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Topical Collection "Antibiotics & Superbugs: New Strategies to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance"

A topical collection in Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This collection belongs to the section "Medicinal Chemistry".

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Peter J. Rutledge

School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 2 9351 5020
Fax: +61 2 9351 3329
Interests: antibiotics chemistry; biosynthesis; chemosensors and molecular probes; biocatalysis and bioinspired catalysis; hydrocarbon oxidation and C-H activation

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rise of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is well documented both in the scientific literature and in the popular press. The World Health Organisation recently described antimicrobial resistance as “a problem so serious that it threatens the achievements of modern medicine.” [1] Writing in Nature, professors Mark Woolhouse (Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the University of Edinburgh) and Jeremy Farrar (Director of the Wellcome Trust) argue that in some ways, a post-antibiotic world has already arrived [2]. While Britain’s Chief Medical Officer Dame Sally Davies has called antimicrobial resistance “a threat arguably as important as climate change for the world.” [3]

The stakes are high, the pressure is mounting. This Special Issue of Molecules brings together a selection of current efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance: work that will develop new strategies and build new molecules to lead us through this crisis point and into a new ’golden age’ of antibiotics.  In the words of Dame Sally Davies, “We need to work with everyone to ensure the apocalyptic scenario of widespread antimicrobial resistance does not become a reality.” [3]

Research papers covering all areas of antibiotics chemistry are invited, from antibacterial discovery and development to the synthesis and biosynthesis of antibiotics; characterisation of resistance mechanisms and the development of strategies to combat resistance; mechanism of action studies; strategies that target quorum sensing, virulence factors or antibacterial vaccines. Review articles outlining recent developments in the field are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Peter Rutledge
Collection Editor

  1. World Health Organisation, Antimicrobial resistance: Global report on surveillance 2014 (WHO 2014).
  2. Woolhouse, M.; Farrar, J.; Nature 509 555–557 doi: 10.1038/509555a
  3. Department of Health (UK), Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer 2011: Volume Two (Department of Health 2013).

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • antibacterials
  • antimicrobial agents
  • antibiotic resistance
  • superbugs
  • antibacterial natural products
  • biosynthesis of antibiotics
  • genome mining
  • antibiotic drug discovery
  • synthesis of antibiotics
  • mechanism of action studies
  • betalactamase
  • quorum sensing modulators
  • virulence factors
  • antibacterial vaccines

Published Papers (54 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015

Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Benzo[4,5]isothiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazine-6,6-dioxide Derivatives
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1889; doi:10.3390/molecules22111889
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
Using a routine procedure, a number of derivatives of the benzo[4,5]isothiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazine-6,6-dioxide ring system have been synthesized from readily available starting materials. A series of chalcones were synthesized, which were subsequently reacted with chlorosulfonic acid to generate chalcone sulfonyl chlorides. The chalcone
[...] Read more.
Using a routine procedure, a number of derivatives of the benzo[4,5]isothiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazine-6,6-dioxide ring system have been synthesized from readily available starting materials. A series of chalcones were synthesized, which were subsequently reacted with chlorosulfonic acid to generate chalcone sulfonyl chlorides. The chalcone sulfonyl chlorides were then treated with bromine to generate dibromo chalcone sulfonyl chlorides. These were subsequently reacted with 1,2-diaminopropane and 2-methyl-1,2-diaminopropane in boiling ethanol resulting in compounds 210 and 1119 respectively, in 12–80% yields. The products were characterized by spectral analysis and the definitive structure of compound 11 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The synthesized compounds were screened for potential antibacterial properties against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Bioactive Paulomycin Derivatives Produced by Streptomyces albus J1074
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1758; doi:10.3390/molecules22101758
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Four novel paulomycin derivatives have been isolated from S. albus J1074 grown in MFE culture medium. These compounds are structural analogs of antibiotics 273a and 273a containing a thiazole moiety, probably originated through an intramolecular Michael addition. The novel, thiazole, moiety-containing
[...] Read more.
Four novel paulomycin derivatives have been isolated from S. albus J1074 grown in MFE culture medium. These compounds are structural analogs of antibiotics 273a and 273a containing a thiazole moiety, probably originated through an intramolecular Michael addition. The novel, thiazole, moiety-containing paulomycins show a lower antibiotic activity than paulomycins A and B against Gram-positive bacteria. However, two of them show an improved activity against Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the four novel compounds are more stable in culture than paulomycins A and B. Thus, the presence of an N-acetyl-l-cysteine moiety linked to the carbon atom of the paulic acid isothiocyanate moiety, via a thioester bond, and the subsequent intramolecular cyclization of the paulic acid to generate a thiazole heterocycle confer to paulomycins a higher structural stability that otherwise will conduce to paulomycin degradation and into inactive paulomenols. Full article
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Open AccessReview Carbohydrate-Based Host-Guest Complexation of Hydrophobic Antibiotics for the Enhancement of Antibacterial Activity
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1311; doi:10.3390/molecules22081311
Received: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Host-guest complexation with various hydrophobic drugs has been used to enhance the solubility, permeability, and stability of guest drugs. Physical changes in hydrophobic drugs by complexation have been related to corresponding increases in the bioavailability of these drugs. Carbohydrates, including various derivatives of
[...] Read more.
Host-guest complexation with various hydrophobic drugs has been used to enhance the solubility, permeability, and stability of guest drugs. Physical changes in hydrophobic drugs by complexation have been related to corresponding increases in the bioavailability of these drugs. Carbohydrates, including various derivatives of cyclodextrins, cyclosophoraoses, and some linear oligosaccharides, are generally used as host complexation agents in drug delivery systems. Many antibiotics with low bioavailability have some limitations to their clinical use due to their intrinsically poor aqueous solubility. Bioavailability enhancement is therefore an important step to achieve the desired concentration of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. Antibiotics encapsulated in a complexation-based drug delivery system will display improved antibacterial activity making it possible to reduce dosages and overcome the serious global problem of antibiotic resistance. Here, we review the present research trends in carbohydrate-based host-guest complexation of various hydrophobic antibiotics as an efficient delivery system to improve solubility, permeability, stability, and controlled release. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazolo[4,5-h]quinolone Derivatives with Novel Anti-Microbial Properties against Metronidazole Resistant Helicobacter pylori
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 841; doi:10.3390/molecules22050841
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori infection can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer, and the development of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Treatment and eradication of H. pylori infection can prevent relapse and accelerate the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as regression of
[...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori infection can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer, and the development of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Treatment and eradication of H. pylori infection can prevent relapse and accelerate the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as regression of malignancy. Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of H. pylori, alternative approaches using newly discovered antimicrobial agents in combination with the standard antibiotic regimens for the treatment of H. pylori are of major importance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of newly synthesized 8-amino 7-substituted fluoroquinolone and their correspondent cyclized triazolo derivatives when either alone or combined with metronidazole against metronidazole-resistant H. pylori. Based on standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and checkerboard titration assay, all of the tested compounds showed interesting antimicrobial activity against 12 clinical strains of H. pylori, with best in vitro effect for compounds 4b and 4c. Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) mean values showed synergistic pattern in all compounds of Group 5. In addition, additive activities of some of the tested compounds of Group 4 were observed when combined with metronidazole. In contrast, the tested compounds showed no significant urease inhibition activity. These results support the potential of new fluoroquinolone derivatives to be useful in combination with anti-H. pylori drugs in the management of H. pylori-associated diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Costus afer Leaf Extract: Synthesis, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Electrochemical Properties
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 701; doi:10.3390/molecules22050701
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical routes has been extensively reported. However, green synthesized metal nanoparticles are currently in the limelight due to the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness of their synthesis. This study explored the use of aqueous leaf
[...] Read more.
Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical routes has been extensively reported. However, green synthesized metal nanoparticles are currently in the limelight due to the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness of their synthesis. This study explored the use of aqueous leaf extract of Costus afer in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (CA-AgNPs). The optical and structural properties of the resulting silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infra–red spectrophotometer (FTIR). TEM images of the silver nanoparticles confirmed the existence of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a mean size of 20 nm. The FTIR spectra affirmed the presence of phytochemicals from the Costus afer leaf extract on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. The electrochemical characterization of a CA-AgNPs/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-modified electrode was carried out to confirm the charge transfer properties of the nanocomposites. The comparative study showed that the CA-AgNPs/MWCNT-modified electrode demonstrated faster charge transport behaviour. The anodic current density of the electrodes in Fe(CN)6]4−/[Fe(CN)6]3− redox probe follows the order: GCE/CA-Ag/MWCNT (550 mA/cm2) > GCE/MWCNT (270 mA/cm2) > GCE (80 mA/cm2) > GCE/CA-Ag (7.93 mA/cm2). The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antibacterial properties against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) pathogens. The nanoparticles exhibited better inhibition of the bacterial strains compared to the precursors (leaf extract of Costus afer and silver nitrate). Furthermore, the ability of the nanoparticles to scavenge DPPH radicals at different concentrations was studied using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and compared to that of the leaf extract and ascorbic acid. The nanoparticles were better DPPH scavengers compared to the leaf extract and their antioxidant properties compared favorably the antioxidant results of ascorbic acid. The green approach to nanoparticles synthesis carried out in this research work is simple, non-polluting, inexpensive and non-hazardous. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Synthesis of Ag/Ag2O Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eupatorium odoratum and Its Antimicrobial and Mosquito Larvicidal Activities
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 674; doi:10.3390/molecules22050674
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
PDF Full-text (3825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The health challenges associated with pathogens and ectoparasites highlight the need for effective control approaches. Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective tools towards combatting different microbial organisms and parasites. The present work reports the antimicrobial and larvicidal potential of biosynthesized Ag/Ag
[...] Read more.
