not correlated with DPPH, gallic acid, and TPC; however, a strong correlation of EC and ECG between themselves and a negative correlation of these two catechins with EGCG and EGC was noted. Interestingly, simple catechins were not found to be responsible for antioxidant properties of the black teas. The samples collected in the higher altitudes were similar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Nectandra grandiflora By-Products Obtained by Alternative Extraction Methods as a Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antifungal Properties
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020372
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
PDF Full-text (2283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae) is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies
[...] Read more.
Nectandra grandiflora Nees (Lauraceae) is a Brazilian native tree recognized by its durable wood and the antioxidant compounds of its leaves. Taking into account that the forest industry offers the opportunity to recover active compounds from its residues and by-products, this study identifies and underlines the potential of natural products from Nectandra grandiflora that can add value to the forest exploitation. This study shows the effect of three different extraction methods: conventional (CE), ultrasound-assisted (UAE) and microwave-assisted (MAE) on Nectandra grandiflora leaf extracts (NGLE) chemical yields, phenolic and flavonoid composition, physical characteristics as well as antioxidant and antifungal properties. Results indicate that CE achieves the highest extraction phytochemical yield (22.16%), but with similar chemical composition to that obtained by UAE and MAE. Moreover, CE also provided a superior thermal stability of NGLE. The phenolic composition of NGLE was confirmed firstly, by colorimetric assays and infrared spectra and then by chromatographic analysis, in which quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was detected as the major compound (57.75–65.14%). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of the NGLE was not altered by the extraction methods, finding a high radical inhibition in all NGLE (>80% at 2 mg/mL). Regarding the antifungal activity, there was observed that NGLE possess effective bioactive compounds, which inhibit the Aspergillus niger growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessCommunication Comparative Evaluation of Soluble and Insoluble-Bound Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Two Chinese Mistletoes
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020359
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract
Mistletoes are used medicinally in order to treat various human illnesses. Few studies have reported on the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of Chinese mistletoes (CMs). In this work, the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities of soluble
[...] Read more.
Mistletoes are used medicinally in order to treat various human illnesses. Few studies have reported on the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of Chinese mistletoes (CMs). In this work, the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts from CMs hosted by Camellia assamica (Mast.) Chang (CMC) and Pyrus, i, f. (CMP) were compared. Phenolic compounds in CMC and CMP were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the TPC of soluble phenolic extracts was higher than insoluble-bound phenolic counterparts in both CMC and CMP. In addition, the TPC of soluble, insoluble-bound and total phenolic fractions (9.91 ± 0.23, 4.59 ± 0.27 and 14.50 ± 0.35 μmol ferulic acid equivalents per gram (FAE/g) dry sample) extracted from CMP were higher than those extracted from CMC. The soluble phenolic extracts in CMP showed higher antioxidant activities than those in CMC. Eighteen phenolic compounds from soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts from the CMs were identified and quantified by HPLC. This study indicates that CMC and CMP, especially the latter, could be sources of antioxidants in human health care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Increasing Antioxidant Activity and Protein Digestibility in Phaseolus vulgaris and Avena sativa by Fermentation with the Pleurotus ostreatus Fungus
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122275
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus on kidney beans, black beans, and oats. The results indicate that the fungus has a positive effect on the substrates when compared to the controls. The antioxidant activity
[...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus on kidney beans, black beans, and oats. The results indicate that the fungus has a positive effect on the substrates when compared to the controls. The antioxidant activity (39.5% on kidney beans and 225% on oats in relation to the controls) and content of total polyphenols (kidney beans three times higher regarding the controls) increased significantly by the presence of the fungus mycelium, even after simulated digestion. There was a significant increase in protein digestibility (from 39.99 to 48.13% in black beans, 44.06 to 69.01% in kidney beans, and 63.25 to 70.01% in oats) and a decrease of antinutrient tannins (from 65.21 to 22.07 mg in black beans, 35.54 to 23.37 in kidney beans, and 55.67 to 28.11 in oats) as well as an increase in the contents of some essential amino acids. Overall, this fermentation treatment with Pleurotus ostreatus improved the nutritional quality of cereals and legumes, making them potential ingredients for the elaboration and/or fortification of foods for human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Studies on the Anti-Oxidative Function of trans-Cinnamaldehyde-Included β-Cyclodextrin Complex
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22121868
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed
[...] Read more.
trans-Cinnamaldehyde (tCIN), an active compound found in cinnamon, is well known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) oligomer has been used for a variety of applications in nanotechnology, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Here, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of tCIN self-included in β-CD complexes (CIs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of β-CD, tCIN, or CIs for different times. β-CD alone did not affect the production of nitric oxide (NO) or reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, both tCIN and CI significantly reduced NO and ROS production. Thus, CIs may have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, similar to those of tCIN when used alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Studies on the Inclusion Complexes of Daidzein with β-Cyclodextrin and Derivatives
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122183
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
The inclusion complexes between daidzein and three cyclodextrins (CDs), namely β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD, DS = 12.5) and (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD, DS = 4.2) were prepared. The effects of the inclusion behavior of daidzein with three kinds of cyclodextrins were investigated in both solution
[...] Read more.
The inclusion complexes between daidzein and three cyclodextrins (CDs), namely β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD, DS = 12.5) and (2-hydroxy)propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD, DS = 4.2) were prepared. The effects of the inclusion behavior of daidzein with three kinds of cyclodextrins were investigated in both solution and solid state by methods of phase-solubility, XRD, DSC, SEM, 1H-NMR and 2D ROESY methods. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of daidzein and daidzein-CDs inclusion complexes were determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results showed that daidzein formed a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex with β-CD, Me-β-CD and HP-β-CD. The results also showed that the solubility of daidzein was improved after encapsulating by CDs. 1H-NMR and 2D ROESY analyses show that the B ring of daidzein was the part of the molecule that was most likely inserted into the cavity of CDs, thus forming an inclusion complex. Antioxidant activity studies showed that the antioxidant performance of the inclusion complexes was enhanced in comparison to the native daidzein. It could be a potentially promising way to develop a new formulation of daidzein for herbal medicine or healthcare products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juice with Added Chokeberry Powder (Aronia melanocarpa)
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2158; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122158
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of using chokeberry powder as a supplement in apple juice to increase the nutritional value of the final product with the aim of developing a new functional food product. Also, to determine the influence of ultrasound assisted extraction on the bioactive compounds content, nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of apple juice with added chokeberry powder. The juice samples with added chokeberry powder had higher antioxidant capacity, irrespective of the extraction technique used. Apple juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound had significantly higher content of all analyzed bioactive compounds. The application of high intensity ultrasound significantly reduced the extraction time of the plant material. A positive correlation between vitamin C content, total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity was determined in juice samples with added chokeberry powder treated with high intensity ultrasound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extractable and Non-Extractable Antioxidants)
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