Special Issue "The Functions of the Microbiome in Skin Health and Disease"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Emma Barnard

David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
E-Mail
Interests: Propionibacterium acnes, bacteriophage, probiotics, acne vulgaris, skin microbiome
Guest Editor
Dr. Andrew McDowell

Northern Ireland Centre for Stratified Medicine, University of Ulster, Londonderry BT47 6SB, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0) 2890 972097
Interests: medical microbiology; bacterial pathogens; gram positive; propionibacteria; acne; medical device infection; genome sequencing; sequence analysis; bacterial evolution; molecular systematics; bacterial taxonomy; phylogenetics; genetic population analysis; typing; MLST

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The skin plays an important role in protecting the body from invasion of foreign materials and harmful pathogens. One of the mechanisms by which the skin can perform this role is through the activities and interactions of the resident bacterial, fungal, and viral species. Commensal microbes are essential to skin health but, on occasion, the same microorganism conferring a health benefit can also lead to a diseased state when their abundances and activities change or when the environmental conditions become less favorable as a result of alterations in the host. In this Special Issue, we highlight the roles of beneficial skin organisms in protecting against colonization and infection of pathogens, guiding the host immune system, and discuss their functional changes and interactions with the host in response to environmental changes.

Dr. Emma Barnard
Dr. Andrew McDowell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • skin microbiome
  • propionibacteria
  • staphylococci
  • bacteriophage
  • skin probiotics
  • acne
  • atopic dermatitis
  • psoriasis
  • skin health
  • cosmetics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Skin Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes Employs Two Variants of Hyaluronate Lyase with Distinct Properties
Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5030057
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans are extracellular matrix components in the human epidermis and dermis. One of the most prevalent skin microorganisms, Propionibacterium acnes, possesses HA-degrading activity, possibly conferred by the enzyme hyaluronate lyase (HYL). In this study, we identified the
[...] Read more.
Hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans are extracellular matrix components in the human epidermis and dermis. One of the most prevalent skin microorganisms, Propionibacterium acnes, possesses HA-degrading activity, possibly conferred by the enzyme hyaluronate lyase (HYL). In this study, we identified the HYL of P. acnes and investigated the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Investigations include the generation of a P. acnes hyl knockout mutant and HYL activity assays to determine the substrate range and formed products. We found that P. acnes employs two distinct variants of HYL. One variant, HYL-IB/II, is highly active, resulting in complete HA degradation; it is present in strains of the phylotypes IB and II. The other variant, HYL-IA, has low activity, resulting in incomplete HA degradation; it is present in type IA strains. Our findings could explain some of the observed differences between P. acnes phylotype IA and IB/II strains. Whereas type IA strains are primarily found on the skin surface and associated with acne vulgaris, type IB/II strains are more often associated with soft and deep tissue infections, which would require elaborate tissue invasion strategies, possibly accomplished by a highly active HYL-IB/II. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Functions of the Microbiome in Skin Health and Disease)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Over a Decade of recA and tly Gene Sequence Typing of the Skin Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes: What Have We Learnt?
Microorganisms 2018, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6010001
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes forms part of the normal microbiota on human skin and mucosal surfaces. While normally associated with skin health, P. acnes is also an opportunistic pathogen linked with a range of human infections and clinical conditions. Over the
[...] Read more.
The Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes forms part of the normal microbiota on human skin and mucosal surfaces. While normally associated with skin health, P. acnes is also an opportunistic pathogen linked with a range of human infections and clinical conditions. Over the last decade, our knowledge of the intraspecies phylogenetics and taxonomy of this bacterium has increased tremendously due to the introduction of DNA typing schemes based on single and multiple gene loci, as well as whole genomes. Furthermore, this work has led to the identification of specific lineages associated with skin health and human disease. In this review we will look back at the introduction of DNA sequence typing of P. acnes based on recA and tly loci, and then describe how these methods provided a basic understanding of the population genetic structure of the bacterium, and even helped characterize the grapevine-associated lineage of P. acnes, known as P. acnes type Zappe, which appears to have undergone a host switch from humans-to-plants. Particular limitations of recA and tly sequence typing will also be presented, as well as a detailed discussion of more recent, higher resolution, DNA-based methods to type P. acnes and investigate its evolutionary history in greater detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Functions of the Microbiome in Skin Health and Disease)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne vulgaris and progressive macular hypomelanosis: insights from genetic population analysis and whole genome sequencing
Authors: Andrew McDowell and Emma Barnard
Abstract: The anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of the skin diseases acne vulgaris and progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH). Over the last 10 years our understanding of the taxonomic and intraspecies diversity of this bacterium has increased tremendously, and with it the realisation that particular lineages are associated with skin health while others appear related to disease. This review will highlight and discuss our current knowledge of the phylogenetic and genetic population structure of this bacterium within the skin microbiome, the association of specific clonal complexes and sequence types with acne and PMH, and differences between phylogroups at the genomic and proteomic level that may help to explain host interactions and the potential role of certain lineages in the pathophysiology of these skin conditions.

Title: Pre/probiotic like products targeting microbiome to decrease skin symptoms after cleanser
Authors: Audrey GUENICHE, team LOREAL
Abstract: For more than 150 years, to be healthy, we have protected ourselves from the bacterial world. The perceptions of this have, in the last 15 years inverted, and we now begin to get rid of the hygienist dogma thanks to the published scientific works: bacteria / fungi begin to be revered and to do well.
It has been shown that the skin microbiota limits adhesion of pathogen microorganisms, contributes to reinforce innate immunity, modulates inflammation and strengthens the skin barrier function, participates to wound healing, skin barrier recovery. Thus it is very easy to understand that its disequilibrium contributes to skin disorders. Topical skin cleansers are commonly used products to clean the skin. To investigate the time needed for skin and its microbiota to recover, a group of 30 healthy volunteers were selected. Instrumental evaluation including skin hydration, barrier function and pH are altered just after cleansing and recover within few hours’. Clinical expert evaluation and self-assessment revealed that a harsh wash increases dryness, roughness and discomfort and these skin alterations do not recover even after few hours. The harsh wash decreased the quantity, diversity and changes the community structure of the skin bacterial communities and skin bacteria are not at all recovered after even after few hours. Knowing these important findings, we found that a dedicate skin care product is able to help the skin microbiota and facilitate its quick recovery. What is really interesting is that the complete skin bacteria recovery is earlier than the complete decrease of roughness and discomfort, underlining that Bacteria might be a key player of skin recovery

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