Special Issue "Synthetic Metals"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Bruno Schmaltz

Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux et des Electrolytes pour l'Energie (PCM2E), EA 6699, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 TOURS, France
E-Mail
Interests: organic semiconductors; polymer synthesis; synthetic organic chemistry; molecular designing; electronic materials; hybrid solar cells; thermoelectricity; electrochromic material; supercapacitors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleages, In present-day society, how could we live without our cellphone, tablet, or TV set? The discovery of doped polyacetylene in 1976, and the Nobel Prize awarded to A. Heeger, A. Mc Diarmid, and H. Shirakawa in 2000 showed the wide possibilities of the use of these semiconductors. These molecules or macromolecules, which have chemical structures of alternating single and double bonds, can be considered as synthetic metals. Their specific properties, such as charge carrier mobility or thermal or electrical conductivity, are now used in a wide range of applications. One of the most interesting families of applications is “plastic electronics”, which is the gathering together of new technologies dealing with light, flexible, and cheap electronics. Even if organic semiconductors, small molecules, or polymers, are already part of commercially available technologies, such as organic light emitting diodes, organic thin film transistors, or organic photovoltaic devices, there are still challenges that need to be faced. The development of these synthetic metals as active material, include their design, their synthesis, their deposition techniques, their nanoscale organization in order to fine-tune electronic, thermal, or mechanical properties, and their performances in devices. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide the most recent advances in the fundamental chemistry and the development of new organic semiconductors for “plastic electronic” applications. Papers and review articles dealing with organic pi-conjugated materials are invited for this Special Issue on “synthetic metals”. Dr. Bruno SchmaltzGuest Editor

Keywords

organic semiconductors pi-conjugated materials electronic devices energy conversion energy storage charge transport morphology nanomaterials functional materials hybrid materials charge transfer nanocomposites

