E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Riccardo Flamini (Website)

Chemistry Laboratory, Agricultural Research Council, Viticulture Research Center (CRA-VIT), Viale XXVIII Aprile 26, 35015 Conegliano (TV), Italy
Interests: food chemistry; organic chemistry; analytical chemistry; grape and wine chemistry; chemical compounds in natural extracts; methods of analysis; development of new analytical methods, in particular by mass spectrometry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In general, fruit aroma profiles are a complex composition of chemical compounds including alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, norisoprenoids, benzene derivatives. These compounds highly influence the overall sensorial quality of the fruit products, and their low concentration in the fruit (usually ppb) can be affected by a number of agronomic (variety, climatic conditions, ripening) and technological (harvest, post-harvest, storage and processing conditions) factors. The analytical determination of these metabolites in fruit extracts is of crucial importance in many food fields.

Contributions to this special issue, both as original research and review articles, may cover advanced knowledge in chemical composition of fruit varieties and the analytical methods used to study their extracts (sample preparation, chromatography, characterization of compounds, in particular by mass spectrometry methods).

Dr. Riccardo Flamini
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • alcohols
  • carbonyl compounds
  • terpenoids
  • sesquiterpenes
  • norisoprenoids
  • benzenoids
  • solid phase extraction
  • solid phase microextraction
  • mass spectrometry
  • chromatography
  • aroma profile