The health challenges associated with pathogens and ectoparasites highlight the need for effective control approaches. Metal nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective tools towards combatting different microbial organisms and parasites. The present work reports the antimicrobial and larvicidal potential of biosynthesized Ag/Ag2O nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Eupatorium odoratum (EO). The constituents of the leaf extract act as both reducing and stabilizing agents. The UV-VIS spectra of the nanoparticles showed surface plasmon resonance. The particle size and shape of the nanoparticles was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The larvicidal study was carried out using third and fourth instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extract (EO) and the synthesized nanoparticles, and their percentage of mortality was accounted for at different time intervals of 12 h and 24 h periods of exposure. The nanoparticles were more lethal against third and fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae at the 24 h period of exposure with lower lethal concentration values (LC50 = 95.9 ppm; LC90 = 337.5 ppm) and (LC50 = 166.4 ppm; LC90 = 438.7 ppm) compared to the plant extract (LC50 = 396.8 ppm; LC90 = 716.8 ppm and LC50 = 448.3 ppm; LC90 = 803.9 ppm, respectively). The antimicrobial properties of the nanoparticles were established against different clinically-isolated microbial strains and compared to that of the plant extract (EO) and standard antimicrobial drugs. The nanoparticles were generally more active than the plant extract against the selected microbial organisms. The Gram-negative bacterial strains Escheerichua coli and Salmonella typhi were more susceptible towards the nanoparticles compared to the Gram-positive strains and the fungal organism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Activities of LCB 01-0648, a Novel Oxazolidinone, against Gram-Positive Bacteria
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 394; doi:10.3390/molecules22030394
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Oxazolidinones are a novel class of synthetic antibacterial agents that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Here, we synthesized and tested a series of oxazolidinone compounds containing cyclic amidrazone. Among these compounds, we further investigated the antibacterial activities of LCB01-0648 against drug-susceptible or resistant Gram-positive
[...] Read more.
Oxazolidinones are a novel class of synthetic antibacterial agents that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Here, we synthesized and tested a series of oxazolidinone compounds containing cyclic amidrazone. Among these compounds, we further investigated the antibacterial activities of LCB01-0648 against drug-susceptible or resistant Gram-positive cocci in comparison with those of six reference compounds. LCB01-0648 showed the most potent antimicrobial activities against clinically isolated Gram-positive bacteria. Against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) isolates, LCB01-0648 showed the lowest MIC90s (0.5 mg/L) among the tested compounds. In addition, LCB01-0648 had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against the four linezolid-resistant S. aureus (LRSA) strains (range 2–4 mg/L). The results of the time–kill studies demonstrated that LCB01-0648 at a concentration 8× the (MIC) showed bactericidal activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus MSSA or MRSA, but showed a bacteriostatic effect against LRSA. These results indicate that LCB01-0648 could be a good antibacterial candidate against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive cocci. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activities and Possible Modes of Action of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 47; doi:10.3390/molecules22010047
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 18 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 14 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and
[...] Read more.
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments. The clinical isolates of E. coli and Salmonella were found resistant to more of the tested antibiotics, compared to food isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of acacia leaf extracts were in the ranges of 1.56–3.12 mg/mL and 3.12–6.25 mg/mL, respectively, whereas pods and bark extracts showed somewhat higher values of 3.12–6.25 mg/mL and 6.25–12.5 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested pathogens. The release of electrolytes and essential cellular constituents (proteins and nucleic acids) indicated that acacia extracts damaged the cellular membrane of the pathogens. These changes corresponded to simultaneous reduction in the growth of viable bacteria. This study indicates that A. nilotica can be a potential source of new antimicrobials, effective against antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Efflux Pump Inhibitors on the Activity of Selected Non-Antibiotic Medicinal Products against Gram-Negative Bacteria
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 114; doi:10.3390/molecules22010114
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potential role of non-antibiotic medicinal products in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has recently been investigated. It is highly likely that the presence of efflux pumps may be one of the reasons for the weak activity of non-antibiotics, as in the
[...] Read more.
The potential role of non-antibiotic medicinal products in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has recently been investigated. It is highly likely that the presence of efflux pumps may be one of the reasons for the weak activity of non-antibiotics, as in the case of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), against Gram-negative rods. The activity of eight drugs of potential non-antibiotic activity, active substance standards, and relevant medicinal products were analysed with and without of efflux pump inhibitors against 180 strains of five Gram-negative rod species by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value determination in the presence of 1 mM MgSO4. Furthermore, the influence of non-antibiotics on the susceptibility of clinical strains to quinolones with or without PAβN (Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide) was investigated. The impacts of PAβN on the susceptibility of bacteria to non-antibiotics suggests that amitriptyline, alendronate, nicergoline, and ticlopidine are substrates of efflux pumps in Gram-negative rods. Amitriptyline/Amitriptylinum showed the highest direct antibacterial activity, with MICs ranging 100–800 mg/L against all studied species. Significant decreases in the MIC values of other active substances (acyclovir, atorvastatin, and famotidine) tested with pump inhibitors were not observed. The investigated non-antibiotic medicinal products did not alter the MICs of quinolones in the absence and in the presence of PAβN to the studied clinical strains of five groups of species. Full article
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2016

Jump to: 2017, 2015

Open AccessReview Antibiotic Resistant Superbugs: Assessment of the Interrelationship of Occurrence in Clinical Settings and Environmental Niches
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 29; doi:10.3390/molecules22010029
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (682 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing threat to global health posed by antibiotic resistance remains of serious concern. Human health remains at higher risk due to several reported therapeutic failures to many life threatening drug resistant microbial infections. The resultant effects have been prolonged hospital stay, higher
[...] Read more.
The increasing threat to global health posed by antibiotic resistance remains of serious concern. Human health remains at higher risk due to several reported therapeutic failures to many life threatening drug resistant microbial infections. The resultant effects have been prolonged hospital stay, higher cost of alternative therapy, increased mortality, etc. This opinionated review considers the two main concerns in integrated human health risk assessment (i.e., residual antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes) in various compartments of human environment, as well as clinical dynamics associated with the development and transfer of antibiotic resistance (AR). Contributions of quorum sensing, biofilms, enzyme production, and small colony variants in bacteria, among other factors in soil, water, animal farm and clinical settings were also considered. Every potential factor in environmental and clinical settings that brings about AR needs to be identified for the summative effects in overall resistance. There is a need to embrace coordinated multi-locational approaches and interrelationships to track the emergence of resistance in different niches in soil and water versus the hospital environment. The further integration with advocacy, legislation, enforcement, technological innovations and further research input and recourse to WHO guidelines on antibiotic policy would be advantageous towards addressing the emergence of antibiotic resistant superbugs. Full article
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Open AccessReview Antibiofilm Activity of Plant Polyphenols
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1717; doi:10.3390/molecules21121717
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the history of human medicine, antibiotics represent epochal examples of medical progress. However, with an approaching antibiotic crisis due to the emergence and extensive spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial agents, as well as to increasing number of patients with chronic and
[...] Read more.
In the history of human medicine, antibiotics represent epochal examples of medical progress. However, with an approaching antibiotic crisis due to the emergence and extensive spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial agents, as well as to increasing number of patients with chronic and recalcitrant bacterial biofilm-associated infections, the naturally occurring molecules may become new sources of antibacterial and antibiofilm drugs for clinical usage. Polyphenols represent a class of plant natural products which are important in plant defense against microbial pathogens. The main focus of the review is on the antibiofilm activities of phenolic compounds against bacteria which play an essential role in medical device biofilm-associated infections. The other, not negligible part of the review is devoted to polyphenols’ activity against bacterial agents that cause dental caries and periodontal disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Activity of Zabofloxacin against Clinically Isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1562; doi:10.3390/molecules21111562
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zabofloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone agent that has potent activity against gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we confirmed that zabofloxacin showed the most potent in vitro and in vivo activities against drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Among the fluoroquinolone compounds, zabofloxacin showed the most
[...] Read more.
Zabofloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone agent that has potent activity against gram-positive pathogens. In this study, we confirmed that zabofloxacin showed the most potent in vitro and in vivo activities against drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Among the fluoroquinolone compounds, zabofloxacin showed the most potent in vitro activity against clinical isolates of penicillin-sensitive S. pneumoniae (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC90: 0.03 mg/L) and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (MIC90: 0.03 mg/L). Against quinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae, zabofloxacin (MIC90: 1 mg/L) was more active than ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and moxifloxacin; however, its activity was the same as that of gemifloxacin. The in vivo activity of zabofloxacin was most potent among the quinolone compounds tested against the systemic infection and respiratory tract infection models in mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Extract from Maize (Zea mays L.): Antibacterial Activity of DIMBOA and Its Derivatives against Ralstonia solanacearum
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1397; doi:10.3390/molecules21101397
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 15 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
PDF Full-text (2353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many cereals accumulate hydroxamic acids involved in defense of plant against various fungi, bacteria, and insects. 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3-one, commonly known as DIMBOA, is one of the principal cyclic hydroxamic acids in aqueous extracts of maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the
[...] Read more.
Many cereals accumulate hydroxamic acids involved in defense of plant against various fungi, bacteria, and insects. 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3-one, commonly known as DIMBOA, is one of the principal cyclic hydroxamic acids in aqueous extracts of maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the isolated DIMBOA and its derivatives 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA), 6-chloro-2-benzoxazolinone (CDHB), and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) against Ralstonia solanacearum. MBT showed the strongest antibacterial activity, followed by CDHB and DIMBOA, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 50, 100 and 200 mg/L, respectively, better than the BOA with 300 mg/L. These compounds also significantly affect bacterial growth, reduce biofilm formation, and inhibit swarming motility within 24 h. This paper is the first to report the anti-R. solanacearum activity of DIMBOA from Z. mays. The bioassay and pot experiment results suggested that DIMBOA and its derivatives exhibit potential as a new matrix structure of designing target bactericide or elicitor for controlling tobacco bacterial wilt. Further studies must evaluate the efficacy of DIMBOA and its derivatives in controlling bacterial wilt under natural field conditions where low inoculum concentrations exist. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Pleiotropic Antibacterial Mechanisms of Ursolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Molecules 2016, 21(7), 884; doi:10.3390/molecules21070884
Received: 2 June 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 7 July 2016
PDF Full-text (4087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(1) Background: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several triterpenoids were found to act synergistically with classes of antibiotic, indicating that plant-derived chemicals have potential to be used as therapeutics to enhance the activity of antibiotics against multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, the mode of action of triterpenoids against bacterial pathogens remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between ursolic acid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); (2) Methods: The ability of ursolic acid to damage mammalian and bacterial membranes was examined. The proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in ursolic acid treatment was investigated using two-dimensional (2D) proteomic analysis; (3) Results: Ursolic acid caused the loss of staphylococcal membrane integrity without hemolytic activity. The comparison of the protein pattern of ursolic acid–treated and normal MRSA cells revealed that ursolic acid affected a variety of proteins involved in the translation process with translational accuracy, ribonuclease and chaperon subunits, glycolysis and oxidative responses; (4) Conclusion: The mode of action of ursolic acid appears to be the influence on the integrity of the bacterial membrane initially, followed by inhibition of protein synthesis and the metabolic pathway. These findings reflect that the pleiotropic effects of ursolic acid against MRSA make it a promising antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhalable Antitubercular Therapy Mediated by Locust Bean Gum Microparticles
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 702; doi:10.3390/molecules21060702
Received: 13 February 2016 / Revised: 14 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 28 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Considering the high prevalence of lung tuberculosis (80% of cases), the pulmonary delivery of antitubercular drugs in a carrier system capable of reaching the alveoli, being recognised and phagocytosed by
[...] Read more.
Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Considering the high prevalence of lung tuberculosis (80% of cases), the pulmonary delivery of antitubercular drugs in a carrier system capable of reaching the alveoli, being recognised and phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages (mycobacterium hosts), would be a significant improvement to current oral drug regimens. Locust bean gum (LBG) is a polysaccharide composed of galactose and mannose residues, which may favour specific recognition by macrophages and potentiate phagocytosis. LBG microparticles produced by spray-drying are reported herein for the first time, incorporating either isoniazid or rifabutin, first-line antitubercular drugs (association efficiencies >82%). Microparticles have adequate theoretical properties for deep lung delivery (aerodynamic diameters between 1.15 and 1.67 μm). The cytotoxic evaluation in lung epithelial cells (A549 cells) and macrophages (THP-1 cells) revealed a toxic effect from rifabutin-loaded microparticles at the highest concentrations, but we may consider that these were very high comparing with in vivo conditions. LBG microparticles further evidenced strong ability to be captured by macrophages (percentage of phagocytosis >94%). Overall, the obtained data indicated the potential of the proposed system for tuberculosis therapy. Full article
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Open AccessReview Self-resistance in Streptomyces, with Special Reference to β-Lactam Antibiotics
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 605; doi:10.3390/molecules21050605
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 10 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7058 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. Among bacterial resistance, β-lactam antibiotic resistance is the most prevailing and threatening area. Antibiotic resistance is thought to originate in antibiotic-producing bacteria such as Streptomyces. In this review, β-lactamases and penicillin-binding
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Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. Among bacterial resistance, β-lactam antibiotic resistance is the most prevailing and threatening area. Antibiotic resistance is thought to originate in antibiotic-producing bacteria such as Streptomyces. In this review, β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in Streptomyces are explored mainly by phylogenetic analyses from the viewpoint of self-resistance. Although PBPs are more important than β-lactamases in self-resistance, phylogenetically diverse β-lactamases exist in Streptomyces. While class A β-lactamases are mostly detected in their enzyme activity, over two to five times more classes B and C β-lactamase genes are identified at the whole genomic level. These genes can subsequently be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. As for PBPs, two pairs of low affinity PBPs protect Streptomyces from the attack of self-producing and other environmental β-lactam antibiotics. PBPs with PASTA domains are detectable only in class A PBPs in Actinobacteria with the exception of Streptomyces. None of the Streptomyces has PBPs with PASTA domains. However, one of class B PBPs without PASTA domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase with four PASTA domains are located in adjacent positions in most Streptomyces. These class B type PBPs are involved in the spore wall synthesizing complex and probably in self-resistance. Lastly, this paper emphasizes that the resistance mechanisms in Streptomyces are very hard to deal with, despite great efforts in finding new antibiotics. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 268; doi:10.3390/molecules21040268
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 28 March 2016
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Abstract
Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative
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Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites—the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1) mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV) of quinolones; (2) plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3) chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV). In the case of chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance, there is a decrease in the influx of the drug into the cell. Full article
Open AccessArticle Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 293; doi:10.3390/molecules21030293
Received: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
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Abstract
The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new
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The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species listed here were shown to have anti-infective activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These results may serve as a guide for selecting plant species that could yield the highest probability of finding promising compounds responsible for the antibacterial activities against a broad spectrum of bacterial species. Further investigation of the phytochemicals from these plants will help to identify the lead compounds for drug discovery. Full article
Open AccessReview Nanotechnology Formulations for Antibacterial Free Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 305; doi:10.3390/molecules21030305
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
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Abstract
Free fatty acids and monoglycerides have long been known to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that is based on lytic behavior against bacterial cell membranes. Considering the growing challenges of drug-resistant bacteria and the need for new classes of antibiotics, the wide prevalence, affordable
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Free fatty acids and monoglycerides have long been known to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that is based on lytic behavior against bacterial cell membranes. Considering the growing challenges of drug-resistant bacteria and the need for new classes of antibiotics, the wide prevalence, affordable cost, and broad spectrum of fatty acids and monoglycerides make them attractive agents to develop for healthcare and biotechnology applications. The aim of this review is to provide a brief introduction to the history of antimicrobial lipids and their current status and challenges, and to present a detailed discussion of ongoing research efforts to develop nanotechnology formulations of fatty acids and monoglycerides that enable superior in vitro and in vivo performance. Examples of nano-emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and controlled release hydrogels are presented in order to highlight the potential that lies ahead for fatty acids and monoglycerides as next-generation antibacterial solutions. Possible application routes and future directions in research and development are also discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of Short and Long Based Arachnid Synthetic Peptides in the Presence of Commercial Antibiotics
Molecules 2016, 21(2), 225; doi:10.3390/molecules21020225
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
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Abstract
