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Special Issue "Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Quan-Bin Han

School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: natural product chemistry; quality analysis of herb medicines and natural polysaccharides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural polysaccharides are attracting increasing interests from scientists in multidisciplinary research fields, because they are esculent and show a broad spectrum of bio-activities, including immunoregulatory activity, anti-fatigue activity, antioxidant activity, antitumor activity, anti-diabetic activity, and anti-inflammatory activity.

Polysaccharides, as the majority of the water decoction of Chinese medicines, might explain some of the bioactivities of Chinese medicines. Exploring the chemistry and bioactivities of polysaccharides will help uncover the secrets of Chinese Medicine decoctions.

Difficulties are still significant. Concerns about sample preparation, structure elucidation, and quality control of polysaccharides are often mentioned. In addition to the difficulties in chemical study, our knowledge to the mechanism of polysaccharides’ bioactivities is poor, because all these bioactivities are associated with the immunomodulatory activity to which we have not known much. All the above-mentioned difficulties further limited our knowledge to the structure-activity relationship.

Therefore, any efforts to investigate the extraction, separation, structure elucidation, quality analysis, bioactivities, mechanism of action, and the structure-activity relationship of natural polysaccharides should be encouraged. Review articles are also welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Quan-Bin Han
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • separation technology
  • structure elucidation
  • quality analysis
  • bioactivities
  • acute and long-term toxicity
  • mechanism of action
  • structure-activity relationship

