Special Issue "Petrology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Mantle as Tools to Read Messages from the Earth’s Interior"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 August 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shoji Arai

Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: petrology, geochemistry and mineralogy of mantle-derived rocks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mantle-derived rocks have been very important for us as a source of direct information about chemistry and processes in the deep part of Earth. Geochemistry and mineralogy of these materials especially provide us with excellent tool to unravel mantle processes including partial melting, melt extraction, melt-rock interaction, metallogeny, metasomatism and metamorphism. The mantle igneous processes produce various rocks such as peridotites and chromitites, which are modified to various degrees by subsequent metasomatism and metamorphism. Those deep processes keenly vary in response to the difference in tectonic settings. The mantle-derived rocks and their metamorphic equivalents are quite complicated and we need to accumulate high-quality observations and data to decipher the enigmas that happen in the deep part of Earth. Serpentinization processes of the mantle peridotites have been also attracting interests of geochemists, seismologists, and even biologists. The information from the mantle materials has been thus getting increasingly more important! This special issue aims at timely publication of original data and ideas obtained from the mantle minerals and rocks (especially peridotites, serpentinites and chromitites). We encourage any scientists of these disciplines to publish their results in this Special Issue on this occasion.

Prof. Dr. Shoji Arai
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Peridotites
  • Mantle minerals
  • Chromitites
  • Serpentinites
  • Partial melting
  • Peridotite–melt reaction
  • Ophiolites
  • Xenoliths

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Dual Geochemical Characteristics for the Basic Intrusions in the Yangtze Block, South China: New Evidence for the Breakup of Rodinia
Minerals 2018, 8(6), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8060228
Received: 17 March 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Neoproterozoic intraplate magmatic rocks are widespread in the Yangtze Block (YZB). The contrasting interpretations on their petrogenesis and tectonic evolution induce stimulating discussions on the coeval tectonic setting, including the two competing models of rift-related (R-model) and arc-related (A-model). Their main evidence is
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Neoproterozoic intraplate magmatic rocks are widespread in the Yangtze Block (YZB). The contrasting interpretations on their petrogenesis and tectonic evolution induce stimulating discussions on the coeval tectonic setting, including the two competing models of rift-related (R-model) and arc-related (A-model). Their main evidence is dominantly from felsic magmatic rocks. In contrast, the less evolved basic rocks are more suitable for tectonic setting discrimination. Here we study the Longtanqing basic intrusions (LTQ) that are exposed to the central part of the N–S trending Kangdian rift in the western YZB, by detailed geochemical and geochronological investigations. Zircon U–Pb dating of the two diabases from LTQ yield identical ages within error of 777 ± 17 Ma and 780 ± 5.3 Ma, respectively. LTQ rocks are characterized by low SiO2 (49.83–50.71 wt %), high MgO (5.91–6.53 wt %), and Cr (140–150 ppm) contents, supporting the significant mantle affinity. They also display dual geochemical characteristics, including a series of features of continental within-plate basalts (WPB, Ti/V = 37.3–47.5, Zr/Y = 3.4–3.8, Ta/Hf = 0.19–0.23), and the typical signatures of island arc basalt (IAB), such as highly depleted in HFSE and HREE, and enriched in LREE and LILE. Most zircon εHf(t) values are positive (1.6–9.4) while the corresponding Hf depleted mantle model ages (TDM1) range from 1.0 Ga to 1.3 Ga. In combination with the occurrence of inherited zircons (991–1190 Ma), it is suggested that their sources are dominantly derived from the lithospheric mantle that was reconstructed in the late Mesoproterozoic. Thus, LTQ is mainly formed by partial melting of the enriched lithospheric mantle, and subsequently assimilated by a juvenile crust during upwelling. The melt compositions are controlled by different degrees of the crystal fractionation of the dominant clinopyroxene and plagioclase with minor amphibole under high fO2 conditions. Combined with previous geochronological and geochemical data in the YZB, our new results support the theory that the R-model can be responsible for the petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in South China. Full article
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Oxidation States of Fe in Constituent Minerals of a Spinel Lherzolite Xenolith from the Tariat Depression, Mongolia: The Significance of Fe3+ in Olivine
Minerals 2018, 8(5), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8050204
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
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Abstract
The oxidation states of Fe within olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel in a spinel lherzolite xenolith from the Tariat Depression, Mongolia were investigated using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy to evaluate the redox condition of the upper mantle from which the Tariat spinel lherzolite
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The oxidation states of Fe within olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel in a spinel lherzolite xenolith from the Tariat Depression, Mongolia were investigated using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy to evaluate the redox condition of the upper mantle from which the Tariat spinel lherzolite xenolith was derived. The purity of separated minerals for the Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis was examined using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Average Fo and Fe contents of olivine at the core part of the xenolith are 89.9(4) mol % and 0.195(3) atoms per formula unit, respectively. The Fe3+/ΣFe values of the olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel, determined by Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis, are 0.027(2), 0.15(1), 0.26(3), and 0.34(5), respectively. The Mössbauer spectrum of olivine consists of two doublets assigned to Fe2+ at the octahedral sites and one doublet, with I.S. of 0.40(2) mm/s and Q.S. of 0.69(3) mm/s assigned to Fe3+ at the octahedral site. Since the Tariat spinel lherzolite xenolith in this study shows no evidence of metasomatism or thermal alteration, the existence of a small amount of Fe3+ in olivine and the fairly high Fe3+ contents of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and spinel imply that the upper mantle under the Tariat area was in a rather oxidized condition. Full article
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Application of Scanning Precession Electron Diffraction in the Transmission Electron Microscope to the Characterization of Deformation in Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite
Minerals 2018, 8(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8040153
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
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Abstract
The mantle transition zone represents an important layer in the interior of the Earth that is characterized by phase transformations of olivine polymorphs. Constraining the rheology difference between wadsleyite and ringwoodite is important in determining the viscosity contrast at a depth of 520
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The mantle transition zone represents an important layer in the interior of the Earth that is characterized by phase transformations of olivine polymorphs. Constraining the rheology difference between wadsleyite and ringwoodite is important in determining the viscosity contrast at a depth of 520 km. In this study, we perform a post-mortem by transmission electron microscopy of a wadsleyite + ringwoodite aggregate, deformed at high-pressure and high-temperature, in a deformation-DIA apparatus. From orientation maps acquired by scanning precession electron diffraction, we calculate local misorientations and misorientation-gradients, which are used as a proxy of plastic strain. We show that at 17.3 GPa, 1700 K, the plastic responses of wadsleyite and ringwoodite are comparable, although recovery by subgrain boundary migration is more easily activated in wadsleyite. Full article
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Figure 1a

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