Four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) named Pin2[G], Pin2[14], P18K and FA1 were chemically synthesized and purified. The four peptides were evaluated in the presence of eight commercial antibiotics against four microorganisms of medical importance: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and
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Four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) named Pin2[G], Pin2[14], P18K and FA1 were chemically synthesized and purified. The four peptides were evaluated in the presence of eight commercial antibiotics against four microorganisms of medical importance: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The commercial antibiotics used were amoxicillin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, levofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and vancomycin. The best AMP against P. aeruginosa was the peptide FA1, and the best AMP against S. aureus was Pin2[G]. Both FA1 and Pin2[G] were efficient against E. coli, but they were not effective against K. pneumoniae. As K. pneumoniae was resistant to most of the commercial antibiotics, combinations of the AMPs FA1 and Pin2[G] were prepared with these antibiotics. According to the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index, the best antimicrobial combinations were obtained with concomitant applications of mixtures of FA1 with levofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole. However, combinations of FA1 or Pin2[G] with other antibiotics showed that total inhibitory effect of the combinations were greater than the sum of the individual effects of either the antimicrobial peptide or the antibiotic. We also evaluated the stability of the AMPs. The AMP Pin2[G] manifested the best performance in saline buffer, in supernatants of bacterial growth and in human blood plasma. Nevertheless, all AMPs were cleaved using endoproteolytic enzymes. These data show advantages and disadvantages of AMPs for potential clinical treatments of bacterial infections, using them in conjunction with commercial antibiotics. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 76; doi:10.3390/molecules21010076
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 26 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 11 January 2016
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Abstract
Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves,
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Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Properties of Tebipenem Pivoxil Tablet, a New Oral Carbapenem Preparation against a Variety of Pathogenic Bacteria in Vitro and in Vivo
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 62; doi:10.3390/molecules21010062
Received: 13 December 2015 / Revised: 25 December 2015 / Accepted: 31 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
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Abstract
Aims: To systemically investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties of tebipenem pivoxil tablet. In addition, acute toxicity of this preparation was also studied. Methods: In vitro, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or minimal inhibitory concentration (MBC) were determined by using
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Aims: To systemically investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties of tebipenem pivoxil tablet. In addition, acute toxicity of this preparation was also studied. Methods: In vitro, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or minimal inhibitory concentration (MBC) were determined by using the serial 2-fold broth or agar dilution methods. Further, cumulative MIC inhibition curves were then made to assess the antibacterial effects of the drug at various concentrations. In vivo, minimum lethal dose (MLD) in combination with maximum tolerance dose (MTD) was used to measure the acute toxicity of the tebipenem pivoxil tablet in mice. After that, sepsis mouse models challenged with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively, were established to evaluate the anti-infective effect of this preparation. Results: The MIC90 values of tebipenem pivoxil against Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), Pyogenic streptococcus, and Enterococcus faecalis were ≤0.125, 16, 0.5, 8, ≤0.125, and 32 μg/mL, respectively. Correspondingly, the MIC90 values of tebipenem pivoxil against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii were 1, 0.5, ≤0.125, 0.25, 64, 64 μg/mL, respectively. The MBC values of tebipenem pivoxil against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae were 0.016–2, 0.063–32, 0.031–32 μg/mL, respectively. The acute toxicity study showed that the MLD of the tebipenem pivoxil tablet was 4.00 g/kg and the MTD was 3.40 g/kg in mice. In all the sepsis mouse models, the simultaneous administration of the tebipenem pivoxil tablets significantly reduced mortality of the sepsis-model mice as compared with the control. Furthermore, the survival rate in the tebipenem pivoxil tablet group was remarkably higher than that in the meropenem group in all the sepsis mouse models tested. In the sepsis model challenged with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strain, respectively, tebipenem pivoxil tablet (100 mg/kg) displayed a better protective effect than tebipenem pivoxil granules (100 mg/kg). Conclusions: In summary, tebipenem pivoxil displays an excellent antibacterial activity against a variety of pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Importantly, tebipenem pivoxil tablet significantly protects the sepsis mice challenged with various pathogenic bacteria, which may provide a potential approach to treating bacterial sepsis in clinic. Full article

2015

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Open AccessArticle The Activity of Cotinus coggygria Scop. Leaves on Staphylococcus aureus Strains in Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Forms
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 50; doi:10.3390/molecules21010050
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to detect the effectiveness of Cotinus coggygria Scop. leaves methanol extract against planktonic and biofilm growth forms of Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution test. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal
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The purpose of this study was to detect the effectiveness of Cotinus coggygria Scop. leaves methanol extract against planktonic and biofilm growth forms of Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution test. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations were detected against two collection and ten clinical S. aureus strains. Anti-biofilm activity of the tested extract was detected using 24 h bacterial biofilm on the surface of microtiter plate wells. The biofilm inhibitory activity was evaluated visually after 24 h interaction of extract with biofilm, and the eradicating activity by a regrowth method. The tested extract showed bactericidal activity against all S. aureus strains (methicillin susceptible or methicillin resistant) in concentrations ranging from 0.313 to 0.625 mg·mL−1. Biofilm inhibitory concentrations were 10-times higher and biofilm eradicating concentrations 100-times higher (8 and 32 mg·mL−1, respectively). The phytochemical analysis of C. coggygria leaves 60% methanol extract performed by LC-DAD-MS/MS revealed quercetin rhamnoside, methyl gallate, and methyl trigallate as main constituents. Results of our study indicate that C. coggygria, rich in tannins and flavonoids, seems to be a prospective topical antibacterial agent with anti-biofilm activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Strong and Nonspecific Synergistic Antibacterial Efficiency of Antibiotics Combined with Silver Nanoparticles at Very Low Concentrations Showing No Cytotoxic Effect
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 26; doi:10.3390/molecules21010026
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 28 December 2015
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Abstract
The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are one of
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The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. In this work, a systematic study quantifying the synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. Employing the microdilution method as more suitable and reliable than the disc diffusion method, strong synergistic effects were shown for all tested antibiotics combined with AgNPs at very low concentrations of both antibiotics and AgNPs. No trends were observed for synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs, indicating non-specific synergistic effects. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells at these concentration levels. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Mini Review of Phytochemicals and Plant Taxa with Activity as Microbial Biofilm and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors
Molecules 2016, 21(1), 29; doi:10.3390/molecules21010029
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 26 December 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (8352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbial biofilms readily form on many surfaces in nature including plant surfaces. In order to coordinate the formation of these biofilms, microorganisms use a cell-to-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS). As formation of biofilms on vascular plants may not be advantageous to
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Microbial biofilms readily form on many surfaces in nature including plant surfaces. In order to coordinate the formation of these biofilms, microorganisms use a cell-to-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS). As formation of biofilms on vascular plants may not be advantageous to the hosts, plants have developed inhibitors to interfere with these processes. In this mini review, research papers published on plant-derived molecules that have microbial biofilm or quorum sensing inhibition are reviewed with the objectives of determining the biosynthetic classes of active compounds, their biological activity in assays, and their families of occurrence and range. The main findings are the identification of plant phenolics, including benzoates, phenyl propanoids, stilbenes, flavonoids, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins and coumarins as important inhibitors with both activities. Some terpenes including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes also have anti-QS and anti-biofilm activities. Relatively few alkaloids were reported. Quinones and organosulfur compounds, especially from garlic, were also active. A common feature is the polar nature of these compounds. Phytochemicals with these activities are widespread in Angiosperms in temperate and tropical regions, but gymnosperms, bryophytes and pteridophytes were not represented. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Nanostructured Lipid System as a Strategy to Improve the in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Copper(II) Complexes
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22534-22545; doi:10.3390/molecules201219822
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to construct a nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the in vitro antibacterial activity of copper(II) complexes. New compounds with the general formulae [CuX2(INH)2]·nH2O (X = Cl and
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The aim of this study was to construct a nanostructured lipid system as a strategy to improve the in vitro antibacterial activity of copper(II) complexes. New compounds with the general formulae [CuX2(INH)2]·nH2O (X = Cl and n = 1 (1); X = NCS and n = 5 (2); X = NCO and n = 4 (3); INH = isoniazid, a drug widely used to treat tuberculosis) derived from the reaction between the copper(II) chloride and isoniazid in the presence or absence of pseudohalide ions (NCS or NCO) were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectrometry, electronic absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, melting points and complexometry with 2,2′,2′′,2′′′-(Ethane-1,2-diyldinitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The characterization techniques allowed us to confirm the formation of the copper(II) complexes. The Cu(II) complexes were loaded into microemulsion (MEs) composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol), 10% surfactant [soy oleate and Brij® 58 (1:2)] and 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4) prepared by sonication. The Cu(II) complex-loaded MEs displayed sizes ranging from 158.0 ± 1.060 to 212.6 ± 1.539 nm, whereas the polydispersity index (PDI) ranged from 0.218 ± 0.007 to 0.284 ± 0.034. The antibacterial activity of the free compounds and those that were loaded into the MEs against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922, as evaluated by a microdilution technique, and the cytotoxicity index (IC50) against the Vero cell line (ATCC® CCL-81TM) were used to calculate the selectivity index (SI). Among the free compounds, only compound 2 (MIC 500 μg/mL) showed activity for S. aureus. After loading the compounds into the MEs, the antibacterial activity of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was significantly increased against E. coli (MIC’s 125, 125 and 500 μg/mL, respectively) and S. aureus (MICs 250, 500 and 125 μg/mL, respectively). The loaded compounds were less toxic against the Vero cell line, especially compound 1 (IC50 from 109.5 to 319.3 μg/mL). The compound 2- and 3-loaded MEs displayed the best SI for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. These results indicated that the Cu(II) complex-loaded MEs were considerably more selective than the free compounds, in some cases, up to 40 times higher. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Penicillin-Type Analogues Bearing a Variable Substituted 2-Azetidinone Ring at Position 6: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22044-22057; doi:10.3390/molecules201219828