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characteristics of γ-Fe2O3/Polyaniline-Curcumin Composites
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2401-2412; doi:10.3390/met5042401
Received: 18 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Superparamagnetic nanomaterials are showing great prospects in medical treatments with targeting medicines. A new conductive superparamagnetic nanocomposite, γ-Fe2O3/polyaniline-curcumin (γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin), was prepared by using the interaction between an amino group in polyaniline and a ketone group
[...] Read more.
Superparamagnetic nanomaterials are showing great prospects in medical treatments with targeting medicines. A new conductive superparamagnetic nanocomposite, γ-Fe2O3/polyaniline-curcumin (γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin), was prepared by using the interaction between an amino group in polyaniline and a ketone group in curcumin. The γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin nanocomposite showed superparamagnetism (30 emu·g−1) and electrochemical activity, based on the results of magnetization curve and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that the particle size of γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin was between 10 and 50 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin nanocomposite, confirming that curcumin was immobilized into the γ-Fe2O3/PANI chain. This study provided an academic foundation for developing a new material for immobilizing an anticancer drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Metals)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of 4-Benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Containing Sulphur and Nitrogen Donor Atoms) and Its Cd(II) Complex
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2266-2276; doi:10.3390/met5042266
Received: 5 September 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
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Abstract
A chelating agent, 4-benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (BBMTSC), containing sulphur and nitrogen donor atoms was synthesized and applied as a ligand for the chelation of Cd(II). Both the BBMTSC and its Cd(II) complex were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),
[...] Read more.
A chelating agent, 4-benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (BBMTSC), containing sulphur and nitrogen donor atoms was synthesized and applied as a ligand for the chelation of Cd(II). Both the BBMTSC and its Cd(II) complex were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of both BBMTSC and its Cd(II) complex. XRD revealed the polycrystalline nature of the synthesized compounds. BBMTSC exhibited a flake-like micro-rod morphology, whereas the Cd(II) complex had a flower-like nanorod structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Metals)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview π-Conjugated Materials as the Hole-Transporting Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells
Metals 2016, 6(1), 21; doi:10.3390/met6010021
Received: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (10656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have attracted much attention these past four years as the new active layer for photovoltaic applications. Researches are now intensively focused on the stability issues of these solar cells, the process of fabrication and the design of innovative materials
[...] Read more.
Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have attracted much attention these past four years as the new active layer for photovoltaic applications. Researches are now intensively focused on the stability issues of these solar cells, the process of fabrication and the design of innovative materials to produce efficient perovskite devices. In this review, we highlight the recent progress demonstrated in 2015 in the design of new π-conjugated organic materials used as hole transporters in such solar cells. Indeed, several of these “synthetic metals” have been proposed to play this role during the last few years, in an attempt to replace the conventional 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) reference. Organic compounds have the benefits of low production costs and the abundance of raw materials, but they are also crucial components in order to address some of the stability issues usually encountered by this type of technology. We especially point out the main design rules to reach high efficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Metals)
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Open AccessReview Gas Sensors Based on Electrodeposited Polymers
Metals 2015, 5(3), 1371-1386; doi:10.3390/met5031371
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 21 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemically deposited polymers, also called “synthetic metals”, have emerged as potential candidates for chemical sensing due to their interesting and tunable chemical, electrical, and structural properties. In particular, most of these polymers (including polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene) and their derivatives can be used as
[...] Read more.
Electrochemically deposited polymers, also called “synthetic metals”, have emerged as potential candidates for chemical sensing due to their interesting and tunable chemical, electrical, and structural properties. In particular, most of these polymers (including polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene) and their derivatives can be used as the sensitive layer of conductimetric gas sensors because of their conducting properties. An important advantage of polymer-based gas sensors is their efficiency at room temperature. This characteristic is interesting since most of the commercially-available sensors, usually based on metal oxides, work at high temperatures (300–400 °C). Consequently, polymer-based gas sensors are playing a growing role in the improvement of public health and environment control because they can lead to gas sensors operating with rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity in atmospheric conditions. In this review, the recent advances in electrodeposited polymer-based gas sensors are summarized and discussed. It is shown that the sensing characteristics of electrodeposited polymers can be improved by chemical functionalization, nanostructuration, or mixing with other functional materials to form composites or hybrid materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Metals)
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Open AccessReview Pyrrolyl Squaraines–Fifty Golden Years
Metals 2015, 5(3), 1349-1370; doi:10.3390/met5031349
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 27 July 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pyrrolyl squaraines, both dyes and polymers, were first reported in 1965 and since then a fascinating body of work has been produced investigating the chemistry of these interesting molecules. A major aspect of these molecules that makes them so appealing to those researchers
[...] Read more.
Pyrrolyl squaraines, both dyes and polymers, were first reported in 1965 and since then a fascinating body of work has been produced investigating the chemistry of these interesting molecules. A major aspect of these molecules that makes them so appealing to those researchers who have contributed to this field over the last 50 years is their chemical versatility. In this review, subjects, such as the synthetic history, an understanding of the molecular structure, an overview of the optical properties, a discussion of both the electrical conduction properties, and magnetic properties, plus use of the particles of pyrrolyl squaraines, are presented. Furthermore, previously published results are not just presented; they are in certain cases collated and used to both highlight and explain important aspects of pyrrolyl squaraine chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Metals)
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Other

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Open AccessComment Comments on Lynch. Pyrrolyl Squaraines—Fifty Golden Years. Metals 2015, 5, 1349–1370
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2370-2371; doi:10.3390/met5042370
Received: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
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Abstract
In addition to the papers referenced in the main article [1]; [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Metals)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The Study of CO2 Bubble Effects on Layer-By-Layer Assembled PDAC/PSS Hybrid Thin Film for Energy StorageAuthors: Jiwoong Heo and Jinkee HongAffiliation: School of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, College of Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 47 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756, KoreaAbstract: Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) have been widely applied to hybrid thin films for energy storage application these days. Here in, we report the film modifying method by applying CO2 bubbles during layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The thickness, mass, and surface morphology differences between hybrid LbL films modified by CO2 bubble method and non-modified films were analyzed by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and profilometer. Analysis of the internal structure of hybrid LbL films was achieved by detecting release of doxorubicin (DOX) incorporated in each film through photoluminescence (PL). The thickness, mass, and surface roughness were increased and amount of incorporated DOX was decreased.

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