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Chitin and Cellulose Processing in Low-Temperature Electron Beam Plasma
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1908; doi:10.3390/molecules22111908
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Polysaccharide processing by means of low-temperature Electron Beam Plasma (EBP) is a promising alternative to the time-consuming and environmentally hazardous chemical hydrolysis in oligosaccharide production. The present paper considers mechanisms of the EBP-stimulated destruction of crab shell chitin, cellulose sulfate, and microcrystalline cellulose,
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Polysaccharide processing by means of low-temperature Electron Beam Plasma (EBP) is a promising alternative to the time-consuming and environmentally hazardous chemical hydrolysis in oligosaccharide production. The present paper considers mechanisms of the EBP-stimulated destruction of crab shell chitin, cellulose sulfate, and microcrystalline cellulose, as well as characterization of the produced oligosaccharides. The polysaccharide powders were treated in oxygen EBP for 1–20 min at 40 °C in a mixing reactor placed in the zone of the EBP generation. The chemical structure and molecular mass of the oligosaccharides were analyzed by size exclusion and the reversed phase chromatography, FTIR-spectroscopy, XRD-, and NMR-techniques. The EBP action on original polysaccharides reduces their crystallinity index and polymerization degree. Water-soluble products with lower molecular weight chitooligosaccharides (weight-average molecular mass, Mw = 1000–2000 Da and polydispersity index 2.2) and cellulose oligosaccharides with polymerization degrees 3–10 were obtained. The 1H-NMR analysis revealed 25–40% deacetylation of the EBP-treated chitin and FTIR-spectroscopy detected an increase of carbonyl- and carboxyl-groups in the oligosaccharides produced. Possible reactions of β-1,4-glycosidic bonds’ destruction due to active oxygen species and high-energy electrons are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Purification, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides Isolated from Cortex Periplocae
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1866; doi:10.3390/molecules22111866
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
In this study, crude Cortex Periplocae polysaccharides (CCPPs) were extracted with water. CCPPs were decolored with AB-8 resin and deproteinated using papain-Sevage methods. Then, they were further purified and separated through DEAE-52 anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography, respectively. Three
[...] Read more.
In this study, crude Cortex Periplocae polysaccharides (CCPPs) were extracted with water. CCPPs were decolored with AB-8 resin and deproteinated using papain-Sevage methods. Then, they were further purified and separated through DEAE-52 anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography, respectively. Three main fractions—CPP1, CPP2, and CPP3, (CPPs)—were obtained. The average molecular weights, monosaccharide analysis, surface morphology, and chemical compositions of the CPPs were investigated by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the antioxidant activities of these three polysaccharides were investigated. The results indicated that all of the CPPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose. These three polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities in four assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical, reducing power, and total antioxidant activity in vitro. The data indicated that these three polysaccharides could be utilized as potential natural sources of alternative additives in the functional food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Astragalus Polysaccharide Protect against Cadmium-Induced Cytotoxicity through the MDA5/NF-κB Pathway in Chicken Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1610; doi:10.3390/molecules22101610
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a known environmental pollutant that is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a major component of Astragalus membranaceus, a vital qi-reinforcing herb medicine with favorable immuneregulation properties. To study the effect of APS
[...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a known environmental pollutant that is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a major component of Astragalus membranaceus, a vital qi-reinforcing herb medicine with favorable immuneregulation properties. To study the effect of APS on the inhibition of the cadmium-induced injury of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in chickens through the MDA5/NF-κB signaling pathway, PLBs acquired from 15-day-old chickens were divided into control group, Cd group, APS + Cd group, anti-MDA5 mAb + Cd group, BAY 11-7082 (a nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-κB] inhibitor) +Cd group, APS group, anti-MDA5 mAb group, and BAY 11-7082 group. The transcription levels of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5), interferon promoter-stimulating factor 1 (IPS-1), NF-κB, and inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. MDA5 protein expression was measured by western blotting. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured by corresponding antioxidant kit. The morphological change of PBLs was measured by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that Cd significantly increased the expression of MDA5, IPS-1, NF-κB, and their downstream cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, IL-6 in PLBs. In addition, a high level of MDA was observed in the Cd treatment group; the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were significantly lower in the Cd treatment group than those in controls (p < 0.05). Ultrastructural changes of PBLs showed that Cd promoted autophagy, apoptosis, and necrosis in PBLs. However, APS can efficiently improve Cd-induced cell damage by decreasing the activation of the MDA5 signaling pathway. The effect is consistent with that of anti-MDA5 mAb or/and BAY. The results indicated that APS inhibited Cd-induced cytotoxicity through the regulation of MDA5/NF-κB signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Purification, Preliminary Characterization and Hepatoprotective Effects of Polysaccharides from Dandelion Root
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1409; doi:10.3390/molecules22091409
Received: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
In this study, purification, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective effects of water-soluble polysaccharides from dandelion root (DRP) were investigated. Two polysaccharides, DRP1 and DRP2, were isolated from DRP. The two polysaccharides were α-type polysaccharides and didn’t contain protein. DRP1, with a molecular weight of
[...] Read more.
In this study, purification, preliminary characterization and hepatoprotective effects of water-soluble polysaccharides from dandelion root (DRP) were investigated. Two polysaccharides, DRP1 and DRP2, were isolated from DRP. The two polysaccharides were α-type polysaccharides and didn’t contain protein. DRP1, with a molecular weight of 5695 Da, was composed of glucose, galactose and arabinose, whereas DRP2, with molecular weight of 8882 Da, was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The backbone of DRP1 was mainly composed of (1→6)-linked-α-d-Glc and (1→3,4)-linked-α-d-Glc. DRP2 was mainly composed of (1→)-linked-α-d-Ara and (1→)-linked-α-d-Glc. A proof-of-concept study was performed to assess the therapeutic potential of DRP1 and DRP2 in a mouse model that mimics acetaminophen (APAP) -induced liver injury (AILI) in humans. The present study shows DRP1 and DRP2 could protect the liver from APAP-induced hepatic injury by activating the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. These conclusions demonstrate that the DRP1 and DRP2 might be suitable as functional foods and natural drugs in preventing APAP-induced liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation, Characterization and Bioactivities of an Extracellular Polysaccharide Produced from Streptomyces sp. MOE6
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1396; doi:10.3390/molecules22091396
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio
[...] Read more.
A Streptomyces strain was isolated from soil and the sequence of 1471 nucleotides of its 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Streptomyces sp. HV10. This newly isolated Streptomyces strain produced an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) composed mainly of glucose and mannose in a ratio of 1:4.1, as was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), HPLC and 1H-NMR. The antioxidant activities of the partially purified MOE6-EPS were determined by measuring the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity and the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. In addition, the partially purified MOE6-EPS showed high ferrous ion (Fe2+) chelation activity which is another antioxidant activity. Interestingly, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays that were colorimetric assays for NAD(P)H-dependent cellular oxidoreductases and a proxy of the number of viable cells, showed that the partially purified MOE6-EPS inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The scratch wound assay showed that MOE6-EPS reduced the migration of mouse breast cancer cells (4T1). This study reports the production of EPS from Streptomyces species with promising antioxidant, metal chelating and mammalian cell inhibitory activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Pectic Polysaccharide from Sijunzi Decoction Promotes the Antioxidant Defenses of SW480 Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1341; doi:10.3390/molecules22081341
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a formula used for the treatment of spleen deficiency and gastrointestinal diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polysaccharides are reported to be the main components of SJZD responsible for its bio-functions. However, highly purified and clearly characterized polysaccharides from SJZD
[...] Read more.
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a formula used for the treatment of spleen deficiency and gastrointestinal diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polysaccharides are reported to be the main components of SJZD responsible for its bio-functions. However, highly purified and clearly characterized polysaccharides from SJZD are not well described. Here we obtained a purified polysaccharide (SJZDP-II-I) from SJZD using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Structure analysis by FT-IR and NMR identified SJZDP-II-I as a typical pectic polysaccharide with homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I regions and arabinogalactan type I and II as side chains. In vitro studies indicated that SJZDP-II-I treatment could significantly enhance the total antioxidant capacity of SW480 cells, resulting from the promoted expressions of antioxidant enzymes and their master regulator PGC-1α, which would be valuable for further research and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation, Purification and Structural Characterization of Two Novel Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Anredera cordifolia
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1276; doi:10.3390/molecules22081276
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 23 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
Anredera cordifolia, a climber and member of the Basellaceae family, has long been a traditional medicine used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in China. Two water-soluble polysaccharides, ACP1-1 and ACP2-1, were isolated from A. cordifolia seeds by hot water extraction. The two
[...] Read more.
Anredera cordifolia, a climber and member of the Basellaceae family, has long been a traditional medicine used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in China. Two water-soluble polysaccharides, ACP1-1 and ACP2-1, were isolated from A. cordifolia seeds by hot water extraction. The two fractions, ACP1-1 and ACP2-1 with molecular weights of 46.78 kDa ± 0.03 and 586.8 kDa ± 0.05, respectively, were purified by chromatography. ACP1-1 contained mannose, glucose, galactose in a molar ratio of 1.08:4.65:1.75, whereas ACP2-1 contained arabinose, ribose, galactose, glucose, mannose in a molar ratio of 0.9:0.4:0.5:1.2:0.9. Based on methylation analysis, ultraviolet and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and periodate oxidation the main backbone chain of ACP1-1 contained (1→3,6)-galacturonopyranosyl residues interspersed with (1→4)-residues and (1→3)-mannopyranosyl residues. The main backbone chain of ACP2-1 contained (1→3)-galacturonopyranosyl residues interspersed with (1→4)-glucopyranosyl residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Polysaccharides Research)
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