Special Issue "Advances in Solidification Processing"

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A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hugo F. Lopez

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 N. Cramer Street, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +01 414 229 6958
Interests: diffusional processes; hydrogen effects in solids; high temperature phase stability; solidification processing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Solidification processing plays a fundamental role in product manufacturing worldwide.

This includes conventional manufacturing processes such as foundry, casting, welding, or advanced technologies for making single crystal turbine blades, laser and plasma processing and near net shape manufacturing, among others.  The solidification phenomena involved are known to have a dominant effect on the quality of the solidified products.  As a result, numerous works have been published on both, experimental and analytical/computer modeling aimed at disclosing the fundamental aspects of phase formation and growth within liquid melts.    Thus far, significant progress in the fundamental understanding of solidification has been made that has lead to improved product quality, higher productivity and the development of new technologies.

Accordingly, in this special issue of “advances in solidification processing,” it is intended to review the latest developments on the various aspects of solidification processing namely, (a) a fundamental understanding of micro and macrosegregation mechanisms, microstructural evolution of solidification microstructures, (b) interfacial instability together with mass transport at different length scales, (c) fundamental aspects such as nucleation and grain

growth, the development of the mushy zone, (d) thermal, compositional  effects on the development/avoidance of casting defects, (e) computer simulation including phase field applications in predicting solidified microstructures, etc.

It would be a rather difficult task to condense all of the ongoing advances in the various areas of solidification research in this brief overview. However, the proposed issue is intended to provide a comprehensive account of the “state of the art” in the current efforts aimed at elucidating the fundamental mechanistic aspects of phase formation during solidification. Thus, all of the aspects related to recent advances in solidification processing, fluid flow, solute and thermal transport based on experimental, analytical and computer simulations are welcomed in this issue.

Prof. Dr. Hugo F. Lopez
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • solidification processing in ferrous alloys
  • solidification processing in non-ferrous alloys
  • unidireactional solidification
  • modeling of solidification kinetics
  • phase field computer simulations of solidification
  • solidification of gray, nodular and vermicular iron castings
  • solidification and solidification kinetics in aluminum alloys
  • solidification and solidification kinetics in magnesisum alloys
  • solidification factors in thin wall castings

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Advances in Solidification Processing
Metals 2015, 5(3), 1432-1434; doi:10.3390/met5031432
Received: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Melt solidification is the shortest and most viable route to obtain components, starting from the design to the finished products. Hence, a sound knowledge of the solidification of metallic materials is essential for the development of advanced structural metallic components that drive modern
[...] Read more.
Melt solidification is the shortest and most viable route to obtain components, starting from the design to the finished products. Hence, a sound knowledge of the solidification of metallic materials is essential for the development of advanced structural metallic components that drive modern technological societies. As a result, there have been innumerable efforts and full conferences dedicated to this important subject [1–6]. In addition, there are various scientific journals fully devoted to investigating the various aspects which give rise to various solidification microstructures [7–9]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solidification Processing)