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Volatile Profile of Cashew Apple Juice Fibers from Different Production Steps
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 9803-9815; doi:10.3390/molecules20069803
Received: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the volatile profile of cashew apple fibers to verify which compounds are still present after successive washings and thus might be responsible for the undesirable remaining cashew-like aroma present in this co-product, which is used to formulate food products like vegetarian burgers and cereal bars. Fibers were obtained from cashew apple juice processing and washed five times in an expeller press. Compounds were analyzed by the headspace solid-phase micro extraction technique (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using a DB-5 column. Sensory analysis was also performed to compare the intensity of the cashew-like aroma of the fibers with the original juice. Altogether, 80 compounds were detected, being esters and terpenes the major chemical classes. Among the identified substances, 14 were classified as odoriferous in the literature, constituting the matrix used in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Odoriferous esters were substantially reduced, but many compounds were extracted by the strength used in the expeller press and remained until the last wash. Among them are the odoriferous compounds ethyl octanoate, γ-dodecalactone, (E)-2-decenal, copaene, and caryophyllene that may contribute for the mild but still perceptible cashew apple aroma in the fibers that have been pressed and washed five times. Development of a deodorization process should include reduction of pressing force and stop at the second wash, to save water and energy, thus reducing operational costs and contributing to process sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella)
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 5223-5238; doi:10.3390/molecules20035223
Received: 25 November 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
PDF Full-text (1000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterization of Four Popular Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Greece by Volatile Compound and Physicochemical Data Analysis and Sensory Evaluation
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 1922-1940; doi:10.3390/molecules20021922
Received: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2015 / Published: 26 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena) grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass [...] Read more.
Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena) grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Carbonyl compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons/terpenes. Cherry cultivars in order of increasing amounts of volatiles were: Lapins < Canada giant < Ferrovia < Skeena. Physicochemical parameters determined included: titratable acidity (TA), pH, total soluble solids (TSS), maturity index (MI) and total phenolic content (TPC). TA ranged between 0.21 and 0.28 g malic acid/100 g fresh weight (FW). The pH ranged between 3.81 and 3.96. TSS ranged between 13.00 and 16.00 °Brix. MI ranged between 51.8 and 75.0. TPC ranged between 95.14 and 170.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. Sensory evaluation showed that cherry colour, in order of increasing intensity, was: Canada giant < Ferrovia < Lapins < Skeena. Respective order for cherry firmness was: Canada giant < Lapins ≤ Ferrovia < Skeena and for flavour: Lapins < Canada giant < Skeena ≤ Ferrovia. Correlation of volatiles to physicochemical and sensory attributes showed varying trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits)
Open AccessArticle Evolution of the Aroma Volatiles of Pear Fruits Supplemented with Fatty Acid Metabolic Precursors
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20183-20196; doi:10.3390/molecules191220183
Received: 19 September 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 26 November 2014 / Published: 2 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid [...] Read more.
To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored “Nanguoli” fruits than in green-flavored “Dangshansuli” fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in “Dangshansuli” fruits were higher than in “Nanguoli” fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in “Dangshansuli” was approximately three times that in “Nanguoli”. The higher contents of hexyl esters in “Dangshansuli” may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits)
Open AccessArticle Bagging Treatment Influences Production of C6 Aldehydes and Biosynthesis-Related Gene Expression in Peach Fruit Skin
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13461-13472; doi:10.3390/molecules190913461
Received: 27 June 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bagging is a useful method to improve fruit quality by altering its exposure to light, whereas its effect on fruit volatiles production is inconsistent, and the genes responsible for the observed changes remain unknown. In the present study, single-layer yellow paper bags [...] Read more.
Bagging is a useful method to improve fruit quality by altering its exposure to light, whereas its effect on fruit volatiles production is inconsistent, and the genes responsible for the observed changes remain unknown. In the present study, single-layer yellow paper bags were used to study the effects of bagging treatment on the formation of C6 aldehydes in peach fruit (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. Yulu) over two succeeding seasons. Higher concentrations of n-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal, which are characteristic aroma volatiles of peach fruit, were induced by bagging treatment. After bagging treatment, peach fruit had significantly higher LOX and HPL enzyme activities, accompanying increased contents of C6 aldehydes. The gene expression data obtained through real-time PCR showed that no consistent significant differences in transcript levels of LOX genes were observed over the two seasons, but significantly up-regulated expression was found for PpHPL1 after bagging treatment In addition, bagging-treated fruit produced more (E)-2-hexenal and had higher expression levels of PpHPL1 during postharvest ripening at room temperature. The regulatory role of the LOX-HPL pathway on the biosynthesis of n-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal in response to bagging treatment during peach fruit development is discussed in the text. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits)
Open AccessArticle Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12173-12193; doi:10.3390/molecules190812173
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 6 August 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone) applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined [...] Read more.
The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone) applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs) for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous). Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids) and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of β-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note). The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Volatile Compounds of Raspberry Fruit: From Analytical Methods to Biological Role and Sensory Impact
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2445-2474; doi:10.3390/molecules20022445
Received: 3 November 2014 / Revised: 8 January 2015 / Accepted: 22 January 2015 / Published: 30 January 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. Studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L.) are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. A [...] Read more.
Volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. Studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L.) are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. A table is drawn up containing a comprehensive list of the volatile compounds identified so far in raspberry along with main references and quantitative data where available. Two additional tables report the glycosidic bond and enantiomeric distributions of the volatile compounds investigated up to now in raspberry fruit. Studies on the development and evolution of volatile compounds during fruit formation, ripening and senescence, and genetic and environmental influences are also reviewed. Recent investigations showing the potential role of raspberry volatile compounds in cultivar differentiation and fruit resistance to mold disease are reported as well. Finally a summary of research done so far and our vision for future research lines are reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits)
Figures

Open AccessReview Applications of Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) in the Study of Grape and Wine Volatile Compounds
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21291-21309; doi:10.3390/molecules191221291
Received: 24 October 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 18 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Volatile compounds are responsible for the wine “bouquet”, which is perceived by sniffing the headspace of a glass, and of the aroma component (palate-aroma) of the overall flavor, which is perceived on drinking. Grape aroma compounds are transferred to the wine and [...] Read more.
Volatile compounds are responsible for the wine “bouquet”, which is perceived by sniffing the headspace of a glass, and of the aroma component (palate-aroma) of the overall flavor, which is perceived on drinking. Grape aroma compounds are transferred to the wine and undergo minimal alteration during fermentation (e.g., monoterpenes and methoxypyrazines); others are precursors of aroma compounds which form in winemaking and during wine aging (e.g., glycosidically-bound volatile compounds and C13-norisoprenoids). Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) is a fast and simple technique which was developed for analysis of volatile compounds. This review describes some SPME methods coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) used to study the grape and wine volatiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aromas and Volatiles of Fruits)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Molecules Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
molecules@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Molecules
Back to Top