Special Issue "Recent Advances in Study of Solid-Liquid Interfaces and Solidification of Metals"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Mohsen Asle Zaeem

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Solidification; Phase transformation; Deformation and failure mechanisms; Integrated computational materials engineering; Phase-field modeling; Molecular dynamics simulations; Finite element method; Light-weight metals; Functional materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Solidification occurs in several material processing methods, such as in casting, welding, and laser additive manufacturing of metals, and it controls the nano- and microstructures and the overall properties of the products. Recent advances in experimental and computational modeling techniques have made it possible to more effectively study atomistic and microscale mechanisms that control the solidification structures and formation and evolution of solidification defects. Along this direction, this Special Issue solicits articles demonstrating recent advancements in the following areas:

  1. Experimental studies of solid-liquid interfaces and solidification nano- and microstructures, including in situ experiments.
  2. Computational modeling at different length scales, including atomistic simulations (e.g., molecular dynamics) and mesoscale modeling (e.g., phase-field modeling) of solid-liquid interfaces and solidification structures (e.g., dendritic structures).
  3. Experimental and/or modeling studies of solidification defects and their effects on mechanical and physical properties of solidified materials.

Mohsen Asle Zaeem
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Solidification
  • Solid-liquid interfaces
  • Defects
  • Experiments
  • modeling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Macrosegregation in Continuously Cast Billets
Metals 2017, 7(6), 209; doi:10.3390/met7060209
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 14 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
Macrosegregation, serving as a major defect in billets, can severely degrade material homogeneity. Better understanding of the physical characteristics of macrosegregation through numerical simulation could significantly contribute to the segregation control. The main purpose of this study was to predict macrosegregation in continuously
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Macrosegregation, serving as a major defect in billets, can severely degrade material homogeneity. Better understanding of the physical characteristics of macrosegregation through numerical simulation could significantly contribute to the segregation control. The main purpose of this study was to predict macrosegregation in continuously cast billets with a newly developed three-dimensional macrosegregation model. The fluid flow, solidification, and solute transport in the entire billet region were solved and analyzed. Flow patterns, revealing a typical melt recirculation at the upper region of mold and thermosolutal convection at the secondary cooling zone, significantly affect the solidification and solute distribution. The solute redistribution occurring with thermosolutal convection at the solidification front contributes significantly to continued macrosegregation as solidification proceeds. The results of this study show that the equilibrium partition coefficient is mostly responsible for the magnitude of macrosegregation, while comparison between solute P and S indicated that diffusion coefficients also have some amount of influence. Typical macrosegregation patterns containing a positively segregated peak at the centerline and negatively segregated minima at either side were obtained via the proposed three-dimensional macrosegregation model, which validated by the measured surface temperatures and segregation degree. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Growth Velocity on the Separation of Primary Silicon in Solidified Al-Si Hypereutectic Alloy Driven by a Pulsed Electric Current
Metals 2017, 7(6), 184; doi:10.3390/met7060184
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 5 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
Investigating the separation of the primary silicon phase in Al-Si hypereutectic alloys is of high importance for the production of solar grade silicon. The present paper focuses on the effect of growth velocity on the electric current pulse (ECP)-induced separation of primary silicon
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Investigating the separation of the primary silicon phase in Al-Si hypereutectic alloys is of high importance for the production of solar grade silicon. The present paper focuses on the effect of growth velocity on the electric current pulse (ECP)-induced separation of primary silicon in a directionally solidified Al-20.5 wt % Si hypereutectic alloy. Experimental results show that lower growth velocity promotes the enrichment tendency of primary silicon at the bottom region of the sample. The maximum measured area percentage of segregated primary silicon in the sample solidified at the growth velocity of 4 μm/s is as high as 82.6%, whereas the corresponding value is only 59% in the sample solidified at the growth velocity of 24 μm/s. This is attributed to the fact that the stronger forced flow is generated to promote the precipitation of primary silicon accompanied by a higher concentration of electric current in the mushy zone under the application of a slower growth velocity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Microstructural Evolution in AlMgSi Alloys during Solidification under Electromagnetic Stirring
Metals 2017, 7(3), 89; doi:10.3390/met7030089
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Equiaxed solidification of AlMgSi alloys with Fe and Mn was studied by electromagnetic stirring to understand the effect of forced flow. The specimens solidified with a low cooling rate, low temperature gradient, and forced convection. Stirring induced by a coil system around the
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Equiaxed solidification of AlMgSi alloys with Fe and Mn was studied by electromagnetic stirring to understand the effect of forced flow. The specimens solidified with a low cooling rate, low temperature gradient, and forced convection. Stirring induced by a coil system around the specimens caused a transformation from equiaxed dendritic to rosette morphology with minor dendrites and, occasionally, spheroids. This evolution was quantitatively observed with specific surface Sv. The precipitation sequence of the phases was calculated using the CALPHAD (Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry) technique. Melt flow decreased secondary dendrite arm spacing λ2 in the AlSi5Fe1.0 alloy, while λ2 increased slightly in Mg-containing alloys. The length of detrimental β-Al5FeSi phases decreased only in AlSi5Fe1.0 alloy under stirring, whereas in Mg-containing alloys, changes to the β-Al5FeSi phase were negligible; however, in all specimens, the number density increased. The modification of Mn-rich phases, spacing of eutectics, and Mg2Si phases was analyzed. It was found that the occurrence of Mg2Si phase regions reduced fluid flow in the late stages of solidification and, consequentially, reduced shortening of β-Al5FeSi, diminished secondary arm-ripening caused by forced convection, and supported diffusive ripening. However, the Mg2Si phase was found to have not disturbed stirring in the early stage of solidification, and transformation from dendrites to rosettes was unaffected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of EMS Induced Flow on Solidification and Solute Transport in Bloom Mold
Metals 2017, 7(3), 72; doi:10.3390/met7030072
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The flow, temperature, solidification, and solute concentration field in a continuous casting bloom mold were solved simultaneously by a multiphysics numerical model by considering the effect of in-mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS). The mold metallurgical differences between cases with and without EMS are discussed
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The flow, temperature, solidification, and solute concentration field in a continuous casting bloom mold were solved simultaneously by a multiphysics numerical model by considering the effect of in-mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS). The mold metallurgical differences between cases with and without EMS are discussed first, and then the solute transport model verified. Moreover, the effects of EMS current intensity on the metallurgical behavior in the bloom mold were also investigated. The simulated solute distributions were basically consistent with the test results. The simulations showed that M-EMS can apparently homogenize the initial solidified shell, liquid steel temperature, and solute element in the EMS effective zone. Meanwhile, the impingement effect of jet flow and molten steel superheat can be reduced, and the degree of negative segregation in the solidified shell at the mold corner alleviated from 0.74 to 0.78. However, the level fluctuation and segregation degree in the shell around the center of the wide and narrow sides were aggravated from 4.5 mm to 6.2 mm and from 0.84 to 0.738, respectively. With the rise of current intensity the bloom surface temperature, level fluctuation, stirring intensity, uniformity of molten steel temperature, and solute distribution also increased, while the growth velocity of the solidifying shell in the EMS effective zone declined and the solute mass fraction at the center of the computational outlet (z = 1.5 m) decreased. M-EMS with a current intensity of 600 A is more suitable for big bloom castings. Full article
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