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
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Abstract
The synthesis and the biological activity of novel semi-synthetic β-lactam compounds containing an azetidinone moiety joined to the amino-nitrogen of the (+)-6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) as new antibacterial agents is reported. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against a
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The synthesis and the biological activity of novel semi-synthetic β-lactam compounds containing an azetidinone moiety joined to the amino-nitrogen of the (+)-6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) as new antibacterial agents is reported. The synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens and environmental bacteria. Tested compounds displayed good antimicrobial activity against all tested Gram positive bacteria and for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis antimicrobial activity resulted higher than that of the reference antibiotic. Additionally, in vitro cytotoxic screening was also carried out indicating that the compounds do not cause a cell vitality reduction effective at concentration next to and above those shown to be antimicrobial. Full article
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Open AccessReview Pharmaceutical Potential of Synthetic and Natural Pyrrolomycins
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21658-21671; doi:10.3390/molecules201219797
Received: 16 October 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of antibiotic resistance is currently considered one of the most important global health problem. The continuous onset of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains limits the clinical efficacy of most of the marketed antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need for
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The emergence of antibiotic resistance is currently considered one of the most important global health problem. The continuous onset of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains limits the clinical efficacy of most of the marketed antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Pyrrolomycins are a class of biologically active compounds that exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antiproliferative, insecticidal, and acaricidal activities. In this review we focus on the antibacterial activity and antibiofilm activity of pyrrolomycins against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Their efficacy, combined in some cases with a low toxicity, confers to these molecules a great potential for the development of new antimicrobial agents to face the antibiotic crisis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimycobacterial Activities of Endolysins Derived From a Mycobacteriophage, BTCU-1
Molecules 2015, 20(10), 19277-19290; doi:10.3390/molecules201019277
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The high incidence of Mycobacterium infection, notably multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis infection, has become a significant public health concern worldwide. In this study, we isolate and analyze a mycobacteriophage, BTCU-1, and a foundational study was performed to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of BTCU-1 and
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The high incidence of Mycobacterium infection, notably multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis infection, has become a significant public health concern worldwide. In this study, we isolate and analyze a mycobacteriophage, BTCU-1, and a foundational study was performed to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of BTCU-1 and its cloned lytic endolysins. Using Mycobacterium smegmatis as host, a mycobacteriophage, BTCU-1, was isolated from soil in eastern Taiwan. The electron microscopy images revealed that BTCU-1 displayed morphology resembling the Siphoviridae family. In the genome of BTCU-1, two putative lytic genes, BTCU-1_ORF7 and BTCU-1_ORF8 (termed lysA and lysB, respectively), were identified, and further subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. When applied exogenously, both LysA and LysB were active against M. smegmatis tested. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that LysA and LysB caused a remarkable modification of the cell shape of M. smegmatis. Intracellular bactericidal activity assay showed that treatment of M. smegmatis—infected RAW 264.7 macrophages with LysA or LysB resulted in a significant reduction in the number of viable intracellular bacilli. These results indicate that the endolysins derived from BTCU-1 have antimycobacterial activity, and suggest that they are good candidates for therapeutic/disinfectant agents to control mycobacterial infections. Full article
Open AccessArticle Separation and Identification of Four New Compounds with Antibacterial Activity from Portulaca oleracea L.
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16375-16387; doi:10.3390/molecules200916375
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 14 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 10 September 2015
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Abstract
The Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) has been used to treat bacillary dysentery for thousands of years in China. Pharmacology studies on P. oleracea have also showed its significant antibacterial effects on the enteropathogenic bacteria, which might reveal the
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The Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) has been used to treat bacillary dysentery for thousands of years in China. Pharmacology studies on P. oleracea have also showed its significant antibacterial effects on the enteropathogenic bacteria, which might reveal the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery to some extent. To date, however, the therapeutic basis of P. oleracea treating on bacillary dysentery remains unknown. We determined the antibacterial effective fraction of P. oleracea in a previous study. The current study, which is based on our previous study, was first designed to isolate, identify and screen antibacterial active constituents from P. oleracea. As a result, four new compounds (14), portulacerebroside B (1), portulacerebroside C (2), portulacerebroside D (3) and portulaceramide A (4) along with five known compounds (59) were isolated, and structures were established by their physico-chemical constants and spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial activities against common enteropathogenic bacteria were evaluated for all compounds and the new compounds 14 showed significant antibacterial effect on enteropathogenic bacteria in vitro, which might contribute to revealing the treatment of P. oleracea in cases of bacillary dysentery. Full article
Open AccessArticle Structure and Antibacterial Activity of Ambobactin, a New Telomycin-Like Cyclic Depsipeptide Antibiotic Produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens F3
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16278-16289; doi:10.3390/molecules200916278
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new telomycin-like cyclic depsipeptide, ambobactin (1), was isolated from the metabolites of Streptomyces ambofaciens F3, an endophyte of Platycladus orientalis. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and advanced Marfey’s method. Ambobactin is structurally related
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A new telomycin-like cyclic depsipeptide, ambobactin (1), was isolated from the metabolites of Streptomyces ambofaciens F3, an endophyte of Platycladus orientalis. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and advanced Marfey’s method. Ambobactin is structurally related with telomycin, except that the configuration of the 3-methyltryptophanes in their structures is different. It exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, this investigation revealed that S. ambofaciens F3 is a new producer of telomycin-like antibiotics. Full article
Open AccessArticle Escherichia coli ASKA Clone Library Harboring tRNA-Specific Adenosine Deaminase (tadA) Reveals Resistance towards Xanthorrhizol
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16290-16305; doi:10.3390/molecules200916290
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 27 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Xanthorrhizol is a potent antimicrobial compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. However, the mechanism of xanthorrhizol action is unknown. To screen for probable target(s), we introduced the ASKA pooled-plasmid library into Escherichia coli W3110 imp4213 and enriched the library for
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Xanthorrhizol is a potent antimicrobial compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. However, the mechanism of xanthorrhizol action is unknown. To screen for probable target(s), we introduced the ASKA pooled-plasmid library into Escherichia coli W3110 imp4213 and enriched the library for resistant clones with increasing concentrations of xanthorrhizol. After three rounds of enrichment, we found nine genes that increased xanthorrhizol resistance. The resistant clones were able to grow in LB medium containing 256 µg/mL xanthorrhizol, representing a 16-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration. Subsequent DNA sequence analysis revealed that overexpression of tadA, galU, fucU, ydeA, ydaC, soxS, nrdH, yiiD, and mltF genes conferred increased resistance towards xanthorrhizol. Among these nine genes, tadA is the only essential gene. tadA encodes a tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase. Overexpression of E. coli W3110 imp4213 (pCA24N-tadA) conferred resistance to xanthorrhizol up to 128 µg/mL. Moreover, overexpression of two tadA mutant enzymes (A143V and F149G) led to a twofold increase in the MIC. These results suggest that the targets of xanthorrhizol may include tadA, which has never before been explored as an antibiotic target. Full article
Open AccessReview Review of Platensimycin and Platencin: Inhibitors of β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) Synthase III (FabH)
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16127-16141; doi:10.3390/molecules200916127
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 24 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 3 September 2015
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Abstract
Platensimycin and platencin were successively discovered from the strain Streptomyces platensis through systematic screening. These natural products have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance in bacteria by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis with slightly different mechanisms. Bioactivity studies have
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Platensimycin and platencin were successively discovered from the strain Streptomyces platensis through systematic screening. These natural products have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance in bacteria by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis with slightly different mechanisms. Bioactivity studies have shown that platensimycin and platencin offer great potential to inhibit many resistant bacteria with no cross-resistance or toxicity observed in vivo. This review summarizes the general information on platensimycin and platencin, including antibacterial and self-resistant mechanisms. Furthermore, the total synthesis pathways of platensimycin and platencin and their analogues from recent studies are presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparing the Antibacterial and Functional Properties of Cameroonian and Manuka Honeys for Potential Wound Healing—Have We Come Full Cycle in Dealing with Antibiotic Resistance?
Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16068-16084; doi:10.3390/molecules200916068
Received: 2 July 2015 / Revised: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 2 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has generated renewed interest in “traditional” antimicrobials, such as honey. This paper reports on a study comparing physico-chemical, antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics (that potentially contribute in part, to the functional wound healing activity) of Cameroonian
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The increased incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has generated renewed interest in “traditional” antimicrobials, such as honey. This paper reports on a study comparing physico-chemical, antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics (that potentially contribute in part, to the functional wound healing activity) of Cameroonian honeys with those of Manuka honey. Agar well diffusion was used to generate zones of inhibition against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus while broth dilutions were used to study the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Non-peroxide activity was investigated by catalase for hydrogen peroxide reduction. The Cameroonian honeys demonstrated functional properties similar to Manuka honey, with strong correlations between the antioxidant activity and total phenol content of each honey. They were also as effective as Manuka honey in reducing bacteria load with an MIC of 10% w/v against all three bacteria and exhibited non-peroxide antimicrobial activity. These Cameroon honeys have potential therapeutic activity and may contain compounds with activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Antibacterial agents from such natural sources present a potential affordable treatment of wound infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, which are a leading cause of amputations and deaths in many African countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Efficacy and Underlying Mechanism of Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole on Citrus Canker
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14103-14117; doi:10.3390/molecules200814103
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 14 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of the current study were to isolate and identify the pathogen responsible for citrus canker and investigate the efficacy of sulfone derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety on controlling citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) under in
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The objectives of the current study were to isolate and identify the pathogen responsible for citrus canker and investigate the efficacy of sulfone derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety on controlling citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) under in vitro and field conditions. In an in vitro study, we tested eight sulfone derivatives against Xcc and the results demonstrated that compound 3 exhibited the best antibacterial activity against Xcc, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 1.23 μg/mL, which was even better than those of commercial bactericides Kocide 3000 (58.21 μg/mL) and Thiodiazole copper (77.04 μg/mL), respectively. Meanwhile, under field experiments, compound 3 treatments demonstrated the highest ability to reduce the disease of citrus canker in leaves and fruits in two different places relative to an untreated control as well as the commercial bactericides Kocide 3000 and Thiodiazole copper. Meanwhile, compound 3 could stimulate the increase in peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities in the navel orange leaves, causing marked enhancement of plant resistance against citrus canker. Moreover, compound 3 could damage the cell membranes, destruct the biofilm formation, inhibit the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), and affect the cell membrane permeability to restrain the growth of the bacteria. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity of Protocatechuic Acid Ethyl Ester on Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains Alone and in Combination with Antistaphylococcal Drugs
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 13536-13549; doi:10.3390/molecules200813536
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 23 July 2015
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Abstract
The aim of the presented study was to examine in vitro the antibacterial activity of protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, EDHB) against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates alone and in the combination with four selected antibiotics. The EDHB antimicrobial activity was tested against
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The aim of the presented study was to examine in vitro the antibacterial activity of protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, EDHB) against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates alone and in the combination with four selected antibiotics. The EDHB antimicrobial activity was tested against twenty S. aureus strains isolated from the clinical samples, and three reference strains. The phenotypes and genotypes of resistance to methicillin for the tested strains were defined as well as the phenotypic resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B (MLSB). EDHB displayed diverse activity against examined S. aureus strains with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range from 64 to 1024 µg/mL. Addition of ¼ MIC of EDHB into the Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) resulted in augmented antibacterial effect in the presence of clindamycin. In the case of cefoxitin no synergistic effect with EDHB was noted. For erythromycin and vancomycin the decrease of mean MICs in the presence of EDHB was observed but did not reach statistical significance. The results of the present study showed that in vitro EDHB possesses antibacterial activity against S. aureus clinical strains and triggers a synergistic antimicrobial effect with clindamycin and to the lesser extent with erythromycin and vancomycin. Full article
Open AccessArticle Potential Mechanism of Action of 3′-Demethoxy-6-O-demethyl-isoguaiacin on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12450-12458; doi:10.3390/molecules200712450
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 8 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial infections represent one of the main threats to global public health. One of the major causative agents associated with high morbidity and mortality infections in hospitals worldwide is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antibacterial agents
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Bacterial infections represent one of the main threats to global public health. One of the major causative agents associated with high morbidity and mortality infections in hospitals worldwide is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antibacterial agents to treat these infections, and natural products are a rich source of them. In previous studies, we reported that lignan 3′-demethoxy-6-O-demethylisoguaiacin, isolated and characterized from Larrea tridentate, showed the best activity towards methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the potential molecular mechanism of the antibacterial activity of 3′-demethoxy-6-O-demethylisoguaiacin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus using microarray technology. Results of microarray genome expression were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The genetic profile expression results showed that lignan 3′-demethoxy-6-O-demethylisoguaiacin had activity on cell membrane affecting proteins of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system causing bacteria death. This molecular mechanism is not present in any antibacterial commercial drug and could be a new target for the development of novel antibacterial agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties on Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 11660-11675; doi:10.3390/molecules200711660
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 24 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, sulfone derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties indicated good antibacterial activities against rice bacterial leaf blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. pv. oryzae (Xoo). In particular, 2-(methylsulfonyl)-5-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole revealed the best antibacterial activity against Xoo, with a half-maximal effective
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In this study, sulfone derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties indicated good antibacterial activities against rice bacterial leaf blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. pv. oryzae (Xoo). In particular, 2-(methylsulfonyl)-5-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole revealed the best antibacterial activity against Xoo, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 9.89 μg/mL, which was better than those of the commercial agents of bismerthiazole (92.61 μg/mL) and thiodiazole copper (121.82 μg/mL). In vivo antibacterial activity tests under greenhouse conditions and field trials demonstrated that 2-(methylsulfonyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole was effective in reducing rice bacterial leaf blight. Meanwhile, 2-(methylsulfonyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole stimulate the increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities in rice, causing marked enhancement of plant resistance against rice bacterial leaf blight. It could also improve the chlorophyll content and restrain the increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rice to considerably reduce the amount of damage caused by Xoo. Moreover, 2-(methylsulfonyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole, at a concentration of 20 μg/mL, could inhibit the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) with an inhibition ratio of 94.52%, and reduce the gene expression levels of gumB, gumG, gumM, and xanA, with inhibition ratios of 94.88%, 68.14%, 86.76%, and 79.21%, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activities and Antibacterial Mechanism of Polygonum cuspidatum Extracts against Nosocomial Drug-Resistant Pathogens
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11119-11130; doi:10.3390/molecules200611119
Received: 3 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, drug resistance due to the extensive abuse and over-use of antibiotics has become an increasingly serious problem, making the development of alternative antibiotics a very urgent issue. In this study, the Chinese herbal medicine, Polygonum cuspidatum, was extracted with 95% ethanol
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Recently, drug resistance due to the extensive abuse and over-use of antibiotics has become an increasingly serious problem, making the development of alternative antibiotics a very urgent issue. In this study, the Chinese herbal medicine, Polygonum cuspidatum, was extracted with 95% ethanol and the crude extracts were further purified by partition based on solvent polarity. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts and fractions were determined by the disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The results showed that the ethyl ether fraction (EE) of the ethanol extracts possesses a broader antimicrobial spectrum and greater antimicrobial activity against all of the tested clinical drug-resistant isolates, with a range of MIC values between 0.1–3.5 mg/mL. The active extract showed complete inhibition of pathogen growth and did not induce resistance to the active components. In addition, according to scanning electron microscope observations, EE resulted in greater cell morphological changes by degrading and disrupting the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane, whereby ultimately this cell membrane integrity damage led to cell death. In conclusion, the EE extracts from Polygonum cuspidatum may provide a promising antimicrobial agent for therapeutic applications against nosocomial drug-resistant bacteria. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antiviral, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of a BODIPY-Based Photosensitizer
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10604-10621; doi:10.3390/molecules200610604
Received: 23 February 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) employing the BODIPY-based photosensitizer 2,6-diiodo-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-4,4′-difluoro-boradiazaindacene (DIMPy-BODIPY) was explored in an in vitro assay against six species of bacteria (eight total strains), three species of yeast, and three viruses as a complementary approach to their current drug-based or