Research

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Open AccessArticle On the Effect of Pouring Temperature on Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron Solidification
Metals 2015, 5(2), 628-647; doi:10.3390/met5020628
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2015 / Accepted: 27 March 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work is focused on the effect of pouring temperature on the thermal-microstructural response of an eutectic spheroidal graphite cast iron (SGCI). To this end, experiments as well as numerical simulations were carried out. Solidification tests in a wedge-like part were cast at
[...] Read more.
This work is focused on the effect of pouring temperature on the thermal-microstructural response of an eutectic spheroidal graphite cast iron (SGCI). To this end, experiments as well as numerical simulations were carried out. Solidification tests in a wedge-like part were cast at two different pouring temperatures. Five specific locations exhibiting distinct cooling rates along the sample were chosen for temperature measurements and metallographic analysis to obtain the number and size of graphite nodules at the end of the process. The numerical simulations were performed using a multinodular-based model. Reasonably good numerical-experimental agreements were obtained for both the cooling curves and the graphite nodule counts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solidification Processing)
Open AccessArticle Role of Alloying Additions in the Solidification Kinetics and Resultant Chilling Tendency and Chill of Cast Iron
Metals 2015, 5(1), 256-288; doi:10.3390/met5010256
Received: 10 January 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present work describes the effect of the solidification processing and alloy chemistry on the chilling tendency index, CT, and the chill, w, of wedge-shaped castings made of cast iron. In this work, theoretical predictions were experimentally verified for the role of elements,
[...] Read more.
The present work describes the effect of the solidification processing and alloy chemistry on the chilling tendency index, CT, and the chill, w, of wedge-shaped castings made of cast iron. In this work, theoretical predictions were experimentally verified for the role of elements, such as C, Si, Mn, P and S, on the cast iron CT. In addition, inoculation and fading effects were considered in the experimental outcome. Accordingly, the graphite nucleation coefficients, Ns, b, the eutectic cell growth coefficient, μ, and the critical cooling rate, Qcr, for the development of eutectic cementite (chill) were all determined as a function of the cast iron chemistry and time after inoculation. In particular, it was found that increasing the Mn and S contents, as well as the time after inoculation lowers the critical cooling rate, thus increasing the chilling tendency of the cast iron. In contrast, C, Si and P increase the critical cooling rate, and as a result, they reduce the cast iron CT and chill. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solidification Processing)
Open AccessArticle Graphite and Solid Fraction Evolutions during Solidification of Nodular Cast Irons
Metals 2015, 5(1), 239-255; doi:10.3390/met5010239
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 14 February 2015 / Published: 25 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ductile iron casting production is strongly affected by austenite and graphite distribution obtained after the solidification process. At the same time it is accepted that solidification behavior can be considered as hypo-, hyper- or eutectic depending on the chemical composition; there is still
[...] Read more.
Ductile iron casting production is strongly affected by austenite and graphite distribution obtained after the solidification process. At the same time it is accepted that solidification behavior can be considered as hypo-, hyper- or eutectic depending on the chemical composition; there is still some misconception about the growth evolution of graphite nodules and about solid fraction progression. Quenching experiments were performed on two different carbon equivalent compositions using inoculated and non-inoculated thermal analysis standard samples with the aim of freezing the existing phases at different solid fractions for each alloy. As a result of these experiments, it was possible to study the structural features found at different locations of each sample and at different stages of solidification. Additionally nodule evolution during the liquid-solid transformation was also analyzed and discussed regarding the chemical and processing characteristics of the prepared alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solidification Processing)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Silicon on Mechanical Properties and Fracture Toughness of Heavy-Section Ductile Cast Iron
Metals 2015, 5(1), 150-161; doi:10.3390/met5010150
Received: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2015 / Published: 21 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of silicon (Si) on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of heavy-section ductile cast iron were investigated to develop material for spent-nuclear-fuel containers. Two castings with different Si contents of 1.78 wt.% and 2.74 wt.% were prepared. Four positions in the
[...] Read more.
The effects of silicon (Si) on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of heavy-section ductile cast iron were investigated to develop material for spent-nuclear-fuel containers. Two castings with different Si contents of 1.78 wt.% and 2.74 wt.% were prepared. Four positions in the castings from the edge to the center, with different solidification cooling rates, were chosen for microstructure observation and mechanical properties’ testing. Results show that the tensile strength, elongation, impact toughness and fracture toughness at different positions of the two castings decrease with the decrease in cooling rate. With an increase in Si content, the graphite morphology and the mechanical properties at the same position deteriorate. Decreasing cooling rate changes the impact fracture morphology from a mixed ductile-brittle fracture to a brittle fracture. The fracture morphology of fracture toughness is changed from ductile to brittle fracture. When the Si content exceeds 1.78 wt.%, the impact and fracture toughness fracture morphology transforms from ductile to brittle fracture. The in-situ scanning electronic microscope (SEM) tensile experiments were first used to observe the dynamic tensile process. The influence of the vermicular and temper graphite on fracture formation of heavy section ductile iron was investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solidification Processing)
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Open AccessArticle The Origins of Spontaneous Grain Refinement in Deeply Undercooled Metallic Melts
Metals 2014, 4(2), 155-167; doi:10.3390/met4020155
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phase-field modeling of rapid alloy solidification, in which the rejection of latent heat from the growing solid cannot be ignored, has lagged significantly behind the modeling of conventional casting practices which can be approximated as isothermal. This is in large part due to
[...] Read more.
Phase-field modeling of rapid alloy solidification, in which the rejection of latent heat from the growing solid cannot be ignored, has lagged significantly behind the modeling of conventional casting practices which can be approximated as isothermal. This is in large part due to the fact that if realistic materials properties are adopted, the ratio of the thermal to solute diffusivity (the Lewis number) is typically 103–104, leading to severe multi-scale problems. However, use of state-of-the-art numerical techniques, such as local mesh adaptivity, implicit time-stepping and a non-linear multi-grid solver, allow these difficulties to be overcome. Here we describe how the application of such a model, formulated in the thin-interface limit, can help to explain the long-standing phenomenon of spontaneous grain refinement in deeply undercooled melts. We find that at intermediate undercoolings the operating point parameter, σ*, may collapse to zero, resulting in the growth of non-dendritic morphologies such as doublons and ‘dendritic seaweed’. Further increases in undercooling then lead to the re-establishment of stable dendritic growth. We postulate that remelting of such seaweed structures gives rise to the low undercooling instance of grain refinement observed in alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solidification Processing)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Squeeze Casting Parameters for 2017 A Wrought Al Alloy Using Taguchi Method
Metals 2014, 4(2), 141-154; doi:10.3390/met4020141
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study applies the Taguchi method to investigate the relationship between the ultimate tensile strength, hardness and process variables in a squeeze casting 2017 A wrought aluminium alloy. The effects of various casting parameters including squeeze pressure, melt temperature and die temperature were
[...] Read more.
This study applies the Taguchi method to investigate the relationship between the ultimate tensile strength, hardness and process variables in a squeeze casting 2017 A wrought aluminium alloy. The effects of various casting parameters including squeeze pressure, melt temperature and die temperature were studied. Therefore, the objectives of the Taguchi method for the squeeze casting process are to establish the optimal combination of process parameters and to reduce the variation in quality between only a few experiments. The experimental results show that the squeeze pressure significantly affects the microstructure and the mechanical properties of 2017 A Al alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solidification Processing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Non-Equilibrium Solidification of Undercooled Metallic Melts
Metals 2014, 4(2), 196-234; doi:10.3390/met4020196
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If a liquid is undercooled below its equilibrium melting temperature an excess Gibbs free energy is created. This gives access to solidification of metastable solids under non-equilibrium conditions. In the present work, techniques of containerless processing are applied. Electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation enable
[...] Read more.
If a liquid is undercooled below its equilibrium melting temperature an excess Gibbs free energy is created. This gives access to solidification of metastable solids under non-equilibrium conditions. In the present work, techniques of containerless processing are applied. Electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation enable to freely suspend a liquid drop of a few millimeters in diameter. Heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is completely avoided leading to large undercoolings. The freely suspended drop is accessible for direct observation of rapid solidification under conditions far away from equilibrium by applying proper diagnostic means. Nucleation of metastable crystalline phases is monitored by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation during non-equilibrium solidification. While nucleation preselects the crystallographic phase, subsequent crystal growth controls the microstructure evolution. Metastable microstructures are obtained from deeply undercooled melts as supersaturated solid solutions, disordered superlattice structures of intermetallics. Nucleation and crystal growth take place by heat and mass transport. Comparative experiments in reduced gravity allow for investigations on how forced convection can be used to alter the transport processes and design materials by using undercooling and convection as process parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Solidification Processing)

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