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Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) employing the BODIPY-based photosensitizer 2,6-diiodo-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-4,4′-difluoro-boradiazaindacene (DIMPy-BODIPY) was explored in an in vitro assay against six species of bacteria (eight total strains), three species of yeast, and three viruses as a complementary approach to their current drug-based or non-existent treatments. Our best results achieved a noteworthy 5–6 log unit reduction in CFU at 0.1 μM for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-2913), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (ATCC-44), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC-2320), a 4–5 log unit reduction for Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC-19606 (0.25 μM), multidrug resistant A. baumannii ATCC-1605 (0.1 μM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-97 (0.5 μM), and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC-2146 (1 μM), and a 3 log unit reduction for Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 (ATCC-700084). A 5 log unit reduction in CFU was observed for Candida albicans ATCC-90028 (1 μM) and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC-64538 (0.5 μM), and a 3 log unit reduction was noted for Candida glabrata ATCC-15545 (1 μM). Infectivity was reduced by 6 log units in dengue 1 (0.1 μM), by 5 log units (0.5 μM) in vesicular stomatitis virus, and by 2 log units (5 μM) in human adenovirus-5. Overall, the results demonstrate that DIMPy-BODIPY exhibits antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal photodynamic inactivation at nanomolar concentrations and short illumination times. Full article
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Open AccessReview Silver Nanoparticles as Potential Antibacterial Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8856-8874; doi:10.3390/molecules20058856
Received: 29 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 165 | PDF Full-text (1811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that
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Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs, but unfortunately infectious diseases continue to be a major health burden worldwide. Since ancient times, silver was known for its anti-bacterial effects and for centuries it has been used for prevention and control of disparate infections. Currently nanotechnology and nanomaterials are fully integrated in common applications and objects that we use every day. In addition, the silver nanoparticles are attracting much interest because of their potent antibacterial activity. Many studies have also shown an important activity of silver nanoparticles against bacterial biofilms. This review aims to summarize the emerging efforts to address current challenges and solutions in the treatment of infectious diseases, particularly the use of nanosilver antimicrobials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants—Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8440-8452; doi:10.3390/molecules20058440
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species—leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)—were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated
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The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species—leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)—were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves—42.61% and branches—23.41%) as well as (−)-α-bisabolol (leaves—24.80% and stem bark—66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (−)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (−)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Novel Antimicrobial Screening System Targeting the Pyoverdine-Mediated Iron Acquisition System and Xenobiotic Efflux Pumps
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 7790-7806; doi:10.3390/molecules20057790
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
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Abstract
The iron acquisition systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are inducible in response to low-iron conditions and important for growth of this organism under iron limitation. OprM is the essential outer membrane subunit of the MexAB-OprM xenobiotic efflux pump. We designed and constructed a new
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The iron acquisition systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are inducible in response to low-iron conditions and important for growth of this organism under iron limitation. OprM is the essential outer membrane subunit of the MexAB-OprM xenobiotic efflux pump. We designed and constructed a new model antimicrobial screening system targeting both the iron-uptake system and xenobiotic efflux pumps. The oprM gene was placed immediately downstream of the ferri-pyoverdine receptor gene, fpvA, in the host lacking chromosomal oprM and the expression of oprM was monitored by an antibiotic susceptibility test under iron depleted and replete conditions. The recombinant cells showed wild-type susceptibility to pump substrate antibiotics, e.g., aztreonam, under iron limitation and became supersusceptible to them under iron repletion, suggesting that expression of oprM is under control of the iron acquisition system. Upon screening of a chemical library comprising 2952 compounds using this strain, a compound—ethyl 2-(1-acetylpiperidine-4-carboxamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylate—was found to enhance the efficacy of aztreonam under iron limitation, suggesting that the compound inhibits either the iron acquisition system or the MexAB-OprM efflux pump. This compound was subsequently found to inhibit the growth of wild-type cells in the presence of sublethal amounts of aztreonam, regardless of the presence or absence of dipyridyl, an iron-chelator. The compound was eventually identified to block the function of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump, showing the validity of this new method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Facile Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation of Sydnonyl-Substituted Thiazolidine Derivatives
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6520-6532; doi:10.3390/molecules20046520
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 13 April 2015
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Abstract
Some new sydnonyl-substituted thiazolidine derivatives were synthesized in high yields by the modified Knoevenagel condensation of 3-aryl-4-formylsydnones with thiazolidine-2,4-dione and 2-thioxo-thiazolidine-4-one, respectively. All the synthesized thiazolidine derivatives were screened by paper-disc method to identify their antimicrobial activities against three bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus
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Some new sydnonyl-substituted thiazolidine derivatives were synthesized in high yields by the modified Knoevenagel condensation of 3-aryl-4-formylsydnones with thiazolidine-2,4-dione and 2-thioxo-thiazolidine-4-one, respectively. All the synthesized thiazolidine derivatives were screened by paper-disc method to identify their antimicrobial activities against three bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli, and two fungal cultures viz. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum. The reference drugs were Norfloxacin and Griseofulvin, respectively. The screening data indicated that the tested sydnonyl-substituted thiazolidine derivatives exhibited no obvious antibacterial activity compared with the standard drug Norfloxacin. However, thiazolidine derivatives displayed significant antifungal activities against Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus niger. Notably, all of the tested compounds showed growth inhibitory activity 1.5-4.4 times higher than that of the standard drug Griseofulvin against the two fungi. Full article
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Open AccessReview Insights into the Antimicrobial Properties of Hepcidins: Advantages and Drawbacks as Potential Therapeutic Agents
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6319-6341; doi:10.3390/molecules20046319
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by
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The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by host proteases or inhibition by host body fluid composition, potential toxicity, and high production costs. This review focuses on the hepcidins, which are peptides produced by the human liver with a known role in iron homeostasis, as well by numerous other organisms (including fish, reptiles, other mammals), and their potential as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of human hepcidins are enhanced at acidic pH, rendering these peptides appealing for the design of new drugs targeting infections that occur in body areas with acidic physiological pH. This review not only considers current research on the direct killing activity of these peptides, but evaluates the potential application of these molecules as coating agents preventing biofilm formation and critically assesses technical obstacles preventing their therapeutic application. Full article
Open AccessArticle Recycling Antibiotics into GUMBOS: A New Combination Strategy to Combat Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6466-6487; doi:10.3390/molecules20046466
Received: 28 January 2015 / Revised: 28 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin,
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The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin and oxacillin) and a well-known antiseptic (chlorhexidine di-acetate) were fashioned into a group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS) as an alternative to conventional combination drug dosing strategies. The antibacterial activity of precursor ions (e.g., chlorhexidine diacetate and β-lactam antibiotics), GUMBOS and their unreacted mixtures were studied with 25 clinical isolates with varying antibiotic resistance using a micro-broth dilution method. Acute cytotoxicity and therapeutic indices were determined using fibroblasts, endothelial and cervical cell lines. Intestinal permeability was predicted using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. GUMBOS formed from ineffective β-lactam antibiotics and cytotoxic chlorhexidine diacetate exhibited unique pharmacological properties and profound antibacterial activity at lower concentrations than the unreacted mixture of precursor ions at equivalent stoichiometry. Reduced cytotoxicity to invasive cell types commonly found in superficial and chronic wounds was also observed using GUMBOS. GUMBOS show promise as an alternative combination drug strategy for treating wound infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Photophysical Characterization, and Photoinduced Antibacterial Activity of Methylene Blue-loaded Amino- and Mannose-Targeted Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6284-6298; doi:10.3390/molecules20046284
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 29 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last 20 years, the number of pathogenic multi-resistant microorganisms has grown steadily, which has stimulated the search for new strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), also called photodynamic inactivation, is emerging as a promising alternative to treatments based
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Over the last 20 years, the number of pathogenic multi-resistant microorganisms has grown steadily, which has stimulated the search for new strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), also called photodynamic inactivation, is emerging as a promising alternative to treatments based on conventional antibiotics. We have explored the effectiveness of methylene blue-loaded targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP) in the photodynamic inactivation of two Gram negative bacteria, namely Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For E. coli, nanoparticle association clearly reduced the dark toxicity of MB while preserving its photoinactivation activity. For P. aeruginosa, a remarkable difference was observed between amino- and mannose-decorated nanoparticles. The details of singlet oxygen production in the nanoparticles have been characterized, revealing the presence of two populations of this cytotoxic species. Strong quenching of singlet oxygen within the nanoparticles is observed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Appropriate First-Line Regimens to Combat Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance: An Asian Perspective
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6068-6092; doi:10.3390/molecules20046068
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 8 April 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Asia has the largest population of any continent and the highest incidence of gastric cancer in the world, making it very important in the context of Helicobacter pylori infection. According to current guidelines, standard triple therapy containing a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and
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Asia has the largest population of any continent and the highest incidence of gastric cancer in the world, making it very important in the context of Helicobacter pylori infection. According to current guidelines, standard triple therapy containing a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and two antibiotics; amoxicillin (AMX) and clarithromycin (CAM) or metronidazole (MNZ), is still the preferred first-line regimen for treatment of H. pylori infection. However, the efficacy of legacy triple regimens has been seriously challenged, and they are gradually becoming ineffective. Moreover, some regions in Asia show patterns of emerging antimicrobial resistance. More effective regimens including the bismuth and non-bismuth quadruple, sequential, and dual-concomitant (hybrid) regimens are now replacing standard triple therapies as empirical first-line treatments on the basis of the understanding of the local prevalence of H. pylori antimicrobial resistance. Selection of PPI metabolized by the non-enzymatic pathway or minimal first pass metabolism and/or increasing dose of PPI are important to increase H. pylori eradication rates. Therefore, local antibiotic resistance surveillance updates, selection of appropriate first-line regimens with non-enzymatic PPI and/or increased doses of PPI, and detailed evaluation of patients’ prior antibiotic usage are all essential information to combat H. pylori antibiotic resistance in Asia. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bactericidal Effect of Extracts and Metabolites of Robinia pseudoacacia L. on Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis Causing Dental Plaque and Periodontal Inflammatory Diseases
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 6128-6139; doi:10.3390/molecules20046128
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 8 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mouth cavity hosts many types of anaerobic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which cause periodontal inflammatory diseases and dental caries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of Robinia pseudoacacia and its different fractions,
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The mouth cavity hosts many types of anaerobic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which cause periodontal inflammatory diseases and dental caries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of Robinia pseudoacacia and its different fractions, as well as some of its natural compounds against oral pathogens and a nonpathogenic reference bacteria, Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract and the solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol) of R. pseudoacacia were evaluated against S. mutans, P. gingivalis and E. coli DH5α by standard micro-assay procedure using conventional sterile polystyrene microplates. The results showed that the crude extract was more active against P. gingivalis (100% growth inhibition) than against S. mutans (73% growth inhibition) at 1.8 mg/mL. The chloroform and hexane fractions were active against P. gingivalis, with 91 and 97% growth inhibition, respectively, at 0.2 mg/mL. None of seven natural compounds found in R. pseudoacacia exerted an antibacterial effect on P. gingivalis; however, fisetin and myricetin at 8 µg/mL inhibited the growth of S. mutans by 81% and 86%, respectively. The crude extract of R. pseudoacacia possesses bioactive compounds that could completely control the growth of P. gingivalis. The antibiotic activities of the hexane and chloroform fractions suggest that the active compounds are hydrophobic in nature. The results indicate the effectiveness of the plant in clinical applications for the treatment of dental plaque and periodontal inflammatory diseases and its potential use as disinfectant for various surgical and orthodontic appliances. Full article
Open AccessReview Antibiotic Discovery: Combatting Bacterial Resistance in Cells and in Biofilm Communities
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 5286-5298; doi:10.3390/molecules20045286
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 24 March 2015
Cited by 58 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial resistance is a rapidly escalating threat to public health as our arsenal of effective antibiotics dwindles. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Drug discovery has historically focused on bacteria growing in planktonic cultures. Many antibiotics were originally developed to
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Bacterial resistance is a rapidly escalating threat to public health as our arsenal of effective antibiotics dwindles. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Drug discovery has historically focused on bacteria growing in planktonic cultures. Many antibiotics were originally developed to target individual bacterial cells, being assessed in vitro against microorganisms in a planktonic mode of life. However, towards the end of the 20th century it became clear that many bacteria live as complex communities called biofilms in their natural habitat, and this includes habitats within a human host. The biofilm mode of life provides advantages to microorganisms, such as enhanced resistance towards environmental stresses, including antibiotic challenge. The community level resistance provided by biofilms is distinct from resistance mechanisms that operate at a cellular level, and cannot be overlooked in the development of novel strategies to combat infectious diseases. The review compares mechanisms of antibiotic resistance at cellular and community levels in the light of past and present antibiotic discovery efforts. Future perspectives on novel strategies for treatment of biofilm-related infectious diseases are explored. Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Efficacy and Toxicity Studies of a Novel Antibacterial Agent: 14-O-[(2-Amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)Thioacetyl] Mutilin
Molecules 2015, 20(4), 5299-5312; doi:10.3390/molecules20045299
Received: 26 January 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 24 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new pleuromutilin derivative with excellent antibacterial activity, 14-O-[(2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl) thioacetyl] mutilin (ATTM), may serve as a possible lead compound for the development of antibacterial drugs. However, in vivo efficacy and toxicity evaluations of this compound have not been performed. In this
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A new pleuromutilin derivative with excellent antibacterial activity, 14-O-[(2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl) thioacetyl] mutilin (ATTM), may serve as a possible lead compound for the development of antibacterial drugs. However, in vivo efficacy and toxicity evaluations of this compound have not been performed. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ATTM by measuring the survival of mice after a lethal challenge with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and the 50% effective dose (ED50) was 5.74 mg/kg by the intravenous route. In an oral single-dose toxicity study, ATTM was orally administered to mice at different doses and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) was calculated to be 2304.4 mg/kg by the Bliss method. The results of the subchronic oral toxicity study in rats showed no mortality, exterior signs of toxicity, or differences in the total weight gain or relative organ weights between the treated groups and control group after administration. The hematological and serum biochemical data showed no differences between the treated and control groups, except for the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine (CR) and blood glucose (GLU), which were significantly different in the high-dose group. The differences in the histopathological findings between the treated groups and the control group were not considered to be treatment-related. Our results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ATTM was 5 mg/kg in this study. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Duabanga grandiflora on MRSA Biofilm Formation via Prevention of Cell-Surface Attachment and PBP2a Production
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4473-4482; doi:10.3390/molecules20034473
Received: 28 October 2014 / Revised: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Formation of biofilms is a major factor for nosocomial infections associated with methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study was carried out to determine the ability of a fraction, F-10, derived from the plant Duabanga grandiflora to inhibit MRSA biofilm formation. Inhibition of biofilm
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Formation of biofilms is a major factor for nosocomial infections associated with methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study was carried out to determine the ability of a fraction, F-10, derived from the plant Duabanga grandiflora to inhibit MRSA biofilm formation. Inhibition of biofilm production and microtiter attachment assays were employed to study the anti-biofilm activity of F-10, while latex agglutination test was performed to study the influence of F-10 on penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) level in MRSA biofilm. PBP2a is a protein that confers resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The results showed that, F-10 at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.75 mg/mL) inhibited biofilm production by 66.10%; inhibited cell-surface attachment by more than 95%; and a reduced PBP2a level in the MRSA biofilm was observed. Although ampicilin was more effective in inhibiting biofilm production (MIC of 0.05 mg/mL, 84.49%) compared to F-10, the antibiotic was less effective in preventing cell-surface attachment. A higher level of PBP2a was detected in ampicillin-treated MRSA showing the development of further resistance in these colonies. This study has shown that F-10 possesses anti-biofilm activity, which can be attributed to its ability to reduce cell-surface attachment and attenuate the level of PBP2a that we postulated to play a crucial role in mediating biofilm formation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Disinfection Effect of the Pyridine-4-aldoxime Based Salts
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 3681-3696; doi:10.3390/molecules20033681
Received: 4 January 2015 / Revised: 6 February 2015 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 24 February 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A set of new quaternary ammonium compounds based on pyridine-4-aldoxime was synthesized, characterized with analytical data (NMR, EA, HPLC, MS) and tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity (antibacterial, antifungal) and cytotoxicity. Quaternary pyridinium-4-aldoxime salts with length of alkyl side chain from C8 to
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A set of new quaternary ammonium compounds based on pyridine-4-aldoxime was synthesized, characterized with analytical data (NMR, EA, HPLC, MS) and tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity (antibacterial, antifungal) and cytotoxicity. Quaternary pyridinium-4-aldoxime salts with length of alkyl side chain from C8 to C20 and belonging to the group of cationic surfactants were investigated in this work. An HPLC experimental protocol for characterization of mixtures of all homologues has been found. Antimicrobial evaluation found that yeast-type fungi were most sensitive towards C14 and C16 analogues, whereas the C16 analogue was completely ineffective against filamentous fungi. Antibacterial assessment showed versatility of C14 and relatively high efficacy of C16 against G+ strains and C14 against G− strains. Notably, none of the studied compounds exceeded the efficacy and versatility of the benzalkonium C12 analogue, and benzalkonium analogues also exhibited lower cytotoxicity in the cell viability assay. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Barbituric Acid Analogues Inspired from Natural 3-Acyltetramic Acids; Synthesis, Tautomerism and Structure and Physicochemical Property-Antibacterial Activity Relationships
Molecules 2015, 20(3), 3582-3627; doi:10.3390/molecules20033582
Received: 7 January 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 20 February 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The synthesis, tautomerism and antibacterial activity of novel barbiturates is reported. In particular, 3-acyl and 3-carboxamidobarbiturates exhibited antibacterial activity, against susceptible and some resistant Gram-positive strains of particular interest is that these systems possess amenable molecular weight, rotatable bonds and number of proton-donors/acceptors
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The synthesis, tautomerism and antibacterial activity of novel barbiturates is reported. In particular, 3-acyl and 3-carboxamidobarbiturates exhibited antibacterial activity, against susceptible and some resistant Gram-positive strains of particular interest is that these systems possess amenable molecular weight, rotatable bonds and number of proton-donors/acceptors for drug design as well as less lipophilic character, with physicochemical properties and ionic states that are similar to current antibiotic agents for oral and injectable use. Unfortunately, the reduction of plasma protein affinity by the barbituric core is not sufficient to achieve activity in vivo. Further optimization to reduce plasma protein affinity and/or elevate antibiotic potency is therefore required, but we believe that these systems offer unusual opportunities for antibiotic drug discovery. Full article
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